War Cyclopedia - E
Economic Conference at Paris. Representatives of the Entente Powers met in Paris June 14-17, 1916. Their labors resulted in the recommendation to the Entente governments of three classes of menu s~>~j Measures to be put into effect at once for the stoppage of trade with enemy countries and the ousting of enemy firms from allied territory. (2) Measures to be put into effect during the period immediately following the war and calculated to reestablish business and commerce In the Entente countries by a unified effort at restoring that which the war should have destroyed by giving the allied countries a prior claim on their own resources and by preventing "dumping." (3) Measures of a more permanent character, and intended to make the allied countries independent economically not only of the Central Powers but in great part the rest of the world as well. It Is these last recommendations of the conference which have beeno described as planning "war after the war." It may be said in their defense, however, that at the time they were put forth similar plans were under consideration by the Central Powers, and their design was to meet threat with threat. It Is perfectly clear both from the President's answer to the Pope and its reception by Entente states-men that the present Allies plan no "war after the war."
Economy. In war time, an elementary duty of patriotism. Private expenditure controls the use of capital and Labor. The man who insists upon having his usual pleasures and luxuries while his country Is struggling to uphold Its best traditions and Ideals Is simply contributing to make the struggle so much the harder by bidding against the Government for the services of which the latter has desperate need. On the other hand, the man who saves and buys Liberty Bonds with his savings does not only "his bit," but two bits. He makes it easier for the Government to obtain the help it has to pay for, and he assists It to pay for such help. See "Business am Usual"; Luxury in War Times; "Pay as you go" War; War Finances, Loans and Taxes.
Education in War Time. No educational Institution ought to slacken its work. "It would seriously Impair America's prospect of success In this war if the supply of highly trained men were unnecessarily diminished. There will be a need for a larger number of persons expert in the various fields of applied science than ever before," says the President. See Medical students.
Egypt. A territory in northeast Africa, occupying the valley of the Nile and embracing the Suez Canal. Area, 400,000 square miles, of which only 10,000 are cultivated. Population, about 9,000,000. Egypt was formerly an autonomous province of Turkey, but in 1882 it was "occupied" by Great Britain as a sequel to the rebellion of Arabi Pasha. The Khedive was allowed to retain his throne, but he had to depend on his British "advisers." Since 1882 Egypt has been steadily brought forward 4~-cnIture and In prosperity; a revolt in the Sudan, to the south of Egypt, was put down and that district placed under Anglo-Egyptian control. Measures have been taken to regulate the overflow of the Nile, on which the agricultural prosperity of Egypt depends, and the hitherto not infrequent famines made practically impossible. At the outbreak of the European war the Khiedive, Abbas II, plotted with the Turkish Government to oust the British; whereupon the latter deposed him, proclaimed Egypt a British protectorate, and appointed his uncle, Hussein Kamil, Sultan. An attack by the Turks against the Suez Canal and Egypt early in 1915 was easily repulsed. The control of the canal Is essential to the British because of their Indian Empire. See Hussein Kamil; Suez Canal.
Embargo. Formerly defined as consisting In the detention of ships and goods within the port of the State resorting to It. It was ordinarily a measure of reprisal and might be either (1) pacific, when the detention was confined to the States' own vessels; or (2) hostile, when it was extended to the goods and ships of another State. To-day the term has come to have a larger signification.
Embargo, American. See Espionage Act; Export Licenses; Neutral Rationing.
Embargo, British. On March 1, 1915, the British Government informed the principal neutral powers that, in view of German violation of International law, it and the French Government would "hold themselves free to detain and take into port ships carrying goods of presumed enemy destination, ownership, or origin," and added that it was "not intended to confiscate such vessels or cargoes unless they would otherwise be liable to condemnation." Ten days later an Order in Council put this program into effect. Originally, the "embargo," as it came to be called, was defended simply as a retaliatory measure. Very soon, however, the foreign office began to characterize it as a "blockade," although it is clearly a new application of the blockade principle, especially as it interferes with commerce through neutral ports. The question of the effect of the embargo on the war has been much discussed. Without doubt it has contributed to make Germany's task much more difficult, and especially in the matter of the manufacture of high explosives. Recent developments, especially the entry of the United States Into the war, have strengthened the embargo. See Blockade; Continuous Voyage; Continuous Transport; Ultimate Destination War Chemistry , High Explosives-
"Emden." A German cruiser which ran a spectacular course as a commerce raider from August 11 to November 10, 1914, under command of Lieut. Capt. von Muller. After its destruction by the Australian cruiser Sydney, an officer and a few of the crew escaped in small boats across the Indian Ocean and Red Sea and reached Germany by way of Damascus and Turkey.
Emergency Fleet Corporation. See Ship Corporation.
Eminent Domain. The power of a government to appropriate for the public use any private property, whether of citizen or alien, friend or foe, that chances to be situated within its territorial jurisdiction. When this power is exercised for war purposes, the act is usually called "requisitioning." The Government of the United States possesses, of course, the power of eminent domain as an auxiliary of its granted powers, among which Is the power of waging war. By the fifth amendment a ~ for all property so taken; a requirement, however apply when property is seized or destroyed in meeting a sudden emergency! , such as the advance of an enemy. See Alien Property Custodian; Shipping, Interned German.
"Encirclement, Policy of." A name applied In Germany to the policy of agreements with France and Russia, pursued by England between 1904 and 1909 under the leadership of Edward VII of England. The Germans claim that this policy aimed at hampering Germany and concealed designs for future aggression. The British reply that It was purely defensive; and no definite facts have been brought forward by Germany to the -contrary, while It Is clear that only the German practice of making abrupt demands on threat of war made the Triple Entente possible. During this period (1904-1909) England made several attempts to better relations with Germany, only to have these attempts repulsed in Berlin. See Grey, Viscount; Triple Entente.
Enemy Alien. See Alien Enemy; Alien Property Custodian.
Engineering and Education Committee. A committee of the Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense, "to develop a comprehensive policy and a fundamental method for j the most effective use of engineering and &location In the United States during the period of the war and in preparation for the -period following the war." In this connection the committee has undertaken a number of investigations.
Engineer Corps. A large body of officers with a chief of engineers at its head controlling several regiments of troops performing a distinct and important class of military duties. In time of peace they are engaged largely In tasks in connection -with lighthouses, rivers, harbors, and forts. In war they have vaster work to do, as in connection with the survey of grounds for camps and military defenses, the erection of buildings, the installation of power plants, and water supply and sewerage -systems, the construction of roads, bridges, and railways. In modern warfare the engineer is one of the most vital factors in bringing a military operation to a successful end. Special regiments of engineers have been recruited in the United States
Enlisted Reserve Corps-June 3, 1916, for the purpose of securing reserves of enlisted men the ages of 18 and 45, for the Medical Department, ~ master Corps, Engineer Corps, Ordnance Department, and Signal Corps. They include men skilled in various trades and - having technical knowledge of various kinds of business. See Officers' Reserve Corps; Regular Army Reserve.
"Entangling Alliances." (1) "He [Washington] warned us against entangling alliances. I shall never myself consent to an entangling alliance, but would to a disentangling alliance." President Wilson, at Arlington, May 30, 1916.) (2) Washington's advice "does not mean that we are to avoid the entanglements of the world, for we are-part -of the world, and nothing that concerns the whole world can be indifferent to us." (At Omaha, Oct. 5, 1916.) (3) "I am proposing that all nations avoid entangling alliances which would draw them into competitions of power. . . . There is no entangling alliance in a concert of power. When all unite to act in the same sense and with the same purpose, all act in the common Interest and are free to live their own lives under a common protection." (Address before the Senate, Jan. 22, 1917.) It should be remembered that Washington did not object to "temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies," and that his sympathies were with movements for human freedom. See United States, Isolation.
Entente. A French word of which a literal translation Is "understanding," used of international arrangements less binding than formal alliances. See Allies; Triple Entente.
Enver Pasha. The Turkish leader on whom Germany seems most to rely to keep Turkey under her control. In 1908 he was one of the leaders of the Young Turks In the revolution. He was appointed military attache at Berlin in 1909, where he entered Into close relations with German statesmen. In 1911 he organized Turkish resistance to the Italian invasion of Tripoli. In 1913 he headed a coup d'etat which gave his party control of the Turkish Government, a control that they still retain. In 1914 be handled the Turkish end of the plot which involved Turkey in - the war on the German side. He -is also a strong advocate of Turkish nationalism and an aggressive policy abroad. See Turkey.
Equality of Nations. "The essential principle of peace is the actual equality of nations in all matters of right or privilege." (President Wilson, second inaugural, Mar. 5, 1917.) Contrast with this the German view: "A small State has a right to existence only in proportion to its power of resistance. .
Not all the treaties in the world can alter the fact that the weak Is always the prey of the strong so soon as the latter finds it worth while to act on this principle." (Prof. Adolf Lasson, Das Kultur Ideal 'und der Krieg.) See AmericaCreed of'.
Erzberger, Mathias (1875- ). A member of the German Reichstag and leader of the Center parity (I. e., the (Catholic party). In July, 1917, after a visit to Switzerland and Austria on which journey he Is said to have had interviews with Count Czernin and Prince von Billow he made a sensational speech in the Reichstag urging the conclusion of peace on the basis of no annexations and no Indemnities, He has brought the Center
Party into opposition to the policies advocated by -Chancellor Michaelis ,thus assuring for the moment, at least, an opposition majority in the Reichstag. See Bethmann Hollweg.
Erzerum. A strongly fortified city of Armenia from which roads radiate in all directions throughout Asiatic Turkey. It fell before the Russians under the Grand Duke Nicholas, February 16, 1916. Its capture opened strategic possibilities for cooperation with Russian armies in Persia and with the British shut up in Kut-el-Amara, and put an end to the projected Turkish invasion of Egypt. See Caucasus; Kut-el-Amara.
Espionage Act. One of the most important pieces of legislation of the present Congress was approved June 15, 1917. It forbids the obtaining of information respecting the national defense or the instrumentalities thereof "with Intent or reason to believe" that such information "Is to be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation"; also the communication of any documentary information relating to the national defense to any foreign Government or agent thereof, the latter offense being punishable with death. The same act gives the President absolute control over the movement of all vessels, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, with the right to take possession of them; penalizes severely any attempt to injure vessels within American waters, or to interrupt foreign or domestic commerce, by the use of lire or explosives; authorizes the withholding of clearance from vessels suspected of carrying supplies or information to belligerent nations and the seizure of arms and ammunition intended for shipment in violation of law. It strengthens the neutrality laws of the United States, adds safeguards to prevent the abuse of passports and the counterfeiting of the Government seal, extends the use of search warrants, and imposes new restrictions upon the use of the mails. Finally, it gives the President power to prohibit, by proclamation, exportations to any or all countries, except at such times and under such regulations as he may fix, and to deny clearance to any vessel, domestic or foreign, carrying such goods. Few more sweeping measures have ever found their way to the national statute book. See Trading with the Enemy Act.
Essen. An industrial town in the midst of Iron and ~coal fields in the Rhineland in Prussia. It is situated at a point some 27 miles from Düsseldorf. It is the seat of the Krupp Iron and steel works, the largest in Europe. See Krupp.
Excess Profits-The war stimulates some industries, such as iron, steel, shipbuilding, and munitions-making, giving them unusual profits. These profits are doubly suitable for heavy taxation during the war for two reasons: (1) they are an available source of wealth;; (2) the profits arising from the war should In social equity be completely returned to its support, for the idea of one part of a nation profiting by a war from which-the other parts derive nothing, and for which still others make great sacrifices, is abhorrent to the concept of democracy in which each share- burdens and advantages alike. England is raising huge revenues from excess profits taxes, and the act of October 3, 1917, imitates this policy. The English war excess profits tax is 80 per cent (less certain allowances and deductions). The rate in the United-States ranges from 20 to 60 per cent. But the American basis of figuring the taxis different from the English. W€ tax all business profits above a moderate percentage, no matter whether these profits arise from the war or not. This is In addition to the income tax. The English tax Is strictly excess war profits tax, the being the advance over an average of the three years before the war which were, as it happens, good business years In England. Our nominally lower rate on a higher basis is expected to yield-fully as much as the English higher rate on a lower basis of figuring the excess war profits. See Profiteering; "Rich Man's War, Poor Man's Fight"; "War Baby"; War Taxes.
Executive Orders and Proclamations. In time of war the authority of the executive branch of government is greatly increased, In part by the exercise of constitutional powers unused In time of peace, and in part by the definite grant of new powers by legislation. This situation is indicated by the great increase in the number and importance of executive orders and proclamations issued by the President. Among those issued during the present war may be noted those establishing defensive sea areas, providing for a system of export licenses, establishing food regulations, and for proceedings under the selective military service act. See Acts of Congress; Espionage Act; Food Control Act; Trading with~ the Enemy Act.
Exemption, Appeals. The following statement, issued by Provost Marshal Gen. Crowder, explains the regulations governing the appeal of claims for exemption from Selective Service:
The local board has jurisdiction in all cases except those involving employment in agriculture or industry. An individual who thinks his case has been unfairly handled by the local board may appeal to the congressional district board. He may also make appeal to the governor. The district board has jurisdiction In all cases involving employment in agriculture or industry. From the decision of the district board, appeal may be made to the governor or the President. The district board also has jurisdiction in cases appealed from the local board. The decision of the district board on cases appealed from the local board is final, except that appeal may be further taken to the governor. In these cases there is no appeal to the President. If a local or district board is in doubt as to the disposition of a particular case, it may apply to the governor for a ruling. If the governor can not answer the question, he will seek advice from Washington.. Any individual who believes that the law has been erroneously interpreted by a local interpreted by a local or district board has the right to appeal to the governor. -Appeal to the President may be taken only in those cases In which claims for exemption or discharge are based on employment in agriculture or industry, and in these cases the appeal must be made through the district board, as no Individual representation will be considered. See Selective Service.
Explosives from Aircraft. The Fourteenth Hague Convention of 1907 provides: "The contracting powers agree to prohibit, for a period extending to the close of the third peace conference, the discharge of projectiles and explosives from balloons and by other methods of a similar nature." Germany did not ratify this- sly' has not considered herself bound by it. However, according -to excellent- authority, "it -was generally conceded at the conference that balloons must -not be allowed to attack undefended places, but it was thought that this was sufficiently provided for by the words 'by any -means whatever' now Inserted In article 25 of The Hague Regulations." In fact. September 3, 1914, Count von Bernstorff declared In a letter to the Secretary of State that "In the course -of the present war nothing has been done by the German army -contrary to the laws that obtain among civilized States in warfare. Any act of the nature described [killing innocent women and children by throwing bombs] would be contrary to the traditions of the German people in arms. Any statement to the contrary I can only brand as a brazen fabrication." For acts proving such practices by the Germans see Bombardment
Export Control. "There will, of course, be no prohibition of exports. The normal course of trade will be interfered with as little as possible, and, so far as possible, only its abnormal
course directed," said the President in his proclamation of July 9, 1917, under act of June 5. A license system was at this time established to control exports (1) "In such a way that they -will go first and by preference where they are most needed," (2) "to see to It that the peoples associated with us in the war get as generous a proportion as possible of our surplus," and (3) "to supply the neutral nations . . . as nearly in proportion to their need as the amount to be divided permits." See Espionage Act; Report Council; Export Licenses; Netherlands, Neutral Problems of; Neutral Rationing; Sweden, Neutral Problems of; War Trade.
Export Council. This council was formed as a result of proclamation by the President on June 22, 1917. It consists of the Secretaries of State, Agriculture, and Commerce, and the Food Controller. Its functions are: (1) To study the export -situation and to guide exports "in such a way that they will go first where they are most needed and most immediately needed, and to withhold them, if necessary, where they can best be -spared"; (2) its duties were further extended by the proclamation of July 9, 1917, giving it the power to absolutely control, -by means of granting licenses, export trade in certain enumerated articles. The task of granting these licenses was later conferred upon a specially organized subordinate board of export licenses and was still later, rearranged under the trading with the Enemy Act
Exports-The United States has become the great storehouse and producer for the allied nations Total exports of domestic merchandise from the United States reached a value of $6,230,769,395 of the year ending In June, 1917, as compared with $4,272,177,579 in 1916 $2,716,178,465 in 1915. . The general increase has not kept pace with the enormous increase of exports of certain articles. A sharp increase in the most important articles of export took place in 1916, and the figures for 1917 show a general but not a startling increase upon those of the preceeding..year. In many cases, as in coal, a slight increase in quantity exported has brought a material increase in value, due to the high prices of 1917.- In such cases as wheat, cotton, cotton cloth, fertilizer, and tobacco an actual decrease in quantity exported has brought a distinct Increase In value. A decrease in both quantity and value is seen in the export of aeroplanes, animals, fish, bay. hides and skins, India rubber, and wool. The decrease of wool is probably due to the British embargo. The most marked increase is seen In aluminum products, copper and Its manufactures, which show an enormous Increase from $99,558,030 in 1915 to $173,946,226 In 1916 and $322,284,174 in 1917; explosives, increasing from $41,476,188 In 1915 to $467,081,928 in 1916 and $802,789,437 in 1917; iron and steel and its manufactures, increasing from $225,861,387 in 1915 to $621,237,972 In 1916 and $1,129,341,616 in 1917. Exports of meat and dairy products have been almost doubled in the last year, and breadstuffs generally have increased in both volume and value. Zinc also shows a material increase. Within the larger classifications the greatest increase is seen in articles partially manufactured for future use In manufacture, but more noticeably still in completely manufactured articles of use in the war.