War Cyclopedia - R
Railroads. The amount of railway mileage in the country over which to forward supplies and "mobilize" our industrial wealth is given as 252,230. The roads employ 64,769 locomo:
tives, 53,466 passenger coaches, and 2,450,356 freight cars. Many of the main lines are proving to be of the greatest importance in the war. Their managers have put them on a war footing and are rendering the Government incalculable aid. No less than seven trunk lines now cross the Rocky Mountains and connect the Atlantic coast and the Mississippi Valley with the Pacific Coast States.
Railroads, Effect of the War on. Like -all other industries, railroads have felt the effect of war in scarcity of labor, rise in wages and other costs, and unexpected shifts of business. The great problem is (1) to carry on the regular traffic of the country, which must be reduced to its minimum requirements, in order (2) to allow for great derangements of passenger service due to movement of 1,500,000 troops, and (3) to take care of the shipments of goods made necessary by manufactures of munitions and great exports to our associates. See Priority; War Industries Board.
Railroads' War Board. The voluntary act of the 693 railroads of this country In merging their competitive activities for the period of the war and uniting in one continental system has not only made the transportation problem presented by the war less cumbersome to handle, but surer of satisfactory solution. In addition to welding into one loyal army each and every one of the 1,750,000 persons employed by the railroads-from engine wipers to presidents-the coordination of the Nation's carriers has made possible a more intensive use of every locomotive, every freight car, every mile of track, and every piece of railroad equipment in the country. Approximately 20,000,000 miles of train service a year have been saved by the elimination of all passenger trains not essential to the most pressing needs of the country. This reduction of passenger service has released hundreds of locomotives and train crews and cleared thousands of miles of track that are absolutely needed In the freight service for the transportation of necessities. See Transportation and Communication Committee.
"Rainbow" Division. Composed of National Guard units from 27 States, now in France.
Rank in United States Army and Navy. General ranks with admiral, lieutenant general with vice admiral, major general, with rear admiral, brigadier general with commodore, colonel with captain, lieutenant colonel with commander, major with lieutenant commander, captain with lieutenant, first lieutenant with lieutenant (junior grade), second lieutenant with ensign, cadet with midshipman. For a chart showing insignia of rank and service, see National Service Hand book.
Rasputin, Gregor. A Russian monk who, through his ascendancy over the Czarina, gained a strong hold on the Russian Imperial Government during its last days. His counsels appear to have been directed to the maintenance of autocratic government in full vigor, and also probably toward peace with Germany. His influence was enough to arouse the fear and hatred of many liberal and patriotic leaders in Petrograd. After several unsuccessful attempts to remove him from the court, he was practically "lynched," in January, 1917, by a number of young noblemen in Petrograd.
Rathenau Plan. See Belgium, Economic Destruction.
"Rebus sic stantibus." "Things remaining thus." German apologists of the invasion of Belgium have brought forward the contention that the binding force of international engagements is always conditioned by this maxim. They then proceed to argue that the treaties of 1831 and 1839 establishing the neutralization of Belgium were obsolete and that therefore Prussia, though party to them, was no longer bound by them. The view generally held outside of Germany is that while the principle "rebus sic stantibus" furnishes a valid argument for the revision or abrogation of a treaty by the consent of the parties to it, it does not authorize a one-sided cancellation of treaty engagements, and- this view seems especially applicable in the case of treaties which, like those of 1831 and 1839, are intended, on the face of them, to establish a permanent legal situation. The German view simply means that a State may cast off its engagements at its own sweet will. See Belgium; "Scrap of Paper;" Treaties, Observance of.
Recognition. When a new State arises it becomes a member of the family of nations by the recognition of older States, which is accorded usually by accepting a diplomatic representative from the newcomer. Such recognition should be accorded with due regard for the rights of the mother country. The term also applies to the recognition of a new Government
which has supplanted an older regime in an existing State, as recently happened in Russia. In this case the recognizing State should be fairly assured of the stability of the new order, but, by the principle of nationality, it is not supposed to pass, upon its "legitimacy." On the other hand, recognition is- a perfectly voluntary act, and so may be withheld from Governments which have come to power by abhorrent means, as was the case with Huerta's government in Mexico. Finally, circumstances may justify the recognition of the belligerency of a community struggling for Its independence. Thus England and other powers recognized the belligerency of the Southern Confederacy very early in the Civil War. See Belligerency; "De Facto," "de Jure."
Reconstruction Hospitals. Will be built to equip and reeducate the wounded man after his wounds have healed, and to return him to civil life ready to be as useful to himself and his country as possible.
Red Cross, American. The American Red Cross is an association of more than 3,621,000 American citizens, .organized locally in chapters, branches, and auxiliaries, governed by a central committee, with headquarters in Washington, D. C. Its accounts are audited by the War Department. Any resident or citizen of the United States may become a member by sending his name, address, and dues to the American Red Cross, Washington, D. C., or to the chapter in his neighborhood. The American Red Cross gives volunteer aid to the sick and wounded of our Army and Navy in time of war. It gives aid to the dependents of soldiers and sailors called to the colors. It gives relief to sufferers from famine, disease, or other disaster. It makes no distinction of class, creed, or race. It is a relief clearing house, permanent, responsible, and experienced. It is a semlgovernmental agency for the collection and distribution of money and supplies for relief purposes.
Red Cross Chapter. Permanent local organizations which represent all the local activities and agencies of the Red Cross within their territory. Members of the Red Cross, within the territory of a chapter, are automatically members of the chapter, and a portion of the membership dues Is retained by the chapter for Its own use within proper restrictions. For information explaining the organization of chapters, see Red Cross Circulars Nos. 149 and 172. A branch is a subordinate part of a chapter, and is expected to carry on in its community the work that a chapter does in a larger territory. The chapter has sole authority for organizing and directing Its branches.
Red Cross, History. The sufferings of soldiers in the Crimean War first directed the world's humane impulses toward measures for the systematic care of the wounded and gave permanent fame to the name of Florence Nightingale. In 1859, when the Swiss humanitarian, M. Henri Dunant, was visiting Italy as a tourist, he was caught in the dreadful carnage of the battle of SolferIno. Dunant personally ministered to the wounded, and-what is more important-he organized volunteers In the vicinity to help him in the work. Soon after he formulated the first proposals for volunteer associations to care for the wounded of war and for the neutralization of the personnel of such relief associations. His prophetic vision even embraced the services which such - associations could render in time of epidemics, floods, and other catastrophes. 11. Dunant's appeals resulted in a preliminary conference held at Geneva In 1863, which in turn led to an official International conference at Geneva in 1864. During this second conference the delegates from the United States made a valuable-perhaps C decisive-contribution by showing that the United States Sanitary Commission, by actual relief operations, had already solved problems which were troubling the conference and were making its success a matter of doubt. The Geneva convention, adopted at that time, revised in 1906, and given additional force by The Hague conferences, was the formal beginning of the Red Cross, and for that reason Is sometimes called the "Red Cross treaty." The name "Red Cross" comes from the insignia adopted by the conference-a Greek cross in red on a white ground, which Is the flag of the Swiss Federation with colors reversed. See Hospitals; Hospital Ships.
Red Cross Nursing Service. To be eligible for enrollment, nurses must have had at least a two years' course of training in a general hospital with a daily average of 50 patients or over. In States where registration Is provided for by law, nurses must be registered; they must have the endorsement of the training school from which they graduated and of an organization affiliated with the American Nurses' Association, of which they are a member, together with the endorsement of at least two members of a local committee on Red Cross nursing service.
Red Cross Work, Civilian. (1) To engage in civilian relief Including (a) the care and education of destitute children; (0) care of mutilated soldiers; (c) care of sick and disabled soldiers; (d) relief work in the devastated areas of France and Belgium, such as furnishing to the inhabitants of these districts agricultural Implements, household goods, foods, clothing, and such temporary shelter as will enable them to return to their homes; (e) to provide relief for and guard against the increase of tuberculosis. (2) To furnish relief for soldiers and civilians held as prisoners by the enemy, and to give assistance to such civilians as are returned to France from time to time from the parts of Belgium and of France held by the enemy. (3) To supply financial assistance to committees, societies, or individuals allied with the American Red Cross and carrying on relief work In Europe.
Red Cross Work, Military. The general lines of activity undertaken in France by the American Red Cross have been determined after a careful survey of the situation by the Red Cross Commission. These purposes may be outlined as follows: (1) To establish and maintain hospitals for soldiers in the American Army In France. (2) To establish and. maintain
canteens, rest houses, recreation huts, and other means of supplying the American soldiers with such comforts and recreation as the Army authorities may approve. (3) To establish and maintain in France canteens, rest houses, recreation huts, and other means of supplying comforts and recreation for the soldiers in the armies of our allies. (4) To distribute hospital equipment and supplies of all kinds to military hospitals for soldiers of the American or allied armies. See Knight8 of Columbus; Y. M. C. A.
Red Cross, Why? Questions have been raised as to why work of such magnitude and consequence should not be an object of government instead of private endeavor. The answer is threefold: (1) The Red Cross, as a volunteer organization, offers a fitting medium through which the volunteer spirit of the country may exert itself in the war. That volunteer spirit is a very precious asset and it should be guided and directed exclusively as a volunteer effort with enthusiasm, lack of red tape, and unlimited opportunity. (2) Through the Red Cross one-half the Nation, namely, the women, can very effectively serve their country in the war emergency. (3) Some such medium as the Red Cross, unmarshalled by the formal process of government, is absolutely necessary to mobilize effectively the human, the humane, and imaginative qualities necessary in alleviating the suffering so inevitable in war.
"Red, White, and Blue" Series. A series of handbooks and pamphlets issued by the Committee on Public Information, Washington, D. C. All are free, unless otherwise noted.
No. 1. How the War Came to America (English, German, Polish, Bohemian, Italian, Spanish, and Swedish editions).
No. 2. National Service Handbook (primarily for libraries, schools, Y. M. C. A.'s, clubs, fraternal organizations, etc., as a guide and reference work on all forms of war activity, civil, charitable, and military. Price, 15 cents.
No. 3. The Battle Line of Democracy. Prose and Poetry of the Great War. Sold at cost. Price, 15 cents.
No. 4. The President's Flag Day Speech with Evidence of Germany's Plans.
No. 5. Conquest and Kultur: Aims of the Germans in Their Own Words, by Profs. Wallace Notestein and Elmer E. Stoll.
No. 6. German War Practices: Part I-Treatment of Civilians, by Prof. Dana 0. Munro.
No. 7. War Cyclopedia: A Handbook for Ready Reference on the Great Wart Price, 25 cents.
Other issues in preparation. -
Regiment. Companies under captains are combined Into battalions; and battalions under majors, with headquarters, supply and machine-gun companies, are combined into regiments under colonels. The strength of an Infantry regiment is 103 officers and 3,652 men; of a light Artillery regiment (3-inch guns), 55 officers- and 1,424 men; of a heavy Field Artillery regiment (6-inch howitzers), 63 officers and 1,703 men; of an Engineer regiment, 40 officers and 1,617 enlisted men; and of a Cavalry regiment, 52 officers and 1,539 men. A regiment Is both an administrative and tactical unit. See Brigade; Division.
Registration, Military. On June 5, 1917, 9,659,382 young men between the ages of 21 and 30, inclusive, registered for national service under the act of May 18, 1917. "It is a new thing in our history and a landmark in our progress. . . . It is in no sense a conscription of the unwilling; it is rather a selection from a nation which has volunteered in mass.
The power against which we are arrayed has sought to impose its will upon the world by force. To this end it has increased armament until it has changed the face of war. . . . It is not an army that we must shape and train for war; it is a nation.. . . The Nation needs all men; but it needs each man, not in the field that will most pleasure him, but in the endeavor that will best serve the common good." (President Wilson's proclamation of May 18, 1917.) See ~Selective Service; Selective Service, Second Draft.
Regular Army. The Regular Army, which has been the nucleus for all our national military arrangements, has always been small. In time of peace, since the end of the Indian wars, it has had few duties, and has been scattered in post and garrison in various parts of the continental area and in our insular possessions. Prior to the passage of the National defense act of June 3, 1916, it consisted of only 5,014 commissioned officers and 92,973 enlisted men, which included about 6,000 so-called Philippine Scouts. In November, 1917, the strength of the Regular Army was approximately 360,000 enlisted men. See National Defense Act.
Regular Army Reserves. To obviate the disadvantages and real dangers 'which have come in the past from the practice of raising the Regular Army to war strength at need by the enlistment of wholly untrained men, a reserve force has been created. Regular Army service is now for seven years, three years on active duty and four years on furlough, subject to Government call, unless the soldier has enlisted "for the present emergency" only. In case of great proficiency, an enlisted man may be furloughed to the reserve after one year of active service. The assignment to duty and the use of this valuable body of men are in the hands of the President. See Enlisted Reserve Corps.
Reichslaud. The name applied in Germany and Austria to territory not admitted by itself as a Federal State, or added to the jurisdiction of any one State of the federation, but placed under the joint jurisdiction of the federation as a whole. Instances are, in Germany, Alsace-Lorraine; in Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Reichstag. The lower house of the German legislature. It is much less Important than the Bundesrat. In consists of 397 members, elected for a term of five years by the voters; that is, by men 25 years of age or older. While it, in conjunction with the Bundesrat, votes the appropriations, certain ones, notably those for the army, are voted for a period of years. Its consent Is required for new taxes, whereas taxes previously levied continue to be collected without the consent of the legislature being again secured. The Reichstag has no power to make or unmake ministries; in other words, to control the executive, the Emperor. It may reject the measures demanded by the Government, but the imperial will determines the fate, the rise and fall, of the Chancellor. See Bundesrath; German Constitution; Landtag.
Reichstag, Apportionment of Seats. The Reichstag is an Inadequate representation of the German people. The electoral districts as laid out in 1871 were equal, each representing approximately 100,000 inhabitants. But since then there has been practically no change, while population has increased in some, decreased in others, so that there now exists a glaring inequality between the districts. The result is very much as though the present American Congress had been elected upon the basis of the district lines and population of 46 years ago. The large, inadequately represented districts are naturally progressive cities, the small ones the conservative country regions. A Berlin deputy represents, on the average, 125,000 voters; a deputy of East Prussia, home of the far-famed Junkers, an average of 24,000.
Representative Government. Government by elective representatives of the governed, in contrast to direct government on the one hand and autocracy on the other. The United States, Great Britain, and France have representative Governments. In the German system the elective element is confined to the Reichstag, which originates few measures and exercises, for the most part, only a function of control upon the Emperor and Bundesrat. In war, moreover, this function of control is a very curtailed one.
Reprisals. Reprisals are retaliatory measures. Ordinarily they transgress the law and are to be justified only by the fact that the victim of them violated the law first. They must not invade the rights of innocent third parties. See Retaliation, Belligerent Right of.
Requisitions. These are governed by Article LII of The Hague Regulations, which reads as follows: "Requisitions. in kind and service shall not be demanded from municipalities or Inhabitants except for the needs of the army of occupation. They shall be in proportion to the resources of the country and of such a nature as not to involve the inhabitants in the obligation of taking part in military operations against their own country. Such requisitions and services shall only be demanded on the authority of the commander in the locality occupied. Contributions in kind shall, as far as possible, be paid for in cash; if not, a receipt shall be given and the payment of the amount due shall be made as soon as possible." Of these provisions the German War Book remarks, "willingly recognized In theory but . . . scarcely ever observed in practice," and the correctness of this comment has been amply borne out by German conduct in Belgium. Requisitions in kind have been levied on an unprecedented scale and with little reference to the needs of the army of occupation. Payment of cash for them has been made conditional on the payment of huge contributions, and even then has been withheld. Prices have been systematically fixed far below the value of the articles taken; the receipts, written in German, have included mock orders on French banks, tickets to moving-picture shows, and other frauds on helpless ignorance; where a pair of horses *ere taken, receipts have been given for a brace of chickens, etc. As to services, these, from the first, have included work on trenches, fortifications, the forwarding of troops and munitions, and work in arsenals. See Belgium, Economic Destruction of; Contributions.
Reserve Officers' Training Corps. For training members of the Officers' Reserve Corps. The act of June 3, 1916, authorized the establishment of units of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps in colleges and academies willing to give prescribed military instruction to their students. Numerous institutions were admitted to this' list during 1916-17, and out of these came thousands of candidates for the officers' training camps of May 15 and August 27, 1917; a limited number of their selected men will be admitted to the third series' camps of January 5, 1918. See Officers' Reserve Corps; Ofi,icer8' Training Camps.
Resistance, Right of. The belligerent right of capture on the high seas Is matched by the equally well-established right on the part of enemy merchantmen to avoid capture if possible, either by flight or resistance. A vessel having recourse to either of these expedients, however, incurs the risk of destruction so long as it persists therein, but once it surrenders, it incurs no further penalty than that of capture, with the certainty of ultimate condemnation, and of having Its crew made prisoners of war. Thus nothing save "actual forcible resistance or continued efforts to escape by flight when ordered to stop for the purpose of visit . . . has ever been held to forfeit the lives of" the passengers or crew of a merchantman. (Secretary of State Lansing to Ambassador Gerard, June 9, 1915.) Germany herself accepted these principles before the outbreak of the present ~var. (See German Prize Code, par. 116.) Her repudiation of them since is the necessary consequence or her methods of submarine warfare. See Armed Merchantmen; "Falaba"; Fryatt, Capt.
Retail Prices. Weekly reports upon the retail prices of 30 principal articles of food, from each town of 3,000 population or over, are gathered by volunteer helpers and forwarded to Herbert C. Hoover, Washington, D. C., for the purposes of food administration. Unlike the policy of the warring Governments abroad, the United States Government does not attempt directly to control retail prices. Instead it controls wholesale prices by a system of licenses applied to wholesalers and jobbers, and leaves the control of retail prices to the pressure of publicity, the threat of cutting off supplies, and local regulation. This seems a more feasible procedure than any system of direct central control. See Food and Fuel Control Act; Food Control Act, Enforcement; Fuel Control; Price Fixing in Australia; Profiteering.
Retaliation, Belligerent Right of. As between belligerents the rules of warfare bind, not absolutely but reciprocally; and if one belligerent violates them, the other may adopt reprisals in kind. But such reprisals must not injure neutrals; and this is the weakness of the defense made -by Germany of its submarine warfare. However warrantable this might otherwise appear as a measure of retaliation against Great Britain, it has the fatal defect of invading neutral rights. As our State Department put the matter in its third Lusitania note (July 21, 1915): "Illegal and inhuman acts, however justifiable they may be thought to be against an enemy who is believed to have acted in contravention of law and humanity, are manifestly indefensible when they deprive neutrals of their acknowledged rights." See Embargo, British; submarine Warfare, German Defense of; War Zone.
Reventlow, Count Ernst zu (1871- ). Pan-German writer and naval expert, whose writings in the Deutsche TagesZeitung have been distinguished for their bitter and uncompromising hatred of the United States. His book on German foreign policy, Deutschlands auswiirtige Politik, 1888-1014, is one of the most serious treatments of the subject.
Rheims. A cathedral town of northern France, famous for centuries because of its beautiful Gothic cathedral and its old associations with Joan of Arc. The cathedral was bombarded by the German army in September, 1914, in spite of the immunity to which churches and works of art are entitled. The German charge that it was being used as a range-finding point for French artillery is denied by the French Government. It has been repeatedly bombarded since 1914, and is reported now to be nearly ruined. "A piece of architecture like Rheims is much more than one life; it is a people- whose centuries vibrate like a symphony in this organ of stone. It is their memories of joy, of glory, and of grief; their meditations, ironies, dreams. It is the tree of the race whose roots plunge to the profoundest depths of its soil, and whose branches stretch with a sublime outreaching toward the sky. It is still more; Its beauty which soars above the struggles of nations is the harmonious response made by the human race to the riddle of the world-this light of the spirit more necessary to souls than that of the sun. Whoever destroys this work murders more than a man; he murders the purest soul of a race." (Romain Rolland, Above the Battle.) See Louva ; Works of Art.
Ribot, Alexandre F. 3. (1842- ). A French statesman, several times Premier of France. Between 1890 and 1893 first as Foreign Minister, later as Foreign Minister and Premier he was one of the leading advocates of the Franco-Russia alliance and to him Is due, in a large measure, its conclusion. Between 1895 and 1906 he was less prominent in public life as he opposed the lack of emphasis on foreign affairs, but when nationalism and patriotism revived in France after 1906 Ribot again became more of a figure. In October, 1915, he became Finance Minister and in March, 1917, Premier. He advocated a vigorous prosecution of the war but was defeated on a small question in August, 1917. He remained in the government of M. Painlev~ as Minister of Foreign Affairs, but soon withdrew.
Rice. The rice crop for 1917 is estimated at 32,200,000 bushels, a distinct decrease from the figures for 1916, although still well above the average. Louisiana, Texas, and Arkansas provide the bulk of this crop, although It is also of considerable importance In South Carolina, Mississippi, Georgia, and Florida. Rice is raised also in Missouri, Alabama, and North Carolina. The needs of the United States are supplied largely by importation, 216,048,858 pounds being imported In the year ending in June, 1917, mostly in the form of raw rice. The rice exported during the fiscal year 1916-17, in all forms except bran and polish, was 180,484,685 pounds.
"Rich Man's War, Poor Man's Fight." If there was ever a war to which this description does not apply, It is the one which this country is to-day waging against German military autocracy. From the first the sons of wealthy families have offered themselves for all branches of military service in Impressive numbers. The selective service act - absolutely Ignores all distinctions of wealth or social position. The war revenues are "conscripted" largely from great Incomes and war profits. War profits, in turn, have been brought under the direct control of the Government through its price-fixing powers. Finally, the objectives of the war include no Item designed to appeal to wealth as such. The objective of the war is the freedom of the average man; it is the right of the average man to make his opinions, feelings, and interests count in shaping the world's affairs, instead of being made the pawn of small groups which feel themselves to be of better clay than the rest of mankind.
"This is not a banker's war or a farmer's war or a manufacturer's war or a laboring man's war-it is a war for every straight-out American, whether our flag be his by birth or by adoption. We are to-day a Nation in arms, and we must fight and farm, mine and manufacture, conserve food and fuel, save and spend to the one common purpose." (President Wilson to Northwest Loyalty Meetings, Nov. 16, 1917.)
See American Federation of Labor; American Alliance of Labor and Democracy; "Business as Usual "e Profits;
Food Control~ Act; Income Taa'; Labor and the War; "Pay as You Go" War; TVar Purchases of Munitions; War Tares.
Riga. A Russian fortress and city on an arm of the Baltic, long coveted by Germany because of its strategic value and its German relationship, and finally occupied, September 3, 1917, by the army of Prince Leopold of Bavaria.
Right of Assembly. The first amendment to the Constitution forbids Congress to make any law "abridging . . . the
right of the people peaceably to assemble." The same right is frequently recognized in State constitutions. "The right of assembly," says Cooley, in commenting on the provision, "always was, and still is, subject to reasonable regulations by law." In the larger cities, in fact, it is often subject to rather strict regulation. See Civil Rights; Freedom of the Press; War Powers.
Rights of Life and Rights of Property Compared. "Property can be paid for; the lives of peaceful and innocent people can not be. The present German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against mankind." (President Wilson, before Congress, Apr. 2, 1917.)
Ritter, Dr. Paul. Until recently Swiss minister to the United States. He was entrusted by the German Government with the care of their Interests after the departure of Count von Bernstorff, and used his position in an attempt to reach a corn-promise between Germany and the United States on the submarine issue. He presented a German note asking for a continuation of negotiations; but any agreement with Germany, unless unrestricted submarine warfare was abandoned, was refused by President Wilson.
Robertson, Gen. Sir William (1860- ). Often called g "the brains of the British army." Since 1915 he has been chief
of the imperial general staff. He came out of a humble home In Lincolnshire. Entering the service as a trooper, he has seen active service in many parts of the British Empire covering long years, and was severely wounded in one of his colonial campaigns. Prior to being called to his present high office he commanded the first infantry division in France and was chief of staff to Field Marshal Sir John French. He was knighted by the King In 1915.
Root Mission. See Russia, American Mission to.
Rotterdam. The leading port of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Population (1914), 472,520. The trade of Rotterdam has suffered severely as a result of the war. In 1913 the port was visited by 10,203 seagoing vessels of a tonnage of 12,785,861. By 1916 this had fallen to 3,644 vessels with a tonnage of 4,153,682. The trade of Rotterdam is likely to be still further affected as a result of the entry of the United States into the war. See Neutral Exports; Neutral Imports; Neutral Rationing.
Roumania. A constitutional monarchy on the Black Sea, with its official capital at Bucharest. The evacuation of that city on November 27, 1916, caused the removal of the capital to Jassy. The area is 137,907 square miles and the population in 1913 was 7,509,009. The reigning king, Ferdinand, nephew of Charles I of the house of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, came to the throne October 11, 1914. The queen, Marie, is a British princess, the daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. On August 27, 1916, Roumania declared war upon Austria-Hungary for reasons based upon the principles of nationality. See Ferdinand I; Trans ylvania.
Roumania, German Treachery in. Documents given to the public on September 24, 1917, by the State Department show how Germany "shamefully abused and exploited" the protection of the United States and the laws of common morality by secreting in the German legation at Bucharest, after the American Government had taken charge of Germany's affairs at the RoumanIan capital, quantities of powerful explosives for bomb plots -and deadly microbes, with instructions for their use in destroying horses and cattle. From the grounds of the legation 51 boxes were taken, 50 of which contained each a cartridge filled with the most powerful of known explosives. In the other box, which bore the seal of the German consulate at Kronstadt, Hungary, were found bottles of liquid containing cultivations I of the microbes of anthrax and glanders, and a typewritten note which read as follows: "Enclosed, four phials for horses and four for cattle. To be employed as formerly arranged. Each phial is sufficient for 200 head. To be introduced, if possible, directly into the animals' throats; if not, in their fodder. Please make a little report on the success obtained there; in -case of good results the presence of Mr. Kostoff for one day here would be desirable." Another illustration of the sense of honor to be found in German foreign policy. See German Diplomacy; United States, Neutral Services to Belligerents; War, German Ruthlessness.
Rubber. The rubber industry was at its maximum in 1916. The mere manufacture of tires for motor vehicles by American factories in 1916 required almost one-half the world's production of crude rubber. The total rubber production in that year was 398,720,000 pounds. Importations of crude rubber in London to August, 1917, show an increase over receipts for a corresponding period in 1916, while rubber receipts in the United States for the fiscal year 1916-17 were 194,688,303 pounds as compared with 159,858,096 pounds in 1915-16. All of which indicates a larger crude rubber production in 1917 than in the preceding year. The market for American rubber products has been more than doubled by the war. Exports jumped from $14,767,513 in 1914-15 to $35,158,374 in 1915-16. Increased cost of production, however, has hampered the industry, and exports fell in 1916-17 to $31,110,394. Large Government orders for gas masks, footwear, and druggists' sundries have enlarged the volume of trade in 1917, while the market for tires is also expanding.
Rumors, Malicious and Disloyal. The number of persons who "know things that are not so" is enormously increased In war time. Such persons are now busy spreading rumors, both silly and malicious. When started with disloyal purpose, they are usually spread by thoughtless repetition. Many loyal citizens are approached and asked confidentially if they have heard that a transport has been sunk with all on board; that a battle has been fought with heavy loss to American life; that the President's confidential secretary has been sent to Fort Leavenworth for betraying secrets; that the Red Cross is selling supplies and sweaters; that the food-pledge cards require one ~o give up household supplies; that signing them obligates the husband to military service; that disease or starvation rules in the encampments; that there is mutiny in camps; that a secret treaty exists with England which will some day be repudiated and the liberty bonds be worthless; that any simple service to the State or Government invalidates life insurance; that the supply of some commodity is limited and a stock should be laid In, etc. These rumors will be followed, it' may be prophesied with certainty, by rumors of graft, fraud, and Incompetence in high places. The absurdity of many of these stories is patent even to some who repeat them. Why act as an enemy agent by spreading such nonsense? Every one of these rumors can be met and should be met by denials and the facts. The War and Navy Departments have published and will continue to publish full news of military events; health reports on camps are regularly made public; the food card Is nothing but a voluntary pledge to help save food, etc. In competency and dishonesty, if such exist, will be mercilessly exposed and driven out. Every citizen should know the facts, follow up these rumors, and save our people from mental torture by the words of the silly and unthinking as well as the malicious and often disloyal talebearer.
Russia. A State in eastern Europe, awaiting its final constitution. It had a land area in 1914 of 8,764,586 square miles, and a population of 173,378,800. Its capital is Petrograd, formerly known as St. Petersburg. Germany's declaration of war against Russia on August 1, 1914, started the present European conflagration. Russia declared war on Turkey November 3, 1914, and on Bulgaria October 19, 1915. The former Czar abdicated on March 15, 1917, as the result of a successful revolution, and a Republic was proclaimed. See Nicholas II; Russian Revolution of 1917.
Russia, Mission from the United States. Soon after the Russian revolution and the entry of the United States into the war it was decided to send an American mission to Russia to congratulate the new Government and to find out in what way we could assist in providing for its needs. The mission was headed by Elihu Root, former Secretary of State, and consisted of representatives of the railroads, business, Army and Navy, religious, industrial, and socialist organizations of the United States. The mission appears to have been a great success. It won the support of the Russian people and secured a basic knowledge of the situation, but recent developments seem to have canceled its achievement.
Russian Revolution of 1917. The revolution to date shows four phases, as follows:
1. Overthrow of the Czar. This occurred on March 15, 1917, when Nicholas II abdicated and authority was vested in a Provisional Government constituted by the Duma, to conduct affairs until the constituent assembly should meet. The old regime fell because as an autocracy it did not respond to the democratic demands of the Russian people. Its position had
been weakened in 1906, when the late Czar granted a constitution, but it retained much of its old power, which it exercised in a corrupt, tyrannical, and Inefficient manner. The war of 1914 revealed Its defects when the Russian armies were driven out of Poland and Galicla in 1915 from a lack of ammunition. Public opinion was deeply stirred, but was not yet organized, and the drive of Gen. Brussilov in 1916 eased the situation. Late in that year, however, the Premier, Boris V. Stiirmer, the soul of reaction and accordingly pro-German, began negotiations, through A. D. Protopopov, for a separate peace with Germany. The intrigue was discovered and StUrmer resigned, but Protopopov remained as Minister of the Interior and continued the negotiations, which were almost completed when the revolution occurred. The Duma was convened on February 27. On Friday, March 9, there was fighting in the streets of Petrograd, in which 2,500 persons were killed and wounded. By open appeal, reinforcing secret and well-directed propaganda, the people gradually won the troops over to the cause of the Duma and the nation. Imperial ukases were issued on March 12 suspending the Duma and the Council of the Empire for a month. On the 13th Rodzianko, president of the Duma, announced the formation of a Provisional Government with the executive committee of the Duma at its head, thus defying the Czar's decrees. Finally, on March 15, Czar Nicholas was induced to abdicate. Little disorganization followed, for the Government was left in the hands of the members of the official class, who had been active in support of the war. Although monarchy was practically abolished with the abdication of the Czar, the Repub1i~ was not formally proclaimed until September 17.
2. Government of the Constitutional Democrats. Prince George Lvov held office as Prime Minister and Minister of the Interior from March 15 to July 20. Milyukov was Minister for Foreign Affairs and Kerensky for Justice; with the exception of the latter, who was a moderate Socialist, the ministry was composed exclusively of Constitutional Democrats. (See "Cadets ".) The new Government proclaimed free speech, the right to strike, universal suffrage (including woman suffrage), a general amnesty for all political prisoners and exiles, and the maintenance of existing treaties. A Constituent Assembly was promised to draw up a permanent constitution. It speedily became apparent that the new Government would be opposed at every step by the "Soviet," or Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates, at Petrograd, which considered itself the true representative of revolutionary Russia and planned to give the revolution a social rather than a merely political character. In response to its demands Gutchkov, Minister of War, issued his "Ministerial Order No. 1," establishing a hierarchy of ultra democratic soldiers' councils even at the front, which practically superseded the authority of the officers and destroyed all discipline. The Germans systematically corrupted the Russian armies by fraternizing with the men and professing agreement with their desire for a democratic peace with "no annexation and no Indemnities." The protests of high army officers resulted in Gutchkov's resignation on May 13 and the appointment of Kerensky to succeed him. To set at rest the anxieties of the Allied powers, Milyukov sent a note on May 1 denying that Russia sought a separate peace and declaring her intention to fight the war to "a complete victory." This announcement provoked rioting in Petrograd by the Bolsheviki, or ultraradical Socialists (see Bolsheviki), and on May 16 Milyukov was forced to resign. A new cabinet was formed, which was ruled more and more by Kerensky, Minister of War. lie sought by persuasion to restore discipline in the army. On the other hand, with the return from exile of the old Bolshevlki leader, Lenine, anarchistic rioting became increasingly prevalent in June. Kronstadt set up as an independent republic, recognizing only the Petrograd Soviet; the Ukraine declared its independence, and Finland took steps to restore its autonomy. An All-Russian Congress of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates, sitting in Petrograd abolished the Duma as a stronghold of the middle classes. A Bolsheviki demonstration in Petrograd on July 1 showed Lenine's power. That same day Gen. Brusilov started a victorious offensive in Galicia, but .it was soon converted into a disastrous retreat by Bolsheviki intrigue and disorganization. In this crisis Prince Lvov gave way to Kerensky, who set up a new ministry. The attempt of the Constitutional Democrats to rule the revolution had failed.
3. Rule of Kerenslcy. Kerensky found himself practically In the position of dictator, for the councils, both of the workmen's and soldiers' delegates and of the peasants, passed resolutions proclaiming that the authority of the new government was unlimited and called on the Russian armies to fight to the last ditch. Kerensky availed himself of this burst of enthusiasm to secure the restoration (on paper) of the death penalty for treason or mutiny. The Workmen's and Soldiers' Executive Committee at this time censured Kerensky's enemy Lenine by a vote of 300 to 11, and he was driven into hiding to escape arrest. (See Lenine.) Kerensky formed a new cabinet on August 7 from which all extreme radicals were excluded. The Root Commission, arriving in Washington on the 12th, was able to announce firm hopes of a speedy restoration of internal harmony and military efficiency. On August 26 an extraordinary national congress, convoked by Kerensky, met in Moscow. Its chief importance was to reveal the division between the moderate Socialists and the Cadets-the former led by Kerensky, the latter by generals commanding in the field.
The capture of Riga by the Germans (Sept. 3) precipitated the break between the military party and Kerensky. On September 9 Gen. Kornilov, who had succeeded Brusllov as commander in chief, attempted a coup d'Etat, which failed. A democratic congress called by the Central Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates met In Moscow on September 27 and called for a Preliminary Parliament (" Temporary Council of the Russian Republic") to act until the Constituent Assembly should meet in December; at the same time it declared against
the forming of a coalition cabinet without the sanction of the Congress. Kerensky rejected its control and proceeded immediately to admit to his cabinet four members of the Constitutional Democratic party. The Preliminary Parliament began its sessions In the last days of October, in an atmosphere of profound depression caused by the German capture of Oesel and Dagö, islands at the entrance to the Gulf of Riga. On November 2, Kerensky in an interview stated that Russia had done her work in the war and was worn out; she would not quit the conflict but was In great need of help from the Allies. The Government revoked an earlier decision to remove to Moscow, but Petrograd was evacuated by a considerable part of its civil population. Strikes, food riots, and street demonstrations again broke out in the capital. Finally the Bolsheviki won over the Petrograd garrison and the navy, and on November 7 they drove Kerensky from the city. The Winter Palace was defended for a time by women soldiers (the "Battalion of Death"), but soon the Government buildings were in the hands of the Bolsheviki under Lenine and Trotzky, who by their audacity and unscrupulousness dominated the situation.
4. The Bolsheviki in Control. A proclamation announced the program of the new rulers in four articles: (1) The offer of an immediate democratic peace; (2) the immediate handing over of the large estates to the peasants; (3) the transfer of all authority to the Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates; (4) the honest convocation of a Constituent Assembly. (In the article on Len4ne will be found further details as to Bolsheviki principles.) Kerensky, following his escape from Petrograd, placed himself at the head of an army with the intention of retaking the capital, but was defeated, more by the defection of his own troops than by the strength of his opponents. Meanwhile, for some days students of the military schools and other loyal elements battled unsuccessfully in Petrograd against the Bolsheviki. The latter gained control of Moscow also, after fierce fighting, and Kiev and other large industrial cities come under their rule. The power of Kerensky collapsed completely and he disappeared from the scene. The Bolsheviki, in pursuance of their program, proclaimed the peasants the owners of the lands and published a number of secret treaties and diplomatic letters of the earlier Governments. (See ~Secret Treaties Revealed by Russia.) On November 24 Trotzky presented his proposal for a general armistice. He declared that he spoke as Commissioner of Foreign Affairs for a Government in the form of a Council of National Commissioners, founded on October 26, and headed by Lenine. The efforts of Gen. Dukhonin (assassinated December 4) and of Gens. Kaledines and Kornilov to resist the Bolsheviki failed. The meeting of the Constituent Assembly (set for December 11) was dispersed because of opposition control Anti-Bolshevikl newspapers were suppressed, while German agents were given a free hand. The railway workers, who controlled the transport of troops, were gradually won over. Lenine's policy looked towards an exclusively proletarian Republic. In interviews Trotzky denied that his Government would make a separate peace, but orders were
Issued for the reduction of the Russian armies. On December 15 a truce with Germany was signed, with provision for the immediate opening of peace negotiations, without participation of Russia's allies. See Bolshevilci; Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates; Kerensky; Lenine; Lvov; M7dyukov; Soviet; Trotzky; Zemstvos.