War Cyclopedia - O
Officers' Reserve Corps. A corps of the Regular Army established by the national defense act of 1916, in answer to obvious needs and suggested by European example. It is for the purpose, as stated in the law, "of securing a reserve of officers available for service as temporary officers in the Regular Army, as officers of the Quartermaster Corps and other staff corps and departments, as officers for recruit rendezvous and depots, and as officers of volunteers." 'These reserves, covering every branch of the service, are made subject to duty only in time of war. The number admitted to the corps may not exceed the number of officers of corresponding grades in the Regular Army, with the exception that an unlimited number may be appointed to the lowest authorized grade for use by promotion at need.
Officers' Training Camps. Announcement was made two weeks after the declaration of war of the institution of 16 camps in various parts of the country for the training of officers for the new Army. These camps opened on May 15, 1917, with about 40,000 men enrolled. After the first camps had closed, In August, some 20,000 men were enrolled in the 9 camps of the second series. A third series of camps will open In January, 1918. During their three months of instruction men in the camps have been paid at the rate of
$100 per month. In establishing and managing these camps machinery was utilized which had been created in connection with preparedness camps operated at Plattsburg, N. Y., and elsewhere in 1915 and 1916. By order of the Secretary of War, November 8, the minimum age for admission to such camps was reduced from 21 years to 20 years and 9 months. The camps of the first series were Located at Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y.; Fort Myer, Va.; Fort Oglethorpe, Ga.; Fort McPherson, Ga.; Fort Benjamin Harrison, md.; Fort Logan H. Roots, Ark.; Fort Riley, Kans.; Leon Springs, Tex.; Presidio of San Francisco, Cal.; Madison Barracks, N. Y.; Fort Niagara, N. V.; Fort Sheridan, Ill.; Fort Snelling, Minn. Camps of the second series were located at the first nine of these posts. At Plattsburg Barracks, Fort Benjamin Harrison, and Fort Sheridan double camps of the first series were situated. See Plattsburg.
Official Bulletin. A daily periodical issued since May 10, 1917, by the Committee on Public Information, containing news of the Government activities in order "to assure the full and legal printing of the official announcements of Government heads in connection with Government business." It Is sent free to newspapers and postmasters and sold to others at $5 a year.
Okuma, Count Shigenobu (1838- ). Japanese statesman, founder and leader of the Progressive party, who was Prime Minister at the outbreak of the war. He caused Japan to fulfill the obligation of the British alliance, and later, after the fall of Kiaochow, presented to China a series of demands which the latter found unacceptable. After considerable negotiation a compromise was reached which gave dissatisfaction in Japan, and in October, 1916, Count Okuma resigned in favor of Count Terauchi. Count Okuma does not belong to one of the great' clans; he has always given great attention to the internal development of Japan, and Waseda University Is his own creation. He has also written much and edited Fifty Years of Yew JCLIXLfl.
"Open-Door" Policy. The name given to the American
policy In China and the Orient by John Hay, as Secretary of State, after the Boxer uprising of 1900. His view, to which all of the powers concerned in China finally adhered, was that no exclusive privilege should be sought or acquired by any single nation, but that whatever was granted to one must be allowed to all other powers upon similar terms. American commercial treaties had long been based upon this principle through the well-known "most-favored-nation" clause. See "Hun"; Japanese-American Agreement; Kiaochow.
Order in Council. A decree issued, in form, by the King of England in his privy council, but in fact by the British cabinet, regulating matters which are left by law to the discretion of the Government. It resembles closely an Executive order in the United States. By such an Order in Council the embargo upon trade with Germany was declared ~n March 15, 1915, in reply to the German war-zone order of February 4, 1915. The United
States protested against this order on March 30, 1915. See Embargo, British,; "Zamo'ra."
Ordnance Department. The most of what is not supplied to the Army by the Quartermaster's Department comes to it through the Ordnance Department. These are the two main channels through which is received what is necessary for the prosecution of a war. The Quartermaster General subsists and attends to the material wants of the soldier; the Chief of Ordnance furnishes him with the powder and ball, the guns and military equipment he fights with, and puts at his hand what lie needs in prosecuting the business for which he is sustained. Arsenals, armories, munition factories, when these are taken over for Government use, fall under the administration of the Ordnance Department. This bureau contracts for the manufacture of arms, large and small, horse equipment, gun mounts, etc., and in time of war exercises powers of great magnitude.
Orlando, Vittorio (1860- ). Premier of Italy; born at Palermo, became professor of administrative law in the University of Rome, then a deputy, then Minister of Public Instruction in Giolitti's cabinet, and later Minister of the Interior. He became Prime Minister on October 30, 1917.
Ostend. Formerly one of the favorite watering places of Europe and also a Belgian port of entry. Its population before the war was 43,000. In October, 1914, it was captured and partially destroyed by the Germans, and it has since been many times bombarded by the air forces of the Allies. It is said to be one of the main stations for Germany's submarine fleet, and would become an important strategic post should Germany be able to hold Belgium. See Antwerp; Pan-German s
Overseas Trusts. In the early part of the war corporations were formed in neutral countries to take from the Governments the task of guaranteeing that imports consigned to their countries would not be reimported into the territory of the Central Powers and thus pass through the blockade. The Netherlands Overseas Trust was formed for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and in April, 1915, Great Britain and France agreed that all conditional contraband and some absolute contraband could pass through the blockade zone if consigned to the Netherlands Government or the Netherlands Overseas Trust. In Switzerland a like function is performed by the Societe Suisse de Surveillance Economique (known as the S. S. S.). During the period of our neutrality the project was brought forward of an American Overseas Corporation for like purpose. The American Government refused to approve it, the State Department declaring that it could not sanction any organization which received preferential treatment over other American shippers. See Netherlands, Neutral Problems; Neutral Exports; Neutral Ration4ng.