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Habeas Corpus. The writ of habeas corpus is an ancient legal means still used to protect the citizen from Illegal imprisonment. The writ orders that the body of the person detained be produced in court at a certain time. Then If the detention be found to be without legal warrant, the writ further secures the victim's release. By Article I, section 9, paragraph 2, of the Constitution it is provided that the privilege of the writ "shall not be suspended unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it." During the first half of the Civil War President Lincoln repeatedly suspended the writ without authorization by Congress, but it seems the better view that such authorization is requisite. The suspension of the privilege of the writ does not of itself justify other arrests than those already warranted by law, but if such arrests take place the fact is placed temporarily beyond judicial inquiry and remedy.

Hague and Geneva Conventions, German Violations. See Assassination's; Base of Operations; Belgium, Deportations; Belgium, Economic Destruction; Bombardment; Combatants; Community Fines and Penalties; Contributions; Destruction; Explosives from Aircraft; Family Honor and Rights; Fishing Craft; Flag of Truce; Forbidden Methods of Warfare; Forbidden Weapons; German "War Book"; Germs; Hospitals; Hospital ships; Hostages; Levies en Masse; Military Information; Military Operations; Mines; Neutral Territory; Pillage; Poison; Prisoners of War; Private Property; Quarter; Requisitions; ,State Property; Works of Art.

Hague Conferences. With a view to securing concerted action in respect to the maintenance of peace and the amelioration of war on land and sea, and also, if possible, an agreement looking to a gradual reduction of military and naval armaments, a conference of delegates met at The Hague on May 18, 1899, in response to the invitation of the Czar of Russia. A second conference, called, upon the suggestion of the President of the United States, by the Czar of Russia, met at The Hague on June 15, 1907, and adjourned on October 19 following, having adopted 13 important international conventions. See Hague Conventions; Hague Tribunal.

Hague Conventions. They are as follows: I. A convention for the pacific settlement of international conflicts, being an amendment of the corresponding agreement of July 29, 1899. II. A convention relative to the recovery of contractual debts. III. A convention relative to the opening of hostilities. LV. A convention concerning the laws and customs of war on land. V. A convention concerning the rights and duties of neutral States and individuals in land warfare. VI. A convention regarding the treatment of the enemy's merchant ships at the outbreak of hostilities. VII. A convention regarding the transformation of merchant ships into vessels of war. VIII. A convention in regard to the placing of submarine mines. IX. A convention concerning the bombardment of undefended towns by naval forces. X. A convention for the adaptation of the principles of the Geneva convention to maritime warfare. XI. A convention imposing certain restrictions upon the right of capture in maritime war. XII. A convention providing for the establishment of an International prize court. XLII. A convention defining the rights and duties of neutral States in maritime war. See Hague Tribunal. III.

Hague Regulations. The "Hague Regulations respecting the laws and customs of war" comprise the annex to the Fourth Hague Convention of 1907. Most of the citations in this volume are to these regulations. By article LII of the convention of which they are a part, "a belligerent party which violates the provisions of the said regulations shall, if the case demands, be liable to pay compensation. It shall be responsible for all acts committed by persons forming part of its armed forces." See Hague and Geneva Conventions, German Violations.

Hague Tribunal. A permanent court of arb1trat~on; has its seat at The Hague and Is "competent for all arbitrations, unless the parties agree to institute a special tribunal." Strictly speaking, it is not a court but a panel of judges from which a court may be composed. Each signatory power selects four persons, at the most, whose tenure is six years and whose appointments are renewable; and when it is desired to have recourse to arbitration under The Hague convention, a special tribunal is selected from this list. The members of the court enjoy diplomatic immunities. The United States was the first power to submit a case to The Hague court. This was the Pius Fund case, with Mexico. See Arbitration; Peace Treaties.

Haig, Field Marshal Sir Douglas (1861- ). Commander in chief of the British forces in France and Flanders, to which position he succeeded when Sir John French was recalled for other duties in 1915. He was employed for many years in the cavalry arm of the British service, reaching the rank of major general in 1904, lieutenant general in 1910, and general in 1914. He was at Khartoum with Kitchener, fought for three years in the South African ~War, and saw extended service in India before coming to his present high command in December, 1915. He was created field marshal after the battle of the Somme in 1916. See Cambrai; "Hindenburg Line."

Haiti. A Negro republic of the West Indies with an area of approximately 11,072 square miles. Its population in 1912 was estimated at 2,500,000. Its capital is Port au Prince. On June 17, 1917, Haiti severed diplomatic relations with Germany.

Hangar. The shed in which airplanes or Zeppelins are kept when not in use. Some are built so that they may revolve, thus allowing easier use in veering winds.

Harden, Maximilian. A free-thinking, free-speaking German journalist, editor of Die Zukunft. He frequently attacked the Government and was disciplined for it; but like other Germans he gloried until recently in the national policy. In the summer of 1917 his paper was suppressed. In November he was released and given freedom to resume publication. See "Der Tag. "

Health and Recreation. A department of the woman's committee of the Council of National Defense for the safeguarding of moral and spiritual forces in training centers, cooperating with the Raymond B. Fosdick committee of the United States War Department. See Training Camp Activities; Y. M. C. A.

Hegemony. Hegemony, from the Greek "hegemouia," meant originally the leadership of one city-state, such as Athens or Sparta, in a group of federated or loosely united States. In recent years it has been used to designate (1) the dominant position which Bismarck secured for the Kingdom of Prussia over the other State of Germany by the wars of 18~64, 1866, and 1870, resulting in the establishment of the German Empire. (2) It is also used to designate the ambitious ideal of the Pan-German party by which Germany would weaken France, England, and Russia, and secure for herself the dominant position-in Europe and eventually in the world. It would be secured through her influence over Austria-Hungary, by her political domination of Turkey and the Balkan States, and by her acquisition of colonies throughout the world. These colonies would provide a place for Germany's overflow of population, supply her with needed raw materials, and afford her markets for her manufactures. If Germany emerged victorious from the present war, she would clearly enjoy the hegemony of Europe. See German Military Dominance.

Hegemony, German Ambition. "The strongest Germanic State ~n the Continent must take over the hegemony; the smaller ones must sacrifice as much of their independence and their language as is necessary to the permanent insurance of a new imperial unity. The question of whether military force would become requisite is secondary; but it is essential that the State which aspires to the hegemony should have at its disposal sufficient intellectual, economic, and military power to reach this end and hold it fast. Which State would it be? It can be only the German Empire, which is now in search of more territory. . . . 'The natural pressure of this new German Empire will be so great that, willy-nilly, the surrounding little Germanic States (Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Denmark) will have to attach themselves to it under conditions which we set" ~{Joseph L. Retmer, Bin. pangermanisches Deutscl&laM, 1905, pp. 119-120.)

Helgoland. A small island about one-fifth of a square mile in area with a population of 2,307 (1900). It belonged to England up to 1890, when it was ceded to Germany in exchange for territories In Africa. The German Government at once started on the task of fortifying the island, and it is now a very important feature In the defense of the German coasts. The harbors are not of sufficient size to admit battleships but it makes an ideal station for small cruisers and torpedo craft. The strength of the defenses, supported by mines, has discouraged thus far any attempt by England to reduce it, although an important naval engagement was fought near it in August, 1914. It commands the entrance to the Kiel Canal. See Cuokaven; Kiel Canal; Wilhelmahat'en.

Hereros. A native tribe of German Southwest Africa, whose Insurrection in 1904-5 was put down with great cruelty. See German southwest Africa.

Hertling, Count Geo. V. von (1843- ). Chancellor of the German Empire after November 1, 1917, in succession to Dr. Georg Michaelis. He was for years a professor in Munich and a member of the Bavarian Chamber; since 1912 he had been Prime Minister of Bavaria. In politics he belongs to the conservative wing of the Center or Clerical party and has 9pposed the extension of parliamentary government in Germany. He is said, however, to be more flexible in his views than many German leaders and to be opposed to the annexation program of the Pan-Germans. Whether this is his real position or only an interpretation circulated to make the outside world more trustful can not be determined at present. He has also been hailed as recognizing parliamentary rule because be consulted a few leaders of the Reichstag, but appointments under him have, so far, indicated no change of policy.

Herzegovina. See Bosnia-Herzegovina.

High Seas Fleet. A name given to large number of vessels of various classes gathered together for a definite offensive or defensive purpose. It will include dreadnaughts, battleships, and cruisers, with a protecting force of torpedo boats and destroyers serving as outrunners. A fleet is a general term applied to a mass in the navy, as an army is a mass for service on land. "High seas fleet" is the official designation of the main German naval force.

Highways Transport Committee. A subdivision of the Council of National Defense, created on November 2, 1917. The purpose of the committee is to assist railroads and other means of transportation in the movement of supplies during the war and to work with the highway authorities to maintain public roads in shape for use.

Hlndenburg, Field Marshal Paul von (1847- ). Chief of the general staff of the German Army since 1916. Before the war he was noted chiefly for his extensive knowledge of the Mazurian Lakes in East Prussia. o When the Russians invaded that province in August, 1914~ Hlndenburg was called from retirement, and by brilliant strategy destroyed their army at Tannenberg. That victory made him the idol of Germany, and led the Kaiser to create him field marshal. The following summer he drove the Russians out of Poland. After the failure before Verdun and on the Somme, which reflected little credit on Gen. von Falkenhayn, that general was deposed as chief of the general staff and Hindenburg put In his place (1916). As Hlndenburg had always contended that the war must be won in the east, it occasioned no surprise when the German armies were sent against Roumanla; but since then there has been no serious German offensive in the east. Whether this is due to political reasons or to a shortage of men Is not clear, though probably both causes have contributed. Hindenburg's chief exploit as chief of staff has been the retreat from the Somme In March, 1917, a maneuver which made an end to the battle of the Somme but -did not prevent the British from undertaking immense operations in Flanders. It is often asserted that Hindenburg is not so great a general as his assistant, Ludendorff, the first quartermaster general.

"Hindenburg Line." The German preparation for a renewal of the Somme battle in 1917 was a "strategic retreat" to the "Hindenburg line," a new and carefully prepared line of 7 defense which had supposedly been rendered impregnable. The line Is assumed to have been through Laon, La Fère, St. Quentin, Cambrai, and Lille, joining the old line at Vlmy Ridge north of _ Arras. The retreat on a front extending from Arms to the Aisne was intended to frustrate the Allied plans for their spring offensive, and was carried out with an orgy of destruction in -_ March, 1917. The Allied pursuit overtook the retreat. La Fère was rendered useless by French successes. St. Quentin was eliminated from the line in April, and the Germans have failed to establish their impregnable defense. See Byng; Cam _ brai; Destruction; "PiU-ba~res"; Vimy Ridge.

Historical Service, National Board for. A voluntary committee of historians, created at a conference in Washington in -~ April, 1917, and sitting thereafter, without pay, to aid in preserving the records of the war, to stimulate history teaching, and to give aid to various departments of Government. J. T. Shotwell, chairman; C. H. Hull, vice chairman; W. G. Leland, secretary. Address, 1133 Woodward Building, Washington.

"Holy War." When Turkey entered the war the Sultan in his capacity of Caliph of the Mohammedan world, issued a fetva to the faithful of Islam, calling them to a "holy war" against the unbelievers. The object was to disturb the loyalty of the Mohammedans owing allegiance to Great Britain, France, and Russia. These people, however, paid little attention to the summons, and Mohammedan troops have fought against Turkey In Mesopotamia and against Germany in Europe and Africa. See Pan-Isktmism.

Honduras. A Central American republic containing 44,374 square miles. Its capital is Tegucigalpa. In 1913 the population was stated as 592,075. Honduras broke off diplomatic relations with Germany on May 17, 1917.

Honor, Word of. For German violations, see Parle

Hospitals. Article VI of the Geneva convention of 1906, which In essence repeats Article I of the convention of 1864, says: "Movable sanitary formations (that is, those which are intended to accompany armies In the field) and the fixed establishments belonging to the sanitary service shall be respected and protected by the belligerents." The badge of Immunity of such establishments is the Red Cross. A recent communication from the Roumanian Minister of the Interior to our Government -states: "Because of the action of Germany and her allies, it has been found advisable to remove the Red Cross conspicuously painted on the top of the hospital buildings, because it served as a special mark for the bombs, etc., from aeroplanes." In a recent German attack on an American base hospital in France four American soldiers were killed and several wounded. See Red Cross.

Hospital Ships. The Tenth Hague Convention of 1907 (for the adaptation to naval war of the principles of the Geneva convention) contains the following provision: "Article I. Military hospital ships-that is to say, ships constructed or assigned by States especially and solely with a view to assisting the wounded, sick, and shipwrecked, the names of which have been communicated to the belligerent powers at the commencement or during the course of hostilities, and in any case before they are employed-shall be respected and can not be captured while hostilities last." Germany ratified this convention. Nevertheless, on January 29 of the present year she issued an order to the effect that from that day on all hospital ships marked with the Red Cross should be considered as vessels of war and attacked and sunk as such within a prescribed zone in the Channel and North Sea. Her claim was that Great Britain had used such vessels to convey munitions; but the remedy for such an abuse is provided in the convention itself, In the following terms: "The belligerents will have the right to control and visit them . . . and put a commissioner on board." Moreover, of the hospital ships which were forthwith sunk by German submarines, the Asturia, the Gloucester Castle, the Donegal, and Lanfranc, the last two were headed for England with wounded men aboard, and it is unlikely that they were conveying munitions away from the seat of war. The fact of the matter is that this policy was decided upon in contemplation of the renewal of ruthless submarine warfare, the German Government foreseeing that hospital ships would necessarily suffer with all others. Owing to the continuance of these crimes, the British and French Governments at last notified the German Admiralty that in future a contingent of German prisoners would be carried on every hospital ship. This step, together with the intervention of the King of Spain, baa recently caused Germany to give a renewed pledge to observe the Geneva Convention, but doubtless unfortunate "accidents" will still occur.

Hostages. In 1870 the Germans, then in occupation of certain portions of France, required that trains "be accompanied by well-known and respected persons inhabiting -. . Localities In the neighborhood of the lines," and that such persons "be placed on the engine, so that in every accident caused by the hostility of the inhabitants, their compatriots will be the first to suffer." The German War Book admits that this measure was condemned by "every writer outside .Germany" but defends it: "having proved completely successful," and worse measures have been resorted to in the present war by the German military authorities in Belgium. The following is an extract from a proclamation by Baron von der Goltz, which was posted up In Brussels on October 5, 1914: "in future all persons near the spot where such acts have taken place [I. e. destruction of railway lines or telegraph wires], no matter whether guilty or not, shall be punished without mercy. With this end in view, hostages have been brought from all places near railway lines exposed' to such attacks, and at the first attempt to destroy railway lines, - telegraph or telephone lines, they will be immediately shot." See Community Fines and Penalties; German War Practices; Noncombatants. Humanity, Rights of. "I am thinking, not only of the rights -~ of Americans to go and come about their proper business by way of the sea, but also of something much deeper, much more fundamental than that. I am thinking of those rights of humanity without which there is no civilization. My theme is of those great principles of compassion and of protection which mankind has sought to throw about human lives, the lives of noncombatants, the lives of men who are peacefully at work keeping the industrial processes of the world quick and vital, the lives of women and children and of those who supply the labor which ministers to their sustenance." (President Wilson, to Congress, Feb. 26, 1917.)

"Hun." A term of reproach leveled at the Germans by their enemies since the war began. It seems to have been first associated by William II with his army as a term of praise. When he addressed his troops about to sail for China, at Bremerhaven, July 27, 1900, he was reported by the local daily, the Norddeutsche Zeitumg, on the following day as saying: "When you come upon the enemy . . . no quarter will be given. No prisoners will be taken. . . . As the Huns under their King, Attila, a thousand years ago, made a name for themselves which is still mighty in tradition and story, so may the name of German in China be kept alive through you in such wise that no Chinese will ever again attempt even to look askance at a _ German." The- official report of this speech left out some of these words, those least creditable, but did not give a complete text. Already on July 29, 1900, the Socialist daily, Vorwarts de flounced this "editing" of the 'Kaiser's real utterance and declared he had actually held the Runs up to emulation and imitation. For many years the German Socialists used the word "Hun" in attacking the militarists, and to-day the term is frequently adopted by the press of the countries at war with Germany. See "Place in the Sun"; William II.

Hungary. See Austria-Hungary; Pan~-Germanism; Pan Slavism; Magyarization.

Hussein Kamil (1854-1917). Sultan of Egypt since December 19, 1914. Son of the Khedlve IsmalI (1863-1879). He was appointed Sultan after the deposition of Abbas II, who had intrigued with Turkey to drive the British from Egypt. He died October 9, 1914.

Hydroplanes. Hydroplanes, generally coming to be called sea planes, are aeroplanes which will both fly and float and can ascend from or alight on the water. They are Important naval auxiliaries. Early in 19Th the German ambassador filed claim with the State Department that certain hydroplanes being built at the Curtis plant at Hammondsport, N. Y., for some of the belligerent Governments were war vessels, that accordingly the United States Government should stop their delivery under Article VIII of the Thirteenth Hague Convention. The State Department rejected the contention, citing the imperial prize ordinance of the German Government itself (Sept. 30, 1909), where "airships and flying machines" are classified as conditional contraband. See Aviation.

Hyphenated American. A naturalized citizen of the United States who acts or forms opinions on American matters in order to serve the country of his birth. "Some Americans need hyphens in their names because only part of them came over." (President Wilson, Washington, May 17, 1914.) "I believe that the majority of those men whose lineage is directly derived from the nations now at war are just as loyal to the flag of the United States as any native citizen of this land!" (President Wilson, Flag Day address, Washington, June 14, 1916.) See Alien; Dual Citizenship.