War Cyclopedia - G
Galicia. Acquired by Austria in the eighteenth century as her share of the partition of Poland by Russia, Prussia, and Austria. It is the largest of the Austrian Crown lands; the population (8,022,126) Is about evenly divided between Poles (west) and Ruthenes (east); it was the region of the first Russian drive into Austria, which, beginning September 1, 1014, captured Lemberg on September 5, and swept across Galicia to the edge of the Hungarian plains. The Russians were almost completely expelled from the district by Mackensen's advance in May-June, 1915, and the Austro-German invasion of Russia which followed. The Russians returned to the invasion of Galicia under Brusilov in 1916, penetrating as far as Hallcz, where they were halted by internal affairs In Russia. A third drive in Galicia was begun in July, 1917, and rapid gains were made July 11-July 20; but this campaign was brought to a speedy end by the civil and military disorganization of Russia. See Russit7tm Revolution of 1817.
Gallipoli. A narrow peninsula north of the Dardanelles and the strategic key thereto. After the failure, with heavy losses, of a purely naval demonstration, Allied forces were landed in April, 1915, In an attempt to force the straits. The landing was accomplished only at terrible cost. On April 28, the Allied troops commenced to advance. On May 11 they were able to begin siege operations against the entrenched Turco-German forces, but these failed of success, as did a flanking attack at Suva Bay In August. The campaign was abandoned in January, 1916. See Anzac; Dardanelles
Gas and Electric Service Committee. A committee organized at the suggestion of Mr. Howard E. Coffin, member of the Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense, devoting its attention to the public-utilities problem in relation to war needs. Mr. John W. Lieb, vice president of the New York Edison Co., is chairman of the committee. Its vice chairman is Mr. William H. Gartley, vice president of the Equitable Illuminating Gas Light Co., Philadelphia.
Gas Warfare. During the engagement near Ypres, April 22, 1915, the German army introduced poisonous or asphyxiating gases, a "method of warfare up to now never employed by nations sufficiently civilized to consider themselves bound by international agreements." These gases were generated in bombs, grenades, and other apparatus, and allowed to drift with suitable winds into the allied trenches. A week earlier, says Gen. French, the Germans had falsely announced that the British were using asphyxiating gases as a weapon of war. Later, the use of gas in explosive shells became general, the Allies having been forced in self-defense to adopt the new weapon. See Forbidden Weapons.
General Staff. The General Staff of the Army of the United States is an outgrowth of our War with Spain In 1898. A committee of the Senate of the United States investigated conditions and found that "there was lacking in the general administration of the War Department that which was essential to the highest efficiency and discipline of the Army." The need of a superior coordinating body being seen, Congress In 1903,organized the General Staff to render professional aid to the Secretary o~ War and to act as his agent in many Important matters. Its principal duties are to prepare plans for the national defense and for the mobilization of the military forces in time of war, to investigate and report in all questions affecting the efficiency of the Army, and its state of preparation for military operations; to render professional assistance to the Secretary of War and to commanding officers so as to coordinate their action; and, under the direction of the President or the Secretary of War, to exercise supervision over all troops of the line and of the various administrative military bureaus of the Department of War. See staff; Army War College; Navy War College.
Geneva Conventions. See Red Cross; hagize anZ Geneva &Conventions.
George V (1865- ). The present King of Great
Britain, Ireland, and the British lands beyond the seas. He came to the throne at the death of his father, Edward VII, in 1910. He represents, even to a greater degree than his father, the British idea of a constitutional monarch.
German Army Act, 1913. The legislation of the German Empire provided for a standing army of 1 per cent of the population, and for 40 years this proportion was not exceeded. But in May, 1912, the Reichstag passed a law which increased the peace strength of the army to more than 700,000 men, the population being about 66,000,000, and this was only a beginning. The following year, when the Government could point to the collapse of Turkey as a compelling reason for action, a new measure was carried which fixed the peace strength of the German Army at 866,000, and provided for certain deficiencies in materiel. As striking as the army Increase was the nonrecurring property tax of $225,000,000, and the hasty tripling of the war treasure stored at Spandau. Nevertheless, in spite of this extraordinary expansion, in spite of the Chancellor's open reference to the coming struggle between Germanism and Slavism, few observers realized that this was the last step of the military party in Its preparation for the long-desired war. France, Russia, and Belgium, however, took the precaution of increasing their own armies. Thus the action of one power compelled action by the others, and the vicious circle could be broken only by war, which would and did come when one power felt that the moment of highest relative efficiency had arrived.
German Army Act of 1913, Reasons for. How Germany manipulated public opinion for war purposes is revealed in the memorandum of the German Government on the strengthening of the German Army (Berlin, Mar. 19, 11)13; Freaelt Yellow Book, Carnegie edition. 1915, I, p. 512): "Our new army law is only an extension of the military education of the German nation. Our ancestors of 1813 made greater sacrifices. It is our sacred. duty to sharpen the sword that has been put into our hands and to hold it ready for defense as well as for offense. We must allow the idea to sink into the minds of our people that our armaments are an answer to the armaments and policy of the French. We must accustom them to think that an offensive war on our part is a necessity, in order to combat the provocations of our adversaries. We must act with prudence so as not to arouse suspicion and to avoid the crises which might injure our economic existence. We must so manage matters that, under the heavy weight of powerful armaments, considerable sacrifices, and strained political relations, the precipitation of war would be considered as a relief, because after It would come decades of peace and prosperity, as after 1870." See Arbitration, German Attitude; Disarmament, German Attitude; Pan-Germans Promote War in. 1913.
German Colonies. Germany's colonial possessions, before she was shorn of them by the war, had an area of more than 1,000,000 square miles. In Africa she had the Kamerun in West Africa, with an area of 191,000 square miles and a population of 4,500,000, German East Africa of above 400,000 square miles and a population of 6,850,000, and German Southwest Africa of 320,000 square miles and a population of 200,000. Her colonial policy everywhere has been expensive to her and unsuccessful. It has been repressive and cruel. Her civil and military officials in charge of the destinies of her colonists have been martinets, the natural product of her militarist system Of government at home. Even German emigrants have preferred to settle in the British colonies. In one year, 1904, Germany's expenditures on her colonies amounted to upward of $31,000,000, while her trade with them reached a total value of about a third of this sum. See Caroline Islands; German East Africa; German Southwest Africa; Kaiser Wilhelmsland; Kamerun; Samoa; Togo.
German Constitution. The constitution of the Empire can
not be amended without the consent of one man, William IL. Reichstag committees may discuss and propose amendments to their hearts' content. After they have obtained the consent of the Reichstag a rocky road opens out broadly ahead of them. For they must have the approval of the Bundesrat, which Is appointed by the reigning princes of Germany, and Is obliged to vote as they direct. No amendment can pass the Bundesrat if 14 votes out of the 61 are cast against it. Of these 61, Prussia controls 20. The Prussian votes are cast as the King of Prussia directs. If every individual in Germany except this one, and including the other kings and dukes, wanted a change in the constitution they could not get it, except by revolution, If William II said "No!" See Autocracy; Bundesrat; Kaiserism; Landtag; Reichstag.
German Diplomacy. See Bethmann-Hollweg; Bernstorff; Bernstorff, Intrigues of; Cronholmn, Mesriean Ads,en4iwes of; "Frye, William P."; German Government, Bad Faith of; German Government, Moral Bankruptcy of; German Intrigue, etc.; Intrigue; Me$co, German Intrigue in; Parole; Prussian Treaties.. ties; Roumania, German Treachery in; Sabotage; "Scrap of Paper"; "Spurlos T7ersemkt"; "Sussex" Pledge; "Willy" and "Nicky" Correspondence; Zimmermann Note.
German East Africa. Attacked by British forces In 1914 and 1915 with little result. In 1916 Gen. Jan Christian Smuts with an army from British South Africa, In cooperation with Belgian forces, took the chief German city, Labora, and most of the colony. The conquest is now (December 1, 1917) completed.
German Economic Conditions, 1916-17. "During the past winter in Germany I saw indications on every hand pointing to the gradual but increasing economic exhaustion of Germany. The food situation has reached the stage of serious privation, but not of actual starvation-it Is but one of a host of contributing factors. Even more significant was the obvious deterioration of rolling stock and machinery, the great scarcity of leather, of woolen, cotton, and linen wearing apparel; of copper, tin, lubricating oils, glycerin, and nitrates; and the coal shortage prevailing throughout Germany from the middle of January until March Of this year. Furthermore, the depletion in numbers of Germany's total male fighting population seems to l)e proceeding slowly but surely. Last December I gathered first-hand information on the casualties suffered by the Bavarian villages of Volkach-am-Maln and Kollitzhelm. It showed that Volkach, with a population of 2,000, had lost 38 dead (prisoners or missing not included) and Kollitzheim, with a population of 600, had 15 dead between August, 1914, and December, 1916." (John R. Knipfing, Ohio State University, Nov. 13, 1917.) See German Man Power; War Loans, German.
German Empire. The German Empire is composed of 25 States and the Reichsland (Alsace-Lorraine). The imperial capital is Berlin. The area of the Empire is 208,825.2 square miles. The population at the outbreak of the war was 67,810,000. The separate States have a measure of local self-government. William II ascended the throne June 15, 1888. Count G. F. von Hertling, formerly Bavarian Premier, succeeded to the post of Chancellor in November, 1917; his immediate predecessor was Dr. George Michaelis, formerly Prussian Minister of Finance, who succeeded Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg on July 14, 1917. Representing herself as menaced by Russia and France, Germany began the world war August 1, 1914, by a declaration of war against Russia, followed on August 3 by a declaration against France. Subsequent declarations were issued against Belgium, August 4, 1914; Portugal, March 9, 1916; Roumania, September 14, 1916. See Reichstag; Bundesrat; German Constitution.
German Finance. See War Loans, German.
German Government, Breach with. The United States
Government broke off diplomatic relations with Germany on February 3, 1917, following the proclamation by Germany of a zone around England, France, Italy, and in the Mediterranean, thus renewing unrestricted submarine warfare of the pledge given in the Sussex case. Secretary Lansing announced that "this Government has no alternative consistent with the dignity and honor of the United States but to take the course which it explicitly announced in its note of April, 18, 1916, it would take in the event that the Imperial Government did not declare and effect an abandonment of the methods of submarine warfare then employed and to which the Imperial Government now purpose again to resort." See Submarine Warfare; "Sussex," etc.; United States, Neutrality 1914-1917;
War, Declaration of against Germany.
German Government, Bad Faith of. "We can not take the word of the present rulers of Germany as a guarantee of anything that is to endure, unless explicitly supported by such conclusive evidence of the will and purpose of the German people themselves as the other peoples of the world would be justified in accepting. Without such guarantees, treaties of settlement, agreements for disarmament, covenants to set up arbitration in the place of force, territorial ad~1ustments, reconstitutions of small nations, if made with the German Government, no man, no nation could now depend on. - We must await some new evidence of the purposes of the great peoples Of the Central Powers. God grant it may be given soon, and in a way to restore the confidence of all peoples everywhere in the faith of nations and the possibility of a covenanted peace." (American reply to the Pope, Aug. 27, 1917.) See German Diplomacy.
German Government, Moral Bankruptcy of. Certain German leaders are beginning to realize the handicap to German policy created by their Government's bad faith. In Deu~t8c1ie Politik for September 28, Dr. Bernhard Dernburg, who for a time was the Kaiser's personal agent in the United States, exhorts his countrymen to get back to "steadfastneSs and righteousness" if they wish to "break the home front of our enemies '~ and promote an agitation for peace among the Entente nations. "Our lies," says he, "are coarse and improbable, our ambiguity is pitiful simplicity, and our intrigues are without salt and without grace. The history of the war proves this by a hundred examples. That is the very least that must be said of our employment of these immoral weapons, which are foreign to our character." See Delbrück-DerflbUrfl Petition.
German Insurance Companies in United States. These were forbidden by the President's proclamation, July 13, 1917, to write new marine and war-risk insurance, either as direct insurers or reinsurers. Existing contracts were suspended for the duration of the war, except that insurance on vessels at risk on the date of the proclamation was to continue in force until the arrival of the vessel at its destination, or for 30 days in case of contracts for time. The funds of the companies, which were not to be transmitted out of the United States nor used as the basis- of-credit within or without the United States for the benefit of the enemy or its allies were made subject to the rules and regulations of insurance inspection in the States in which the principal officer of a company might be located. A subsequent order, issued by the Secretary of the Treasury on November 27, 1917, under the trading with the enemy act, directs that "enemy and ally of enemy marine, fire, and casualty insurance companies shall not be allowed to do business as going concerns," and "the liquidation of these companies under American management." Life insurance companies, however, "for the present will be allowed to continue existing contracts." See Trading with the Enemy Act.
German Intrigue against American Peace. On July 8, 1915, indictments for conspiracy against the peace of the United States were brought in the Federal court at San Francisco against ~8 persons, including. German consuls and consuls general ---At-the same time the following statement was made by the Federal district attorney, Mr. John W. Preston: "For more than a year prior to the outbreak of the European war certain Hindus in San Francisco and certain Germans were preparing openly for war with England. At the outbreak of the war Hindu leaders, members of the German consulate here, and attaches of the German Government began to form plans to foment revolution in India for the purpose of freeing India and aiding Germans in their military operations. . . . [This work] bad the personal attention of Alfred Zimmermann, German Secretary of Foreign Affairs. . . . The Operations of the plotters In the United States were directed from Berlin. The conspiracy took the form of various military enterprises. Arms and ammunition in large quantities were purchased with German money. Men were recruited and sent to India." Three of the most prominent of the defendants were Lieut. Wilhelm von Brincken, former military attache of the German consulate general in San Francisco; George Rodiek, former German consul at Honolulu; and H. A. Schroeder, who succeeded Rodiek at Honolulu. On December 5, 1917, these three pleaded guilty to the indictments against them. Lieut. von Brincken said by way of explanation:
"I think we can serve our country best by pleading guilty and avoiding further exposures In court proceedings. The less said about the cases the better it will be for Germany."
The von Jgel papers show further that German agents in the United States gave financial aid to the Irish revolution and supported the separatist movement in Quebec. They also spent $600,000 on Huerta's abortive attempt in 1915 to start from this country a revolution in Mexico. See Base of Naval Operations; Igel, von, Papers of; Intrigue; Sabotage; Sinn Feiir&.
German Intrigue in the United States. "One of the things that have served to convince us that the Prussian autocracy was not and could never be our friend is that from the very outset of the present war it has filled our unsuspecting communities, and even our offices of government, with spies and set criminal intrigues everywhere against our national unity of counsel, our peace within and without, our industries, and our commerce. Indeed, it is now evident that its spies were here even before the war began, and it is unhappily not a matter of conjecture, but a fact proved in our courts of justice, that the intrigues which have more than once come perilously near -to disturbing the peace and dislocating the industries of the country have been carried on at the instigation, with the support, and even under the personal directions of official agents of the Imperial Government accredited to the Government of the United States." (President Wilson, before Congress, Apr. 2, 1917.) In addition to entries below see account by the Committee on Public Information reprinted in New York Times Current History, November, 1917, Under the title "Revelations of German Plots." See Spies; Zimmermann Note.
German Intrigue, Tools. (1) Konig, the head of the Hamburg-American secret service, who was active in passport frauds, who induced Gustave Stahl to perjure himself and declare the Lusitania armed, and who plotted the destruction of the Weiland Canal, has, in his work as a spy, passed under 13 aliases in this country and Canada. Capts. Boy-Ed, von Papen, von Rintelen, Tauscher, and von Igel were all directly connected with the German Government Itself. There is now In the possession ofo the United States Government a check made out to König and signed by von Papen, identified by number In ~a secret report of the German bureau of investigation as being used to procure $150 for the payment of a bomb maker, who was to plant explosives disguised as coal in the bunkers of the merchant vessels clearing from the port of New York. Boy-Ed, Dr. Blintz, the German ex-minister to Mexico, the German consul at San Francisco, and officials of the Hamburg-American and North German Lloyd steamship lines evaded customs regulations and coaled and victual German raiders at sea; von Papen and von Igel supervised the making of the incendiary bombs on the Friedrtch der Grosse, then in New York Harbor, and stowed them away on outgoing ships; von Rintelen financed Labor's National Peace Council, which tried to corrupt legislators and labor leaders. A lesser light of this galaxy was Robert Fay, who invented an explosive contrivance which he tied to the rudder posts of vessels. By his confession, and that of his partner in murder, the money came from the German secret police.
German Intrigue, Tools. (2) Among these were David Lamar and Henry Martin, who, in the pay of Capt. von Rintelen, organized and managed the so-called Labor's National Peace Council, which sought to bring about strikes, an embargo on munitions, and a boycott of banks which subscribed to the Anglo-French Loan. A check for $5,000 to J. F. J. Archibald for "propaganda work," and a receipt from Edwin Emerson, the war correspondent, for $1,000 "traveling expenses" were among the documents found in Wolf von Igel's possession. Others bearing English names have been persuaded to take leading places in similar organizations which concealed their origin and real purpose. The American Embargo Conference arose out of the ashes of Labor's Peace Council, and its president was American, though the funds were not. Others tampered with were journalists who lent themselves to the German propaganda, and who went so far as to serve as couriers between the Teutonic embassies In Washington and the Governments in Vienna and Berlin. A cheek of $5,000 was discovered which Count von Bernstorff had sent to Marcus Braun, editor of Fair Play. And a letter was discovered which George Sylvester Viereck, editor of the Fatherland, had sent to Privy Councilor Albert, the German agent, arranging for a monthly subsidy of $1,750, to be delivered to him through the hands of intermediaries-women, whose names he abbreviates "to prevent any possible inquiry." There is a record of $3,000 paid through the German embassy to finance the lecture tour of Miss Ray Beverldge, an American artist, who was further to be supplied with German war pictures. See Igel, von, Papers of.
German Man Power. In September, 1917, Germany had, according to the estimate of the French Government, 6,100,000 men In military service on the front lines or behind them; had lost as killed, disabled, or prisoners, 4,000,000; and had In hospitals 500,000 more, making a grand total of 10,600,000 men who have been used in war. According to the same estimate Germany has had 14,000,000 men available since 1914 and Including the class of 1920 (now in their seventeenth year). In the 3,400,000 men of military age not yet in the army are included those physically unfit and those indispensable in her Industries.
German Military Autocracy, Plan. of. "Their plan was to throw a broad belt of German military power and political control across the very center of Europe and beyond the Mediterranean into the heart of Asia; and Austria-Hungary was to be as much their tool and pawn as Serbia or Bulgaria or Turkey or the ponderous States of the East. Austria-Hungary, indeed, was to become part of the central German Empire, absorbed and dominated by the same forces and influences that had originally cemented the German States themselves. The dream had its heart at Berlin. It could have had a heart nowhere else. It rejected the idea of solidarity of race entirely. The choice of peoples played no part in it at all. It contemplated binding together racial and political units which could be kept together only by force-Czechs, Magyars, Croats, Serbs, Roumanlans, Turks, Armenians-the proud States of Bohemia and Hungary, the stout little Commonwealths of the Balkans, the indomitable Turks, the subtle peoples of the East. These peoples did not wish to be united. They ardently desired to direct their own affairs, would be satisfied only by undisputed Independence. They could be kept quiet only by the presence or the constant threat of armed men. They would Live under a common power only by sheer compulsion and await the day of revolution. But the German military statesmen had reckoned with all that and were ready to deal with it in their own way." (President Wilson, Flag Day Address, Washington, June 14, 1917.) Paul de Lagarde, who died. in 1891, wrote in his Deutsche Schrif ten: "We must create a Central Europe which will guarantee the peace of the entire Continent from the moment when it shall have driven the Russians from the Black Sea and the Slays from the south and shall have conquered large tracts to the east of our frontiers for German colonization. We can not let loose ex abrupto the war which will create this Central Europe. All we can do is to accustom our people to the thought that this war must come." See Flag Day Address; "Mittel-Europa."
German Military Autocracy, Propaganda for War. "The evidence submitted in this book amounts to an irrefutable proof that a systematic stimulation of the war spirit is going on. based on the one hand on the Pan-German League and on the other on the agitation of the Defense Association. . . . These men do not only occasionally incite people to war, but they systematically inculcate a desire for war in the minds of the German people. Not only in the sense that they ought to be prepared for war and ready for all eventualities, but in the much more far-reaching sense that they want war. War is represented not merely as a possibility that might arise, but as a necessity~ that must come about, and the sooner the better. In. the opinion of these Instigators, the German nation needs a war; a long-continued peace seems regrettable to them just because It Is a peace, no matter whether there is any reason for war or not; and therefore, in case of need, one must simply strive to bring it about. . . . From this dogma [that war must come] it is only a small step to the next chauvinistic principle, so dear to the heart of our soldier politicians, who are languishing for war-the fundamental principle of the aggressive or preventive war. If it be true that war is to come, then let it come at the moment which is most favorable to ourselves. In other words, strike when it is most convenient.- . . The truth is that, to them, war is quite a normal institution of international intercourse and not in any way a means of settling great international conflicts-not a means to be resorted to only in case of great necessity." (Prof. Otfrled Nippold, Der Deutsche ChauvinisflLus, 1913, pp. 113-117.) See Arb4-tratiom; Conquest and Kultur; Dlswrrnament; Liebknecht; Pan-Germans urge War in Th13.
German Military Autocracy, Responsibility for the Present War. "The object of this war is to deliver the free peoples of the world from the menace and the actual power of a vast military establishment controlled by an irresponsible government, which, having secretly planned to dominate the world, proceeded to carry the plan out without regard either to the sacred obligations of treaty or the long-established practices and long-cherished principles of international action and honor; which chose its own time for the war; delivered its blow fiercely and suddenly; stopped at no barrier either of law or of mercy; swept a whole continent within the tide o~ blood-not the blood of soldiers only, but the blood of innocent women and children also, and of the helpless poor; and now stands balked, but not defeated, the enemy of four-fifths of the world. This power is not the German people. It is the ruthless master of the German people. It is no business of ours how that great people came under its control or submitted with temporary zest to the domination of its purpose; but it is our business to see to it that the history of the rest of the world is no longer left to its handling." (American reply to the Pope, Aug. 27, 1917.) See "Der Tag"; "Place in he Sun"; War, German View; War, Responsibility' for in 1914.
German Military Autocracy, Spirit. "The war was begun by the military masters of Germany, who proved to be also ~e masters of Austria-Hungary. These men have never regarded
nations as peoples, men, women, and children of like blood and frame as themselves, for whom governments existed and in whom governments had their life. They have regarded them merely as serviceable organizations which they could by force or intrigue bend or corrupt to their own purpose. They have regarded the smaller States, in particular, and the peoples who could be overwhelmed by force, as their natural tools and instruments of domination." (President Wilson, Flag Day Address, June 14, 1917.) See Mobilization Controversy; "Potsdam Conference"; etc.
German Military Dominance. "Look how things stand. Austria is at their [the German military autocracy's] mercy. It has acted not upon its own initiative or upon the choice of its own people but at Berlin's dictation ever since the war began. Its people now desire peace, but can not have it until leave is granted from Berlin. The so-called Central Powers are in fact but a single power. Serbia is at its mercy, should its hands be but for a moment freed. Bulgaria has consented to its will, and Roumania is overrun. The Turkish armies, which Germans trained, are serving Germany, certainly not themselves, and the guns of German warships lying in the harbor at Constantinople remind Turkish statesmen every day that they have no choice but to take their orders from Berlin. From Hamburg to the Persian Gulf the net is spread. That Government has other valuable pawns in its hands besides those I have mentioned. It still holds a valuable part of France, though with slowly relaxing grasp, and practically the whole of Belgium. Its armies press close upon Russia and overrun Poland at their will." (President Wilson, Flag Day Address, June 14, 1917.) See "No Annexations, no Indemnities"; "Status quo ante Bellum~"; " Uti Possidetis."
German Navy. The German fleet is the creation of William II and his minister, Admiral von Tlrpitz. The aim has been to construct a fleet "so strong that a war with Germany would Involve, even for the most powerful adversary [Great Britain], the danger of risking his own position as a power" (Memorandum of 1900). Laws passed 1898-1912 provided for a fleet of 61 dreadnaughts, with the necessary auxiliary craft. At the _ outbreak of the war the German fleet comprised 28 dreadnaughts built and building, 20 older battleships, 55 cruisers, 154 torpedo craft, and 45 submarines. Since 1914 some capital ships have been constructed, but the main emphasis has been laid on submarines, concerning which no authentic figures are available. See British Navy; Jutland; Kid Canal; Tirpitz.
German Peace Intrigue, - Method. "Do you now understand the new intrigue, the intrigue for peace and why the masters of Germany do not hesitate to use any agency- that promises to effect their purpose-the deceit of the nations? Their present particular aim is to deceive all those who throughout the world stand for the rights of peoples and the self-government of I nations; for they see what immense strength the forces of justice and of liberalism are gathering out of this war. They are enabling liberals in their enterprise. They are using men, in Germany and without, as their spokesmen whom they have hitherto despised and oppressed, using them for their own destruction- socialists, the leaders of labor, the thinkers they have hitherto sought to silence. Let them once succeed and these men, now their tools, will be ground to powder beneath the weight of the great military empire they will have set up; the revolutionists in Russia ~will be cut off from all succor or cooperation in western Europe, and a counter revolution fostered and supported; Germany herself will lose her chance of freedom; and all Europe will arm for the next. the final struggle. The sinister intrigue Is being no less actively conducted in this country than In Russia and In every country in Europe to which the agents and dupes of the Imperial German Government can - get access. That Government has many spokesmen here, in places high and low. They have learned discretion. They keep within the law. It Is opinion they utter now, not sedition. They proclaim the liberal purposes of their masters; declare this a foreign war which can touch America with no danger to either her lands or her institutions; set England at the center of the stage and talk of her ambition to assert economic dominion throughout the world; appeal to our ancient tradition of isolation in the politics of the nations; and seek to undermine the Government with false professions of loyalty to its principles. But they will make no headway. The false betray themselves always in every accent. It is only friends and partisans of the German Government, whom we have already identified, who utter these thinly disguised disloyalties. The facts are patent to all the world . . . that this is a people's war, a ~war for freedom and Justice and self-government amongst all the nations of the world . . . and with us rests the choice to break through all these hypocrisies and patent cheats and masks of brute force and help set the world free, or else stand aside and let it be dominated a long age through by sheer weight of arms and the arbitrary choices of self-constituted masters, by the nation which can maintain the biggest armies and the most irresistible armaments." (President Wilson, Flag Day Address, Washington, - June 14, 1917.) See Flag Day Address; Stockholm Conference.
'German Peace Intrigue, Motive. - "The military masters under whom Germany is bleeding see very clearly to what point fate has brought them. If they fall back or are forced back an inch, their power both abroad and at home will fall to pieces like a house of cards. It is their power at home they are thinking about now more than their power abroad. It is that power which is trembling under their very feet, and deep fear has entered their hearts. They have but one chance to perpetuate their military power or even their controlling political influence. If they can secure peace now with the immense advantages still in their hands which they have up to this point apparently gained, they will have justified themselves before the German people; they will have gained by force what they promised to gain by It-an Immense expansion of German power, an Immense enlargement of German Industrial and commercial opportunities. Their prestige will be secure, and with their prestige their political power. If they fail, their people will thrust them aside; a government accountable to the people themselves will be set up in Germany, as it has been in England, in the United States, In France, and in all the great countries of the modern time except Germany. If the~ succeed, they are safe and Germany and the world are undone; if they fail, Germany is saved and the world will be at peace. If they succeed, America will fall within the menace. We and all the rest of the world must re- -main armed, as they will remain, and must make ready for the -next step in their aggression; If they fail, the world may unite for peace and Germany may be of the union." (President Wilson, Flag Day Address, June 14, 1917.) See Flag Day Address
German Peace intrigue, Next Move in. "The great crisis of the war will come when the Italian operation is over and on the - strength of her success Germany makes a final effort to persuade the nations that are fighting her to lay down their arms and leave her in possession of parts of what she has won Every German influence and agency in the world will be at work, and are already at work, trying to convince the world, first, that Germany is invincible and second that peace must be immediate. If Germany were invincible, no German or German agent would be talking peace If this peace offensive can be repelled the decision of the war will come with no long delay." (Frank H. Simonds in the New York Tribune, Nov. 18, 1917.)
German People versus German Government, 1913. The following is an extract from a report submitted a year before the war by M. Cambon, the French ambassador in Berlin, to the French Government: "The forces [of peace] consist of the following elements: The bulk of the workmen, artisans, and peas- -ants, who are peace loving- by Instinct. Those members of the nobility detached from military Interests and eng4ged in business, . . . who are sufficiently enlightened to realize the disastrous political and social consequences of war even If successful. Numerous manufacturers, merchants, and financiers In a moderate way of business, to whom war, even if successful, -would mean bankruptcy . . . Poles, inhabitants of Alsace-Lorraine and Schleswig-Holstein, conquered but not assimilated, and sullenly hostile to Prussian policy. There are about 7,000,000 of these annexed Germans. Finally, the governments and the governing classes in the large southern States-Saxony, Bavaria, Wiirttemberg, and the Grand Ducby of Baden-are di.. I vlded by these two opinions: An unsuccessful -war would ~compromise the federation from which -..-economic advantages-; e Success in -war would cnsure~prussianization, against which they have difficulty in defending their political Independence and administrative auton- -(Sfly. These classes of people, either consciously or instinctively, I prefer peace to war; but they are only a sort of makeweight in political matters, with limited Influence on public opinion, or the silent social forces, passive and defenseless against the - infection of a wave of warlike feeling." (French Yellow Book, No. 5.) See Liebkneeht; Pan-GerrnanAsm.
German People versus German Government, 1917. "We have no quarrel with the German people. We have no feeling toward them but one of sympathy and friendship. It was not upon their impulse that their Government acted in entering the war. It was not with their previous knowledge or approval. It was a war determined upon as wars used to be determined in the old unhappy days when peoples were nowhere consulted by their rulers, and wars were provoked and waged in the interest of dynasties or of little groups of ambitious men who were accustomed to use their fellow men as pawns and tools. . . . It will be all the easier for us to conduct ourselves as belligerents in a high spirit of right and fairness because we act without animus, not with enmity, toward a people or with the desire to bring any injury or disadvantage upon them, but only in armed opposition to an irresponsible Government which has thrown aside all considerations of humanity and of right and is running amuck. We are, let me say again, the sincere friends of the German people and shall desire nothing so much as the early reestablishment of intimate relations of mutual advantage between us, however hard it may be for them for the time being to believe that this is spoken from our hearts. We have borne with their present Government through all these bitter months because of that friendship, exercising a patience and forbearance which would otherwise have been impossible." (President Wilson, to Congress, Apr. 2, 1917.)
German Political Parties. In Germany there are no great political parties outside of the Social Democrats and the Center (Catholic) party. This very fact probably enhances the autocratic power, for every Reichstag majority is a party coalition, with the autocracy as the mediating power. The main parties are:. (1) The Conservatives, or Agrarians; strong in the agricultural districts of north Germany, united behind autocratic government, militarism, and imperialism; (2) the Center party, formed from the Catholics of south Germany and the Rhine Valley, without a fixed political program, but steadily favorable to the Church and the south German interest; (3) the National Liberals, made up of the manufacturing interests, mainly in the Rhine Valley, willing to back autocracy as long as autocracy aids business, and inclined to be imperialistic; (4) the Progressives, radical liberals who wish better terms for the laboring classes and are, in general, inclined to favor a strong policy abroad; (5) the Social Democrats, a party of the laboring classes, who would control the Reichstag, if it were not for the obsolete system of districting. They favor a policy of peace abroad, and of social reforms within. See Bethmann Hollweg; Landtag; Uebkneckt; Newspapers, Germat&; Reichstag.
German Propaganda in Italy. The Giornale d'Italia of November 14, 1916, contains an obviously official reply to the pro-German propagandists In Italy who were attempting to discredit England. The Giornale writes: "Indeed, there has been noticeable in Italy for some time past a closely woven and subtle intrigue working to incite public opinion against Great Britain." Four- principal charges or "themes" are put forward: (1) It is England who is prolonging the war in order to have time to exhaust Germany, without caring whether Italy, France, and Russia are exhausted also; (2) Italy has put herself in the power of England in order to escape from the influence of Germany; (3) England is "exploiting" her aims by leaving on their shoulders the whole weight of the war; (4) England Is making usurious profits upon the money she lends and the goods she supplies to her allies. All this has a familiar sound to American readers. As the Giornale adds, "We have to deal with a vast system of propaganda, of which the object is to diminish faith in the Allies among the people of each allied country." The interallied council of war (Nov., 1917) was intended in part to set at rest such sinister rumors.
German Southwest Africa. A German colony in southwest Africa, with an area of 322,450 square miles and a population, white and native, of 94,386. An uprising of two native tribes, the Hereros and Wltbois, in 1904 and 1905 led to the dispatch of several expeditions to German Southwest Africa. The campaign in 1904 cost upward of $10,000,000. In 1905 the expenditures were in excess of $15,000,000. Natives, including women and children, were impounded and most cruelly treated by the military. Before the uprising was quelled another broke out in East Africa. From German Southwest Africa the Germans promoted the Boer rebellion of September, 1914. The colony was reduced by South African forces under Gen. Botha in 1915. - See German colonies; Poison; South, Africa, Union of.
German "War Book." The name commonly given to the manual of military law issued to German officers under the title Kriegslirauck im Lanclkrietje, which has been translated as The War Book of the German General Staff (1915). It Is characterized by a deliberate and systematic repudiation, on the ground of "necessity," of the principles of civilized warfare gradually adopted by most nations and embodied in The Hague Conventions. In the eyes of its authors, the book is a protest against "humanitarian considerations," "sentimentality and flabby emotion." The judgment of a sober critic, "It is the first time in the history of mankind that a creed so revolting has been deliberately formulated by a great civilized State," is severe, but unfortunately true. See "Frightfulness"; "Kriegs-Raison" Notwendigkeit; German War Practices.
German War Code. Pamphlet distributed free by the Committee on Public Information; describes the German military law.
German War Practices. A pamphlet issued and distributed free by the Committee on Public Information describing the systematic military mistreatment of civilians in Belgium and Northern France. See Red, White, and Blue Series.
Germs, Poisonous. See Roumania, German Treachery in.
Ghent, University of. In an effort to divide public opinion in Belgium by setting the Flemish party against the Walloon(French), the German governor general, - von Bisslng, decreed the University of Ghent should (1915) become a Flemish Institution, offering great favors to those who would retain their professorships after such a change and punishing those who resisted coercion, notably the distinguished scholars Paul Frederic and Henri Pirenne, who were sent to prison and then exiled to Germany. The experiment has met with little success. See Bissinp, VOfld.
"Goeben." The German cruisers Goeben and Breslau took refuge- in the Dardanelles at the outbreak of the war. Instead of Interning these fugitive ships in accordance with international law, the Turkish Government, already in alliance with Germany by a secret treaty of August 4, 1914 (now revealed in a Greek White Book), pretended to buy them. By order of the German admiral, the Goeben bombarded Russian Black Sea ports without provocation, without warning, without previous authorization of the Ottoman Government. See Turkey, Treaties with Germany.
Gold. The United States now possesses twice as much gold as the country with the next largest store. The value of other forms of money depends on their redeemability In gold. Prices the world over vary with the quantity of money in circulation, and the enormous production of gold in the last 20 years has been a factor in forcing the level of prices to unprecedented heights. Extraordinary purchases by the allied nations since the outbreak of the war have poured gold into the United States. From August, 1914, to the middle of 1917 the United States received more than $1,000,000,000 more gold than she exported. At the present time the total stock of gold in the country is more than $2,500,000,000. Little seen in circulation, this stock of gold is the foundation and the reserve for all the other forms of our currency. It is held largely in the vaults of the Federal reserve banks, the Government, and the commercial banks, where it makes possible the credit structure which maintains industry in the United States, supports the Government, and furnishes to our associates the funds necessary to the successful prosecution of the war. See Federal Reserve Act.
Goltz, General Kolmar von der. German soldler and author on military affairs. In 1888, after some years of service in the German army, he was ~-farmed - out" by his Government to Turkey, where he did much to reorganize the 'Turkish army. In 1908 he returned to Turkey, where he spent two years in building up the Turkish army after the Young Turk revolution. When disaster overtook the Turks in the Balkan wars two years after his departure, von der Goltz received no small blame for the failure of his pupils. This is probably unjust, for the failure seems due to causes over which von der Goltz had no control. He returned to Germany in 1910, became field marshal and, after the outbreak of war and the invasion of Belgium, military governor of the latter country. After the entry of ~Turkey into the war, he went to Constantinople to direct the Turkish armies and died, while at the Turkish front, April 19, 1916. See Turkey; Young Turks.
Good Offices. Article II of The Hague Convention of 1907 for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, reads: "In case of sections disagreement or dispute, before an appeal to arms, the contracting powers agree to have recourse, as far as circumstances allow, to the good offices~ . . ~of one or more friendly towers." Article III: "Independently of this recourse, the con tracting powers deem it expedient and desirable that one or more powers strangers to the dispute should on their own Initiative and as far as circumstances may allow offer their good offices
to the States at variance. Powers strangers to the dispute have the right to offer good offices.., even during the course of hostilities. The exercise of this right can never be regarded by either of the parties in dispute as an unfriendly act." By this means President Roosevelt in 1905 paved the way for the opening of 7 peace negotiations between Russia and Japan, and in August, 1914, President Wilson made a standing offer of "good offices" to the European powers at war.
Gorizia. Gorizia or GUirz is a city on the Carso Plateau on the coast route from Italy to Trieste. It was captured by the Italians August 9, 1916, and evacuated when the German-Austrian advance in November, 1917, made it' untenable. See Carso Plateau.
Grains. The final estimates (in December, 1917) of the Department of Agriculture give the yield in bushels of the five leading cereals as follows:
Crops. Estimate for 1916
Wheat 650,828,000 636,318,000
Corn 3,159,494,000 2,566,927,000
Oats 1,587,286,000 1,251,837,000
Barley 208,975,000 182,309,000
Rye 60,145,000 48,862,000
Total 5, 666,728,000 4,686,253,000
The crop of the five principal cereals is here seen to be 980,-475,000 bushels larger than that of 1916. This is due to the policy of the Department of Agriculture and the farmers of the country and of the volunteer gardeners who have aided to extend the crops as a patriotic duty. The substitution In home consumption of corn, oats, barley, and rye is urged In order to liberate wheat for exportation.
Grand Fleet. The term applied to the main battle squadrons of the British navy stationed in the North Sea. See Beatty, Sir David; Jellicoe, Sir John; Juttand Battle.
Great Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Is a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy with Its capital at London. Its total land and water area Is 121,331 square miles, and its population in 1914 was 46,089,249. King George V began his reign May 6, 1910. The Queen Is Mary, ~formerly Princess of Teck. The Liberal ministry under Mr H H. Asqulth, in office since 1905, was in power at the outbreak of the war. Mr. Asqulth formed a coalition ministry May 25 1915 which lasted until December 5, 1916. On December 7 David Lloyd George, Secretary of State for War since Earl Kitchener s death, June 5, became Premier. Great Britain declared war against Germany on August 4, 1914, after the former had violated the neutrality of Belgium; against Austria on August 12, 1914; against Turkey on November 5, 1914; and against Bulgaria on October 15, 1915. See Cabinet Syetern; CoaUtio7i Cabinet; Munition,s Ministry; War Cabinet.
Greece. A constitutional monarchy occupying the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The total area Is estimated at 46,345 square miles and the population at 4,698,599. Athena is the capital. Constantine I, the reigning King at the out-break of the war, succeeded to the throne on March 18, 1913. The Queen was Sophia, a sister of Emperor William II. The pro-German sympathies of the royal family caused great embarrassment to Greece, for M. Venizelos, the premier, and the bulk of the population wished Greece to join the Allies and fulfill its treaty obligations to Serbia. In October, 1915, the King dismissed the Premier and appointed a succession of pro-German ministers, who succeeded in keeping Greece neutral. When, on September 28, 1916, a provisional government, with Entente sympathies, was established at Saloniki by M. Venizelos the unity of Greece was seriously compromised, nor was it restored till the enforced abdication of King Constantine on June 12 1917, and the subsequent return of M. Venizelos to Athens Greece formally entered the war against Germany and Bulgaria on July 2, 1917. See Balkan Wars; Co7&stanti/ne I; Maoedo'ua, Salon4ki; Venizelos, E. K.
Grey, Viscount, of Fallodon (Sir Edward) (1862- ).
British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs at the outbreak of the war. A Liberal in politics, he entered Parliament in 1885, was undersecretary for Foreign Affairs, 1892-1895, and in 1905 became Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in the Liberal cabinet. When he became director of British foreign policy England was shifting her policy of isolation with regard to continental affairs to one of participation in them and of defense against Germany's constant attempts to expand at the expense of other nations. The fact that Grey continued this policy,-that he -strengthened the entente with France, and negotiated one with Russia, has laid him open to the charge of aggressive designs _ against Germany. There seems to be no basis for this charge. I If, in 1911, he supported France against German designs In Morocco, he repeatedly, and especially in 1912, when Lord Hal-dune was sent on a mission to Berlin, left open a door for recon- -dilation and good terms with the German Empire. He did everything In his power to bring to an end the an _ naval rivalry, and in 1914 he negotiated a treaty Bagdad railway which Germans regarded as in every way satisfactory. An idealist and an advocate of internationalism In Europe, be strove during the Balkan wars to provide a settlement that should be just and satisfactory, and the failure of this settlement was due to Austro-Germanic imperialism and not to his efforts. His attempts to preserve peace in 1914 are treated below. In 1915 he tried, with M. azonov, to revive the Balkan League, and after the failure of this project and the collapse of Roumania, he left the cabinet in December, 1916. He was raised to the peerage In 1916. See "EneircZemelLt"; Triple Entente
Grey .and British Policy in 1914. It is one of the stock arguments of the Germans that Sir Edward Grey, in 1914, gave the support of England to France and Russia and thereby encouraged them to commence the war. There is no evidence to support this assertion. The British statesman proposed or encouraged the following methods of settling the Serbian difficulty without war: (1) arbitration; (2) mediation and settlement of the difficulty by four less interested powers-England, France, Germany, and Italy; (3) direct negotiations between Austria and Russia. Germany's reply to the first was that it was "unimportant"; the second it "accepted in principle "-a meaningless phrase; the third it accepted and then destroyed all chance of its success by its ultimatum to Russia. As to the policy pursued by Sir Edward Grey after war had broken out between Germany and Russia, the only ground on which it can be attacked is on the theory that England might have looked on while her friends were being destroyed by Germany. Sir Edward Grey refused to follow this policy; hence the Germans declare he caused the war. See German Military Autocracy; Nicholas II, Efforts to Maintain Peace; "Potsdam Conference."
Guatemala. Guatemala is a republic of Central America. Its area is approximately 48,290 square miles, and its population in 1913 was 2,119,165. The city of Guatemala Is the capital. The President Is Manuel Estrada Cabrera, whose term of office will expire in 1923. On April 28, 1917, Guatemala severed diplomatic relations with Germany, announcing this to the United States as follows: "Guatemala from the first has adhered to and supported the attitude of the United States in the defense of the rights of nations, the liberty of the seas, and of international justice, and has always considered itself in unity with your great Nation in the lofty principles which it has so wisely proclaimed for the good of humanity." See Brazil; Cnba; Panama.
"Gulfllght." An American oil steamer, which was torpedoed and sunk without warning off the Scilly Islands on May 7, 1915, the day of the Lusitania sinking, with resultant loss of three lives, all Americans. The case was settled on the same principles as that of the Cushing. See "Cushing."