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"Yarrowdale." A British merchant ship captured by a German raider in the Atlantic and brought safely into a German port by a prize crew on December 31, 1916. A large number of sailors serving as members of the crews of various ships sunk by the raider were taken to Germany on the Yarrowdale and were interned as prisoners of war. Among these were 60 or more Americans, who were finally released and arrived in Switzerland March 12, 1917. They complained strongly against the hardships and the treatment they had received at the hands of the German authorities.

Y.M. C. A. The work of the Young Men's Chrl~t1an Association during the war has undergone great expansion. Millions of dollars have been raised for use among prisoners of war In the belligerent States, in France (at the base camps near the English Channel and immediately behind the tone of fire on the western front), in Mesopotamia and East Africa; and now (November, 1917) a great campaign to raise $35,000,000 for use in our own National Guard and National Army camps has just been completed. There were said to be, at a recent time, more than 100 recreation halls or "huts," as they are called, for base troop units in France; at least 50 at the battle front, and the number is being increased as speedily as possible. In the"" the soldier In his recreation hours may read the newspapers and magazines, write letters home, play games, see moving pictures, listen to lectures, and attend religious worship. The "huts" among the prisoners are often erected by the prisoners themselves under direction of young men who are volunteering their services as missionaries for this work. In each American National Guard and National Army cantonment it is proposed to have five "huts," one approximately for each brigade of 6,000 men. Each "hut" will have a corps of five secretaries. See Child Welfare; Knights of Columbus; Training Camp Activities.

Young Turks. The name given to the party which overthrew the absolutism of Abdul Hamld in 1908. They consist of two parties: (1) Theorists, who believe in a union of all the nationalities within the Turkish Empire and real liberalism in Government, (2) Nationalists, who advocate Turkish nationalism at the expense of other nationalities within the Empire, militarism, and alliance with Germany. The first party soon lost control of the Government; the second party, although discredited by the Balkan War, regained prestige by the recovery of Adrianople at the end of the second Balkan War. It was this party, led by Enver Pasha and Talaat Bey, which involved Turkey In the European war on the side of Germany. Their continuance in power will probably depend on the results of the war. See Enver Psaha; Turkey,', German Influence.

Ypres. A city of southern Belgium around which numerous operations have taken place. The battle of Flanders began with an attack on Ypres in October, 1914. The short and furious battle of St. Eloi was fought just south of Ypres on March 14, 1915. The long struggle called the battle of Ypres took place April 17-May 17, 1915. The British succeeded in capturing Hill 60; a gas attack upon the French colonial troops north of Ypres resulted in Allied losses. The Germans~ were successful in forcing a shortening of the Allied lines, but failed to take the city or the Yperlee Canal. The Ypres salient formed by these operations was not straightened out by the Allies until the summer of 1917. See Gas Warfare.