War Cyclopedia - N
Namur. A fortified city of central Belgium situated on the Meuse, 36 miles southeast of Brussels. Trusting in the defenses of Namur, the Allied forces had taken a position on the NamurCharlerol-Mons line in August, 1914. The fall of Namur on August 22 caused the retirement from this line and opened the way for the battle of Mons.
National Army. The largest element in the Army of the United States, consisting of those young men selected for national service under the act of May 18, 1917. Of these, 687,000 were drawn for immediate service and ordered to cantonmenta for-tr~i1ning September ~, 1917. President Wilson's message to the men selected for service was as follows: "The eyes of all the world will be upon you, because you are in some special sense the soldiers of freedom. Let it be your pride, therefore, to show all men everywhere not only what good soldiers you are but also what good men you are, keeping yourselves fit and straight in everything and pure and clean through and through. Let us set for ourselves a standard so high that it will be a glory to live up to it, and then let us live up to it and add a new laurel to the crown of America. My affectionate confidence goes with you in every battle and every tent. God keep and guide you!" See Registration; Selective Service.
National Defense Act. Passed June 3, 1916, "for making further and more effectual provision for the national defense. i-. ." This act, which was the result of long public agitation, administrative study, and congressional discussion, amounted to a recodification of a large part of the laws relating to the Army and the addition of several new features.
It provided that the Army of the United States should consist of the Regular Army, Volunteer Army, Officers' Reserve Corps, Enlisted Reserve Corps, National Guard while in the service of the United States, and such other land forces as are now or may hereafter be authorized by law. The General Staff was retained. Such changes of organization or of proportion of troops as were provided for were obvious results of new conditions. See Officers' Reserve Corps; Reserve Officers' Training Corps.
National Guard. The Organized Militia, or National Guard, as maintained by the States for local protection In time of peace, was made subject to draft into the national service by the national defense act of June 3, 1916. On August 5, 1917, the whole National Guard, 450,000 men, was drafted into Federal service and ordered to 16 cantonments.
National Guard Federalized. The National Guard was "federalized" by section 76 of the national defense act in these words: "When Congress shall have authorized the use 0of forces . . . In excess of those of the Regular Army the President . . . may draft Into the military service of the United States . . . any or all members of the National Guard," who shall thereupon "stand discharged from the militia." This provision has been challenged as interfering with "the inherent right of the States" to maintain a militia, and in this connection the Second Amendment is cited. But the purpose of this amendment is merely to assert "the right of the people to keep and bear arms," and the term "free State'~ used therein is plainly to be taken in a broad or generic sense. Section 76 Is simply a selective-draft measure, and so within the power of Congress "to raise and support armies." Furthermore, if the National Guard is made up of "troops" in the sense of Article I, section 10, of the Constitution, no State may keep such an organization "without the consent of Congress." See Draft, Constitutionality; Militia, War Powers.
Nationality. The doctrine of nationality in its most radical form teaches that a people desiring to become a State, whether because of a common tradition, common usages, a common blood, or economic bonds, is entitled to realize its aspirations. This doctrine had tremendous influence on the course of political history throughout the last century, as Is seen from the unification of Italy and of Germany and the independence of Greece, Belgium, Norway, and the Danubian States. It also appears in the agitations for independence or autonomy of Poland, Finland, Bohemia, Ireland, and other small racial or linguistic units. It Is coming to be felt, however, that certain limitations need to be set to this doctrine, especially where it conflicts with the economic interests of a larger number than its realization would serve, or with international peace. One of the difficult problems -of the readjustment after the war will be the establishment of a sound working arrangement between the interests of the smaller nationalistic unit and the claims of the larger economic groups. See Autonomy; British Imperial Federation.
National Research Council. The National Research Council, at the request of the Council of National Defense, Is acting as the science and research agency of the council. For the purpose of maintaining active relations with the director of the Council of National Defense, the National Research Council has appointed a committee of three men, Dr. Robert A. Millikan, University of Chicago; Dr. S. W. Stratton, Director of the Bureau of Standards; Dr. Charles D. Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
National Security League. A nonpolitical, nonpartisan league of American men and women to promote patriotic education and universal military training and service. Its committee on patriotism through education has issued a Handbook of the War for Public Speakers and a series of leaflets.
National Service Handbook. A book of 246 pages prepared for reference use by persons engaged in various branches of patriotic work. It contains material upon agencies of domestic welfare, war relief, finance, industry, and agriculture, food supply, medical service, military and naval service. It is for free distribution and may be obtained upon application to the Committee on Public Information, 10 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. See Red, White, and Blue Series.
Naturalization. The process by which a State confers its citizenship or nationality upon a foreigner. In the United States it confers all the privileges of citizenship, except eligibility to the Presidency. Under the present law naturalization must be preceded by a residence of at least five years in this country on the part of the applicant, and a "declaration of intention" two years before the application for naturalization. The applicant must also be able to speak English and to write his own name. See Citizenship; Declaration of Intention.
Naturalization, Oath of. By the act of June 29, 1906, an applicant for admission to citizenship must "declare on oath in open court that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate~ State, or sovereignty, and particularly by name, to the prince, potentate, State, or sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or subject; that he will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, and bear full faith and allegiance to the same." See Dual Citizenship.
Naturalization of Germans in America. By treaty of February 22, 1868, citizens of the North German Confederation, who became naturalized "citizens of the United States of America and shall have resided within the United States five years shall be held by the North German Confederation to be American citizens, and shall be treated as such. . . . The declaration of an intention to become a citizen . . . has not the effect of naturalization." The German Imperial Government has always held this treaty to be binding upon itself as the successor of the North German Confederation. See, however, Dual Citizenship, German Law; Hyphenated American
Naval Academy. Established at Annapolis in 1845, while George Bancroft, the historian was Secretary of the Navy. It began on a small scale, by executive order; and Congress gradually provided it with buildings and funds. Its graduates enter the Navy with commissions as ensigns. By the act of February 15, 1916, three midshipmen may be appointed each year to the academy for each Senator, Representative, and Delegate in Congress; while, by a later act of the same year, the number of annual appointments at large was made 15, that from among enlisted men of the Navy 25, and the appointment of 4 Filipinos was authorized. Finally, by the act of April 25, 1917, the appointment of one additional midshipman for each Senator, Representative, and Delegate in Congress is authorized for the year 1917-18. At the present time the possible maximum enrollment of the academy is about 2,200. The selection of candidates for nomination from any State, Territory, or congressional district is entirely In the hands of the member of Congress entitled to the appointment, but these appointments are now made upon the basis of competitive examination. A person securing such appointment must stand rigid physical and mental examinations before being admitted to the academy.
Naval Auxiliaries of the Red Cross. In all communities where Red Cross chapters are organized ladies who desire to work especially for the Navy are organized as an auxiliary of the Red Cross. The action of the war council of the Red Cross in establishing this division of activities was taken in compliance with the wishes of Secretary of the Navy Daniels, which reinforced the statement of the President that "recent experience has made it more clear than ever a multiplicity of relief agencies tends to bring about confusion, duplication, delay, and waste."
Navalism. One of the stock arguments of the defenders of Germany is that the over development of their army (militarism) is no worse than the over development of England's navy (Navalism). In the first place, it must be pointed out that this argument comes with ill grace from Germany, who endeavored to inflict on the world a double dose of Navalism and militarism. A power which builds up an army to dominate the European Continent and a navy strong enough to hold England in check is aiming at world power, and its argument against England's countermeasures is beside the point. And it may be pointed out that a great navy is far safer for the peace of the world than a large army, for a navy is not a good offensive weapon, except in conjunction with a strong army, and that army England never had until forced to create it in the present war. See Freedom of the Seas.
Naval Militia. An arm of the State militia recognized by the national defense act of 1916. At the outbreak of war with Germany this body was brought Into the national service and became the National Naval Volunteers. Its present . strength (Dec. 3, 1917) Is 852 officers and 17,000 men, exclusive of the Marine Corps branch, which includes 32 officers and 700 men.
Of this entire force there are to-day fewer than 150 officers and 1,000 men ashore.
Naval Reserve. Is subdivided into four classes of men, eligible, and fitted for special duties in time of war: The Fleet Naval Reserve, now (Dec. 3, 1917) numbering 2,190 men, is made up of those who have received naval training and whose war-duty assignment would naturally be on vessels of the fleet. Enrollment in the Fleet Naval Reserve is for a period of four years, but in time of peace a member may be discharged upon request. In time of war a member of the fleet reserve is obligated to serve throughout the war. The Naval Auxiliary Reserve, now numbering 8,921 men, is composed of seafaring men with experience on merchant ships. These men are ordered to duty on auxiliary vessels of the Navy. To be eligible as an officer in this class the applicant must have had not less than two years' experience as a watch officer on a lake or oceangoing vessel and possess the other usual qualifications. The Naval Coast Defense Reserve, now numbering 36,891, is composed of citizens of the United States whose technical and practical education has been such as peculiarly to fit them for the many positions in navy yards, administrative offices on patrol vessels, and various other branches of the Navy at sea and ashore. A great number of college men, fishermen, old sailors, and men with business experience are enrolled in this branch of the Naval Reserve Force. The Naval Reserve Flying Corps, with 1,244 enrollments, is composed of qualified aviators, or persons skilled In the design, operation, or building of aircraft. An officer of this class must be a qualified aviator, though he need not be a licensed air pilot. Thus the total reserve comprises about 50,000 men.
Naval War College. An advanced institution, located at Newport, R. I., for the training of selected Navy officers in the study of problems of naval warfare and the development of plans for naval operations. While detailed here as instructor in 1886 Capt. A. T. Mahan composed his masterly book on The Influence of Sea Power upon History.
Navy. The relative size in tons of the naval forces of the principal nations of the world on July 1, 1914, at the outbreak of the war, was as follows:
Great Britain 2, 158, 250 Japan 519, 640
Germany 951, 713 Italy 285,460
United States 774, 353 Russia 270, 861
France 665, 748 Austria-Hungary 221, 526
Our Navy, on July 1, 1914, Included these completed ships In service : ~Eight dreadnaught battleships, 22 predreadnaughts, 25 cruisers, 51 torpedo-boat destroyers, 13 torpedo boats, and 30 submarines. We had at that date a naval strength of 66,273 officers and enlisted men. "On September 1, 1917," said Secretary Daniels, "there were 232,930 men in the naval service, including the Marine Corps, and there are three times as many ships in commission to-day," he continued, "as there were six months ago; and ships and more ships, from enlarged and ever enlarging shipyards, are coming to afford a place upon naval
craft for the thousands of patriotic young men who have crowded into the Navy." The American navy to-day has more ships and more men in it than the British navy had at the outset of the war.
Navy, "New." A name given to the Navy of the United States which began to be developed in 1883. The movement marked the abandonment of the old ships of the Civil War period in favor of a policy designed to place this country on the water In some degree abreast with the European powers. But the progress was more than slow from the standpoint of all students of naval subjects. Three cruisers of 3,500 tons were begun in 1883, two battleships of 6,498 tons in 1886, and three of 10,288 tons in 1890. Only five more were authorized and in hand prior to the outbreak of the Spanish War in 1898; not one larger than 11,500 tons. Tugs, ferryboats, and all kinds of craft were purchased to meet this national emergency. The Navy personnel in 1898 was only 13,000. The experience in that war had its value from 1898 to 1914, inclusive; 33 battleships were authorized by Congress to be added to the fleet, and from 1906 to 1914, 52 torpedo boats and destroyers and 48 submarines of A, B, C, D, etc., types according to tonnage.
"Congress [in 1916] took a radical and a forward step on Its naval program. It abandoned the plan of a yearly authorization of new ships, and adopted a three-year building program. Shortly thereafter it increased the naval appropriation from an average of former years of $145,000,000 to $312,888,060.25, and since the 1st of August, 1916, has appropriated for the support and increase of the Navy $1,344,184,896, while estimates pending before Congress carry an addition of nearly $600,000,000. The aggregate appropriation in a little more than a year, to make effective and impregnable the Nation's first arm of defense, is, Including pending estimates, nearly $2,000,000,000." (Secretary Daniels.)
"Nebraskan." An American steamer which was torpedoed but not sunk by a German submarine in the "war zone" on May 25, 1915. According to the statement of the German Government the commander of the submarine "was obliged to assume, from his wide experience.., that only English steamers traversed the war area without flags and markings," and that as soon as the vessel had hoisted the American flag the attack had been discontinued. The German Government treated It as "an unfortunate accident," for which the German Government expressed its "regret" and declared its "readiness to make compensation." No self-respecting nation could long tolerate having its rights on the free seas left to the judgment or whim ~of a German commander, even though he had "wide experience" in torpedoing unsuspecting vessels. See War Zone, German.
Netherlands. The Netherlands, or Holland, Is a constitutional monarchy west of Germany. Its capital is The Hague. The monarchy has an area of 12,587 square miles, sustaining a population In 1914 of 6,339,854. The sovereign, Queen Wilhelmina, who succeeded to the throne under the regency of her mother in 1890, began her independent reign in 1898. The Prince Consort is Henry, Prince of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, whom she married in 1901. The Netherlands Government declared neutrality at the opening of the war.
Netherlands, German View of. "If Central Europe wishes to become a world power, it will have to find its way to the shores of the Indian Ocean, and that way is through Bag-dad. Once it has gained a footing on that sea, It will also be able to defend those precious possessions which Holland, in order not to lose them, will have to entrust to the protection of Middle Europe-the Dutch Indies. Holland has no longer any choice in this new era, when the map of the world is being remade, and when States are being gathered together into vast empires. She will either have to save her colonies and her independence by joining the Middle European federation (which does not mean the German Empire), or she will lose both. This war will do away with the small 'neutral' States, and at the end of this whole development, for the accomplishment of which more wars than one may prove necessary, there will be only large federated States left, which is~ in accordance with the character and the tendencies of our times and is also demanded by the fact that the small countries can maintain themselves alongside of those gigantic States only by joining forces themselves." (Karl von Winterstetten, Nordkap-Bagdad, das poUtische Programm des Krieges, 1914, p. 23.) See "MiUet-Europa."
Netherlands, Neutral Problems. Neutrality In the war was imposed on the Netherlands by the division of sentiment between the Allies and the Central Powers, by the natural desire to escape the horrors of war, and by economic necessity; for Holland's economic life rests largely On her trade with Germany on her eastern boundary and with England across the North Sea. Her position has been difficult since the outbreak of the war. It soon became evident that imports to Holland were being exported to Germany, and England thereupon began to exert pressure. The Dutch people, desirous of remaining neutral, faced destruction of their commerce on one side, military ravishment by Germany on the other. The Netherlands Overseas Trust was accordingly formed in September, 1914, to meet the danger. It is a private corporation, under Government sanction, representing the leading business interests of Holland. It has exclusive supervision of all imports, and guarantees to the allies that no imports shall reach Germany. Importers violating the agreement are punished. Holland is free to sell her own products to Germany, with the exception of military necessities. Despite government prohibitions, however, a vast amount of smuggling has occurred, and it has recently been shown that, thanks to the large supplies of food, especially fats, imported from the United States, Holland has been able to export to Germany, from her own products, immense quantities of the commodities most needed in Germany. The United States has been obliged to take control of all exports from this country to Holland, and will allow no exports until the present system
Is changed. The situation is complicated by the fact that Holland is dependent on Germany for her supply of coal. See Embargo; Neutral Rationing; Overseas Trusts; War Trade Board.
Neutral Duties. The duties of a neutral State toward the parties to an existing ~var. oThey are defined in the fifth and thirteenth conventions adopted by The Hague Conference of 1907 and are mostly duties of abstention and prevention. A neutral State may not permit either belligerent to enlist troops in its territory. It may not, as a State, make a loan or gift of supplies or money to either belligerent. It may not permit the use of its territory by either belligerent as a base for fitting out warlike expeditions or as a military or naval base. On the other hand, the trading rights of a neutral's citizens, on the high seas, still remain, subject only to the legitimate measures of the warring parties for the prevention of contraband carriage and unneutral service, and for the maintenance of blockades. See Neutrality Laws of the United ,States.
Neutral Exports. A phase of the question of-neutral trade with enemy countries. It is for our interest, as far as possible, to secure that neutral export shall be to ourselves and our associates and not to enemy. countries. That a large trade is carried on between the Central Powers and certain neutrals seems proved from State Department statistics, which show that Germany has imported from Sweden in two years 9,000,000 tons of iron ore, 250,000 tons of pig iron, 15,000 tons of ferrosilicon and ferromanganese for making shells, together with large quantities of copper, sulphur, zinc, etc. Holland and Switzerland have been supplying foodstuffs. Some of this trade is payment for necessary German supplies, such as coal, and can be stopped if we supply these articles. [f an absolute cessation of this trade can not be obtained, we are at least able, by the system of trade licenses, to make sure that no American goods are reexported, either directly or indirectly, into Germany, or are used to supply domestic deficiencies resulting from export of home products to enemy countries. See War Trade Board.
Neutral Imports. Another phase of the question of neutral trade with enemy countries. It may take the form of (1) import directly from enemy countries or (2) imports from ourselves and our associates for reimport to Germany. The first question Is probably the most difficult. Certain neutrals-such as Switzerland in the case of coal-are In dire need of certain supplies which can be furnished by enemy countries. But these supplies must be paid for In gold, which assists the enemy's credit, or in goods. which are useful to the prosecution of the war. To stop this we may either supply the necessary goods ourselves or adopt a punitive restriction of the neutrals' supplies. The second question seems to be caused by the embargo and the system of trade licenses. Neutrals have objected that this system of "rationing" them will hamper their economic life, if It does not lead, In some cases, to the actual starvation of their population. They declare that the increase In their Imports from America is due to the cessation of importation from Germany. State Department figures show, however, that Sweden has imported large stores of iron ore from the United States, while exporting 9,000,000 tons to Germany, and that neutrals have imported 90,000,000 pounds of American cotton in excess of their needs. See Espionage Act; Neutral Rationing; War Trade Board.
Neutrality. The legal position of a State not party to an existing ~var. The tremendous scale of the present war has raised the question whether neutrality is longer a feasible role. "I believe that the business of neutrality is over, not because I want it to be over, but I mean this, that war now has such a scale that the position of neutrals sooner or later becomes intolerable." (President Wilson, to Women's City Club, Cincinnati, Oct. 26, 1916.) See Isolation, End of the Policy of; Permanent Peace.
Neutrality Laws of the United States. The act of 1794 ~vas renewed in 1797 and superseded in 1818 by the statute which is still in force. In brief, this act provides: (1) That no citizen of the United States shall accept a commission against a friendly State; (2) that no person shall, within the United States, enlist for service against a friendly State or obtain another to do so; (3) that no person shall, within the United States, "fit out and arm or procure to be fitted out and armed," or augment the armament of, any vessel meant to cruise against a friendly State; (4) that no person shall, within the United States, "begin or set on foot" any military enterprise against a friendly State. Besides its punitive provisions, the act confers large powers on the President to anticipate and prevent its violation. Also, the collectors of customs are authorized to detain any vessel manifestly built for warlike purposes and about to depart the United States with munitions and men on board for probable service against a friendly State. By a joint resolution, approved March 4, 1915, the President is further empowered to prevent clearance of "any vessel, American or foreign, which be has reasonable cause to believe to be about to carry fuel, arms, ammunition, men, or supplies to any warship or tender or supply ship of a belligerent nation." See Espionage Act.
Neutralized State. A State which has been guaranteed immunity from invasion upon condition that it wage no wars beyond its boundaries. Switzerland is such a State; Belgium and Luxemburg formerly were-until their immunity was inconvenient to Germany's machtpoUtik. "Let no one - . . say that small States can have a national life of their own - any day ~ay see the end of their existence, in spite of all treaties to the contrary. . . . There are no ethical friendships between States -- " declared a member of the Reichstag, Dr. Kerschenstelner, in 1916. An extension of the principle of neutralization is proposed by President Wilson as a part of his plan for a permanent peace. See Belgium, NeutraMzGt4on~Of, Equality of Nations; Freedom of the seas, Ameriean View; League to Enforce Peace.
Neutral Rationing. The term applied to the method by which a certain amount of supplies are apportioned out to various neutral nations. This amount is (1) not to be so great as to leave ourselves or our associates unsupplied with any necessary articles, and (2) merely enough for the direct needs of the neutral in question, and (3) must not be used to supply deficiencies due to exportation Into Germany of any article produced in the neutral country. Holland, for instance, must not Import foodstuffs to supply any deficiency due to sending home-produced foodstuffs into Germany. In the words of President Wilson, we must "assure ourselves that neutrals are busbanding their own resources and that our supplies will not become available, either directly or indirectly, to feed the enemy." See Espionage Act; Neutral Exports; Neutral Imports.
Neutral Rights. The rights which are claimable at international law by a neutral State as against the warlike activities of belligerents. For the most part they can be classified as the right to territorial integrity and the right to trade, the latter of which is limited by the correlative right of the belligerent to maintain blockade, and to prevent contraband trade with his enemy. During the present war Germany has outraged the rights of the United States in both these respects-the right to territorial integrity by the activities of its spies, the right of trade by Its submarine warfare. See Blacklist; Embargo; Intrigue; Passport8; ,Submarine Warfare, etc.
Neutral Territory Inviolable. The Fifth Hague Convention of 1907 (respecting the rights and duties of neutral powers in case of war on land) contains the following provisions:
"ARTICLE I. The territory of neutral powers is inviolable.
"ART. II. Belligerents are forbidden to move troops or convoys of either munitions of war or supplies across the territory of a neutral power."
Germany ratified this convention. Her observance of it is to be seen In the case of Belgium and Luxemburg. See Belgium, Neutralization of; L'uwembztrg.
Newspapers, English. The London Times (Conservative or Unionist), owned by Lord Northcliffe, demands relentless prosecution of the war. The same attitude is taken by two more popular Northcliffe dailies, the Daily Mail and the Evening News. The Daily Telegraph, a business man's paper, is more moderate than the Times, but believes in a war to victory, a position similar to that of the Morning Post, an organ of upper-class opinion. The Westminster Gazette (London) and the Manchester Guardian's, great Liberal organs, both support the war, but wish (especially the latter) to have a clearer statement of its aims. The Pall Mall Gazette and the St. James Gazette, Unionist afternoon papers, are thoroughgoing supporters of the Government's policy. The same may be said of the Daily Express (Unionist) and the Chronicle (Liberal). The Daily News (Liberal) and the Star (radical) support the war but leek toward the possibility of peace in the ways suggested by Lord Lansdowne. Among weeklies the Saturday Review (ultraconservative) wishes war to complete military victory, and' the Spectator (Conservative) more moderate, nevertheless strongly supports the Government; the Nation (Liberal and radical) welcomes Lord Lansdowne's letter, as does the New Statesman (Socialist), though less cordially. See Lansdowne Letter.
Newspapers, French. The number of newspapers in France is enormous; every shade of political opinion, every separate interest has its own press. Many newspapers exist for but a short time and have but slight influence. While the provincial press, especially in Ro'nen, Havre, Bordeaux, Lyons, Marseilles, etc., includes many influential papers, the papers of Paris, with their enormous circulation (some of them print more than a million copies) exercise the greatest Influence, not only upon public opinion but more especially upon the Government itself. The most influential and representative Paris papers are the following: Le Tamps, republican, generally considered the ablest of French papers, devoting much space to international affairs, appealing to the more intelligent part of the population. Le Journal des Debats, of the same general character as the Temps, with perhaps more attention to literary matters. Le Figaro, devoted to literature and society, moderate republican, anti-Semite In the Dreyfus affair, clerical leaning. Le Matin, one of the most enterprising of French newspapers, with great facilities for gathering news, republican, generally supporting the ministry in power; it has devoted more attention to the United States than any other French paper, and its editor in chief, Stephanne La.uzanne, has been a frequent visitor here. Le Journal, Le Petit Journal, and Le Petit Par'tsien, are popular newspapers, each having a very large circulation. They are republican, but - not devoted to the exclusive interests of any party. The editor of Le Journal was Involved In the Bob affair, a German financial move for peace, in 1917. L'Echo de Paris is a moderate republican paper much read by those out of sympathy with the radical wing; it is the most literary of the popular papers. L'Homm-e Libre (for a time before November, 1917, called L'Homme Enchainé, because of censorship difficulties), is the organ of Clémenceau and is radical Republican. L'Humanité, the Socialist organ, was edited by Jaurčs up to the time of his assassination at the outbreak of the war. L'Action Française, clerical, and (before the war) monarchist.
Newspapers, German. Norddeutsche Aligemeine Zeitung (Berlin), contains official reports of Reichstag and Diet speeches, and directly inspired articles. Kölnische Zeitung, semiofficial in foreign matters. Lokal-Anzeiger (Berlin), formerly a Krupp organ, reactionary and jingoistic. Deutsche Tageszeitung (Berlin), noisily Pan-German and agrarian. Kreuz-Zeitung (Neue Preussische Zeitung), stiffly Conservative, Junker, and anti
Catholic. Die Post (Berlin), organ of the Prussian Free Conservatives. Staatsbiirgerzeituflg, Pan-German and anti-Semitic. Berliner Neueste Nachrichten and Rheiniscl&-Westftilische Zeitung are ostensibly National-Liberal, but in reality controlled by the Krupps. Hamburger Nachrlcl&ten, extremely jingoistic and anti-British. Diisseldorfer Generai-Anzeiyer, National-Liberal
and jingoistic. Miinehener Neueste Nachricht em, Bavarian paper, supports towns against the agrarian interests. Magdeburger Zei~ung supports the Center (Catholic) and the Left (SocialDemocrats). Leipziger Tageblatt, moderately Liberal. Berliner Bdrsen-Zeitung, Liberal and moderate, was opposed to breach with the United States. Germamia (Berlin), organ of the Center Party, identified with Erzberger and a moderate peace policy. Kölnische Volkszeitung, thoroughly jingoistic and opposed to popular government. Vossische Zeitung, progressive in internal politics, on the whole opposed to annexations, advocates Reichstag control. Weser Zeitung (Bremen), formerly well known Liberal paper, now Pan-German. Frankfurter Ze~tumg, advocates parliamentary system, moderate. Berliner Tageblatt, Radical and in favor of an understanding with Great Britain The following are the principal Socialist organs: T7orwarts, Chcmnitzer Volkstimme, Karlsruhe T7olksfreumci, Bremer Burger Zeitung.
Newspapers, Russian. The following description of the leading newspapers of Russia was issued by the Committee for Correct Information about New Russia (in London) shortly before the revolution of November, 1917: "Vestnik Vreniemnago Pravitel'stva is a reconstruction of the PraviteVstvemnhii Vest ~mik. It is semiofficial, but makes no official publications Izvestyi a Soveta Robocikh i Soldatskikh Deputatov is the official organ of the C. W. S. D. (Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates) and expresses the Socialist Revolutionary and minimalist Social Democratic opinions which prevail in that body. Owing to constant changes of editorship, It sometimes contains articles which are not wholly consonant with official I opinions of the C. W. S. D. Novaie Vremya is a nationalist organ which advocates cooperation with the allies, a Russian offensive, and the prosecution of the war to a victorious end. In home politics it supports the Provisional Government and contends against anarchy. The editorial staff has changed considerably since the revolution. Mr. Menshikoff, Mr. Stolypin, and others have left and the paper has taken up a more liberal attitude. Vetcherncif Vremya upholds the same views as the Novoie Vremya, but It Is slightly more democratic and has a tendency toward nationalist demagogy and political PanSlavism. It makes war on maximalism, internationalism and anarchy, and advocates a Russian offensive. It is widely read in Petrograd, in the provinces, and in military circles, and aims at becoming the leading military paper. Retch is a Cadet (Constitutional Democrat) organ. Milyukov directs its foreign policy. Sovremennoie Slovo puts forward the same opinions as the Retch, in a cheap form, for popular consumption. Svodn~yi Narod is a popular Cadet paper widely read by all 17 classes In Petrograd and the provinces. Birzeyvia Vedomostit Is a moderate liberal paper which tries to be nonparty and progressive. On interior politics it courts popularity by taking a more radical attitude than the Cadet organs, advocating a Russian offensive and war in harmony with the Allies, and protesting against internationalism, maximalism, and anarchy. The evening edition of this paper has the greater circulation. Russkaia Vol~jez is a liberal and progressive organ, with a demagogic flavor, which Is conducting a vigorous campaign against Internationalism and anarchy. It is more on the Left than the Cadets and aims at becoming the Republican Radical Democratic organ. The articles by Leon Andreiev, in a patriotic spirit, have a great vogue. It stands out for war and for harmony with the allies. To socialists it is the most detested of the bourgeois papers because of its excessive and indiscriminating polemics. Den is the organ of the minimalist Social Democrats. Edinavo is the organ of Plekhanov, and prints an article by him every day. It represents the opinion of a group of Social-Democrats who recognize the need of fighting to a finish. Volya Naroda is the organ of an influential group of Socialist-Revolutionaries who have separated from their follow workers of the Delo Naroda on the question of foreign policy and the war. They protest against anarchy and uphold army discipline, a Russian offensive, and perfect concordance with -the allies. Lieut. Lebedev, of the French Army, a political exile who has recently returned to Russia, and Mr. Savinkov, who used to be the head of the Socialist-Revolutionary terrorist organization, are both on the editorial staff. Delo NarocZ~ has only just come out and, as yet, has little circulation. It is the principal organ of the Socialist Revolutionaries, and is edited by Mr. Tchevnov. In foreign politics it is international-1st and wants peace without annexations or indemnities; but it has lately spoken in favor of a Russian offensive, provided that a general -peace is made as soon as possible. In home politics -it supports the program of the Socialist Revolutionaries, regards the course of events in Russia optimistically, and conducts a -vigorous campaign against Milyukov and the Cadets. Zem- -ha i Volya, like the Delo Narodo, is an organ of the Socialist Revolutionaries. It Is written for the villagers, among whom it has a large circulation, and principally deals with agrarian questions. Izvestiik& ~oveta Krestianetikh Deputatov has recently been started to voice the opinions of the All-Russian Union of Peasants, in which Socialist Revolutionaries and minimalist Social Democrats predominate. Rabotchaia Gazetz is the organ of the minimalist Social Democrats. It has internationalist tendencies, desires peace without annexations or indemnities, and inveighs against all the bourgeois Governments in Europe. It takes up a polemical attitude against the maximalists and their paper, the Pravda. Novaiazizn Zien is a -great internationalist paper of the minimalist Socialists, edited -by Maxim Gorky. It is antibourgeois, stands for peace without annexations or indemnities, and is well informed on foreign politics, especially with regard to Germany and Austria, by foreign Socialists. It has a wide circulation. Pravda is the organ of the maximalists or the extreme Left and publishes articles by Lenine. In home policy It advocates the transference of authority to the C. W. S. D. and an immediate social revolution, and is against the Socialists joining the Government. It opposes army discipline, the Russian offensive, and the prosecution of the war, approves of fraternization, though it will not admit that it desires a separate peace. It is always especially sharp against the Allies. Soldatskoie Sbovo is a soldiers' paper with Cadet politics. Sold atskaia Mysl, edited by officers and privates, is a Republican Democratic paper, in favor of army discipline and the prosecution of the war. Solda4ska,ia Pravda follows the Lines of the Pravda. Epokl&a and the Svobodnaia Mysl are moderate liberal papers appearing every Monday."
Bolslieviki suppression of opposing papers, and an order conferring on the organs of their own party a monopoly of advertising, have produced changes in the newspaper situation in Russia that are impossible to describe at the present time. See Bolslw'imki; Len~ine; Rus8ian Revolntio of 1917.
New Zealand. A self-governing dominion of the British Crown, consisting of two islands in the South Pacific. Area, 104,751 square miles. Population, 1,095,994 (1914). The capital is Auckland. New Zealand entered the war by the side of Great Britain, and her troops have greatly distinguished themselves at Gallipoli and in France, while a naval expedition captured the German Samoan Islands.
Nicaragua. Nicaragua is a Republic of Central America, with Its capital at Managua. It has an area of 49,552 square miles and a population estimated in 1910 at 600,000. The President, Emlllano Chamorro, was elected in 1916. His term will expire in 1920. Nicaragua broke off diplomatic relations with Germany on May 18, 1917.
Nicholas II (1868- ). Former Czar of Russia. He ascended the throne October 20,- 1894, and married Alexandra, Princess of Hesse, the same year. Nicholas inaugurated his reign by a rigorous repression of all liberal movements and then embarked on a policy of adventure in the Far East, which ended In the war with Japan (1904-5) and the defeat of Russia. During the war a revolutionary movement manifested itself at home, which, culminating in the general strike of October, 1905, forced the Czar to grant a constitution. But Nicholas distrusted the liberals and gave the bureaucracy a free hand In crushing the revolution. On the outbreak of the European war the Czar proclaimed the solidarity of throne and people, thereby securing a considerable measure of popularity; but once again he -relied too exclusively on the bureaucracy, with disastrous results, for these reactionaries soon lost Interest in the war, and when the Czar refused to displace them he was compelled by the revolutionaries to abdicate, March 15, 1917. Nicholas II was undoubtedly patriotic, at times he was swayed by noble humanitarian sentiments, which notably led to the calling of the first Hague conference, but he was weak willed, vacillating, unreliable, superstitious; also he depended too much on his wife, who was under -the influence of the monk Rasputin, and whose German sympathies were prejudicial to Russia. The late Czar and his family have been transported to Tobolsk, Siberia. See Rasputin.
Nicholas II, Efforts to Maintain Peace. On July 29, 1914, Czar Nicholas sent the Kaiser the following telegram from -Tsarskoe Selo: "To H. M. the Kaiser of Germany: Thanks for your telegram, which is conciliatory and friendly, whereas the official message presented to-day by your ambassador to my minister was conveyed in a very different tone. I beg you to explain this divergency. It would be right to give over the Austro-Serbian problem to The Hague Tribunal. I trust in your wisdom -and friendship.-Nicholas." Not only did the Kaiser not answer that telegram but he suppressed it. And in the official German White Book, giving the documents about the war, this, the last-telegram of the Czar, has disappeared. The reason subsequently given by the German official-s for suppressing the telegram was that it was not interesting. Americans, however, are apt to think that the Czar's proposal to submit the whole Austro-Serbian problem to The Hague Tribunal was very interesting. The fact that the German Government was interested -In war may explain such tampering with the records. See Grey and British Policy in 1914; Mobilization Controversy; "Potsda7Th Conference"; Serbia, Austrian Ultimatum; William II.
Nietzsche, Friedericb Wilhelm (1844-1900). German
philosopher, who emphasized his Polish ancestry; became professor of classical philology at Basel, 1869. Ill health caused his resignation, 1879. He was comparatively well until 1888, but his vigorous mind broke down and he became hopelessly insane in 1889. His Intellectual career presents four phases, and this undoubtedly has led to misunderstanding of his position: (1) He is one of the severest critics of contemporary German culture, (2) later (1877-1880) he is rationalistic, recalling Montaigne, (3) yet later (1881-82) his forecasts of the superman and of the attack on Christianity as a religion of slaves appear; (4) in 1883, with the publication of Thus Spalce Zarathustra, he formulated the ideas which are said to have seduced Germany. They -are the superman, master morality (the morality of superior persons, who ought to enforce it)., antichrist, and the will to power. Nevertheless, so late as 1888 he also remains the most caustic protestant against materialized Germany, and thus his possible relation to the doctrines which produced the spirit of ruthless conquest in Germany is obscure. This much may be said: Nietzsche insists that individuals of higher culture must assert themselves for the sake of civilization. They must adopt an anarchistic attitude toward conventional notions and customs, -particularly toward the exclusive national State, of which Germany is the great example. Their right to do this is nothing less than a sacred duty. In short, he is an egotistic aristocrat This teaching seems to have been torn from its context by popularizing or political writers and to have been patched on to a -wild theory of Teutonic race superiority. stolen from Goblneau by the notorious Teutonized Houston Stewart Chamberlain. In form, probably with little reference to its original setting, it was incorporated in imperial, junker, and Prussian self-glorification. The process was facilitated unquestionably by the fact that Nietzsche, so far from being a systematic thinker, is rather a prophetic mystic, of the type familiar to English readers in certain works of Thomas Carlyle. See "Kultur"; Pan-Germanism.
Nish. A city of central Serbia, a junction town on the railway to Constantinople, and the northern terminus of the Salonikl-NIsh railway. The possession of Nish was vital to the Teutonic powers to open the Belgrade-Nish-Sofia-Constantinople railway. The fall of Nish, November 5, 1915, enabled the enemy to overrun Serbia and consolidate his own lines of communication.
Nivelle, Gen. Robert. A distinguished French general who succeeded Joffre as commander in chief in December, 1916, and relinquished the post a few months later to Gen. Pétain. He was a colonel of an artillery regiment in the battle of the Maine at the beginning of this war. By conspicuous gallantry he turned the tide at the Gurcq River and distinguished himself in subsequent engagements. He was called to Verdun in March, 1916, in the midst of the Crown Prince's "drive" on that stronghold. It has been said that he was "the heart and soul" of the French resistance in subsequent months.
"No Annexations, no Indemnities." The peace formula of Philip Scheidemann and the majority of German Socialists, &id subsequently adopted by the Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Deputies In Petrograd, who, however, made an all-important addition, "the right of all nations to determine their own destiny." A peace on the German basis, and that of the manipulators of the Stockholm conference, would probably ignore the Russian qualification. It would mean a restoration of the status quo ante bellum, concerning which President Wilson has said: "It was the status quo an~te out of which this iniquitous war issued forth, the power of the Imperial German Government within the Empire and its widespread influence and domination outside of that Empire. That status must be altered in such fashion as to prevent any such hideous thing from ever happening again." It is, indeed, quite clear that ~a Europe restored to the organization of 1914 would leave France weakened, Italy threatened, Russia disorganized, Belgium, Serbia, and Roumania ravished, and the German military group free to organize another war; it would leave Poles and Bohemians and Croats under German and Magyar domination. The Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Deputies did not wish such a peace any more than President Wilson, but it did protest against the continuation of the war for the annexation of peoples against their will or for imperialistic ends. The minority German Socialists also adopted the Russian formula, but it was not acceptable to the majority and was the last thing desired by the German Government, whose ambition has been a peace of annexations and indemnities. See Councils of Workmen's and Socialists' Deputies; Leinin~e; Stockholm Conference.
- "No Annexations, no Indemnities," German Attitude,
1914-1916. In a carefully documented work, which fully supports his contention, S. Grumbach, a Swiss writer, says:
"No one can deny that the German popular press has come out for annexations [1914-1916], and not in any covert way, but most openly. In the Reichstag, as in public meetings, there has been the cry for annexations. In books and brochures beyond number there has been the same demand. The central committees and the bureaus of all the middle-class parties have urged the policy of annexations and have set forth the reasons in resolutions which have received the widest publicity. Newspapers in the south of Germany, in the north, in the east, - the west, and in central Germany; men from every Province have called for annexations, , not only - politicians, but also men of science, writers, and physicians, have made public declarations in favor of annexations." (L'Allemagnc AnnewioniSte, 1917, pp. 4, 5.) See "Mittel-Eurova"; Pan-Germaflis7fl'.
Noncombatants. In the narrower sense, nonfighting elements of an army, like the medical service; in the broader and more usual sense, persons not connected with the military or naval service. The German attitude to the noncombatant elements of an enemy population is indicated by the following passage from the German- War Book: "A war conducted with energy can not be directed merely against the combatants of the enemy State and the positions they occupy, but it will and must in like manner seek to destroy the total intellectual and material resources of the latter. Humanitarian claims, such as the protection of men and their goods, can be taken into consideration, in so far as the nature and object of the war permit." For Germany's application of these monstrous principles, see Belgium; "Frightfulfle88",~ Hague and Geneva Conventions, German Violations.
Northcliffe, Lord (Alfred Harmsworth) 186~- ). British journalist; owner of the London Times and other newspapers. Since the beginning of 1917 head of the various British war missions in the United States.
Norway. A constitutional monarchy in the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Its capital Is Chnlstianla. The land area is 119,549 square ~miles. The estimated population in 1912 was 2,391,782. Haakon IV was elected King of Norway on November 18, 1905, at the time of the separation of Norway from Sweden. In spite of enormous commercial losses and domestic Intrigues, Norway has adhered to a policy of neutrality throughout the war.
Norway, Neutral Problems. Of all the neutral powers, with the possible exception of Holland, Norway's shipping appears to have suffered most from German submarines. In addition, Norway has little trade with Germany and therefore blockade disputes with the Allies have not been frequent. These two considerations, joined with the strong democratic feeling in Nor. way, have brought almost all the Norwegian people to the side of the Allies. The only possible chance for dispute lies in ques
tlons of "rationing," for Norway is in vital need of certain commodities, especially foodstuffs, cotton, and coal. See Neufral E~rports; Neutral Imports; Neutral Rationing.
"Notwendigkeit." A German word, meaning "necessity." When the German Gen. von Emmich entered Belgium he issued a proclamation stating that German troops were compelled to cross the frontier, but explained, "They are constrained to do so by sheer necessity, the neutrality of Belgium having already been violated by French officers who have been through Belgian territory in a motor car, on their way into Germany." A member of the German supplementary general staff, Gen. von FreytagLordnghoven, a high authority on military problems, has since admitted that the French did not violate the neutrality of Belgium, and not only had no intention of doing so, but did not anticipate such a step on the part of Germany. When the German Chancellor admitted to the Reichstag, in his famous speech of August 4, that Germany had done a wrong to Belgium and had committed "a breach of international law," he justified it on the ground that "necessity knows no law." When the Pan-Germans urge the retention of Belgium and other annexations east and west, it is on the ground of "necessity." "That which appears to the French to b~ the brutal harshness of the conqueror was really nothing but national necessity to the Germans," wrote the former Chancellor von Billow, in justifying the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine and in urging further annexations at the cost of France. German junker "necessity" knows no right, no law, no mercy, no limit except that imposed by a superior force. See "Frightfulness"; German War Code; "Kriegs-Raison."