War Cyclopedia - M
McLemore Resolution. In 1916 Germany announced that she would treat any enemy merchant slips bearing arms as ships of war; but both Great Britain and the United States maintained that merchant vessels may arm themselves for defensive purposes only, and that they may not be lawfully attacked. A resolution was~ introduced by a member of Congress, Mr. Jeff:
McLemore, of Texas, warning Americans not to travel upon any armed merchant ship, lest they lose their lives and provoke a war. This was tabled March 7, 1916, by a vote of 276 to 152, after 4'resldent Wilson had indicated his earnest opposition to it on the ground that neutral subjects have a clear right to safe travel on a merchant vessel of a belligerent, even though this ship is defensively armed. "The President," said Representative Pou, "demands of these warring nations that they shall not murder Americans without warning." See Armed Merchant
Macedonia. A former division of Turkey in Europe between the Balkans and the Aegean Sea. After 1878 it became the storm center of the agitation against Turkish misrule and in 1912 conditions in Macedonia served as a principal cause of the first Balkan war. In the settlement after the second Balkan war the major part of Macedonia fell to the share of Greece and Serbia. Military operations took place in Serbian Macedonia when the country was captured by the Germans in the fail
and winter of 1915. Greek Macedonia was entered by the Allies in the fortification of Saloniki. An offensive from Greek Macedonia, begun in August, 1916, accomplished little; but the Serbians, operating to the west, recaptured Monastir from the Bulgarians in November, 1916. The forces of the Greek Provisional Government cooperated with the Allies in the fighting in Macedonia in the fall of 1916 and spring and summer of 1917. The importance of Macedon! a lies In the fact that it is inhabited by many races, and the desire to possess it is a chief cause of contention between the Balkan States. See Balkan Wars; Bulgaria; Salon4ki.
Maehiavellianism. A term descriptive of unscrupulous diplomacy and politics, derived from Niccolo Machiavelli (1469- 1527), Florentine statesman, historian, and essayist. In The Prince, written about 1513, Machiavelli set forth the selfish principles by which successful princes might secure glory and power for themselves at the expense of others. Its keynote, based on the assumption that; men are by nature deceitful and yield only to force or motives of self-interest, is thus expressed In the eighteenth chapter: "A wise ruler can not, nor ought he to, keep faith when such observance may be turned against him, and when the reasons which caused him to pledge it no longer exist." The point of view here expressed has always been known as "Maehiavellianism," although it was not Machiavelli's own creation but merely an accurate reflection of the views of the time. Its best exponent in the eighteenth century was Frederick the Great of Prussia.. The Prussian military autocracy has revived and expressed its spirit in such books as Gen.. Bernhard's Germany and the Next War. At the present day this viewpoint is known as Realpolitik. But with the advent of popular ideals in diplomacy with popular sanction behind them, Machiavellianism and Realpoiitik will tend to become less and less the guide of statesmen. See Assassination; German Diplomacy; Intrigue; "Place in the Sun"; "Rebus sic stantibus"; "Scrap of Paper.
Machine Gun Company. The machine-gun company in the United States Army has 6 officers and 172 men. It consists of the headquarters (3 officers and 21 men), three platoons (each with 1 officer and 46 men), and a train (13 men). Its armament is 12 machine guns of heavy type and 4 spare guns. The present war has seen a great increase in the number and use of machine guns, in trench fighting, armored motor cars, aircraft, etc., and a multiplication of types, including light guns portable by one man (the Lewis gun).
Mackensen, Field Marshal August von (1849- ).
At the beginning of the war he commanded the Seventeenth German Army Corps, stationed at Danzig. He established a reputation as an aggressive and hard-hitting fighter in the autumn campaign of 1914 in Poland. Next year he was in immediate command of the forces that defeated the Russians on the Donajec, and drove them out of Galicla and Poland. He was later placed in command of the Army of the Danube, which overran Serbia, and cooperated with the army of Gen. Falkenhayn in the conquest of the greater portion of Roumanla. In the fall of 1917 he took command of the German and Austrian armies on the Isonzo front, and conducted the drive into Italy. His record of successes is so far unbroken.
Magyarization. The term applied to the attempts of th6 Hungarian Government and nation to suppress the non-Magyar elements in the Kingdom of Hungary, i. e., the Slovaks, Croats, and Roumanians. Although equal rights were supposedly guaranteed to all races in Hungary by the law of nationalities of 1868, fraud and Intimidation have been used in the elections to such an extent that these non-Magyar elements have been virtually deprived of voting rights. All educational institutions have been brought under Magyar control and the use of other than the Magyar language rigorously suppressed wherever possible. The economic development of the non-Magyar peoples has been Interfered with greatly. The result had been an underground feeling of discontent and revolt among these nationalities and a desire, if possible, to escape from the Hungarian yoke. See Croatia; "Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slcrenes"; Pam,Slavism; Transylvania.
Mails, British Interference with. The Eleventh Hague Convention declares that "the postal correspondence of neutrals or belligerents, whether official or private in character, found on board a neutral or enemy ship is inviolable," but adds that this inviolability "does not exempt a neutral mail ship from the laws and customs of maritime war respecting neutral merchant ships in general." The British have interfered with the over-seas correspondence both of enemies and neutrals at discretion since the beginning of the war, with results that illustrate how the Germans have used mail for conveying contraband. To take a couple of Instances: The Dutch mail steamer .Zaandyjk on a single trip was found to have in bags supposed to contain nothing but correspondence some 368 parcels of goods, many of them contraband. Again, the Tubantia on one occasion had 174k pounds of india rubber and 101 pounds of Para, highest grade-all contraband-in its mail pouches. The British practice of detaining correspondence till it has been looked over by the ~censor is irritating, but it seems preferable to the German practice of sinking at sight ships, passengers, and cargo.
Mails, Exclusion from (1). Even in time of peace Congress has the power to forbid "the dissemination of matter condemned by its judgment, through the governmental agencies which It controls." (143 U. S., 110.) In exercise of this power Congress has forbidden the sending through the mails of any newspaper, etc., "containing any advertisement of any lottery"; also obscene writings; also "matter of a character tending to incite arson, murder, or assassination"; also in certain cases publications containing liquor advertisements. Likewise, Congress has broad power in laying down the terms upon which newspapers may enjoy "second-class" privileges. (Lewis Publishing Co. 'V. Morgan, 229 U. S., 288.) Finally, Congress may leave the enforcement of its measures in this field to the Postmaster General, whose determination of the facts in each case, if arrived at fairly, will be binding on the courts.
Mails, Exclusion from (2). The espionage act declares every letter, writing, picture, newspaper, book, or other publication which is in violation of the provisions of the act or which contains any matter "advocating or urging treason, insurrection, or forcible resistance to an~ law of the United States" to be "non-mailable," and imposes severe penalties upon anyone who shall attempt to use the mails for the transmission of such matter. The trading with the enemy act makes "nonmailable" any printed matter "respecting the Government of the United States or of any nation engaged in the present war, its policies, international relations, the state or conduct of the war" which is in a foreign language and of which a full and accurate translation has not been filed with the postmaster at the place of publication. But the President may Issue permits licensing the distribution of publications in foreign languages free from this restriction, such permits being revocable at any time. The same act also forbids any person, firm, or corporation to transport or distribute any matter which either it or the espionage act designates "nonmailable." The scope of these provisions has since been made more definite by a statement of the Postmaster General, in whom the business of enforcing them is vested. "We shall take care," said he, "not to let criticism which is personally or politically offensive to the administration affect our action. But if newspapers go so far as to impugn the motives of the Government and thus encourage insubordination, they will be dealt with severely. For Instance, papers may not say that the Government is controlled by Wall Street or munitions manufacturers, or any other special interests. Publications of any news calculated to urge the people to violate law would be considered grounds for drastic action. We will not tolerate campaigns against conscription, enlistments, sale of securities, or revenue collections. We will not permit the publication or circulation of anything hampering the war's prosecution or attacking improperly our allies." (Statement of October 9, 1917.) See Censorship Board; Freedom of the Press.
Manila Bay, Dewey and Dietrich's at. Immediately upon taking possession of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898, Admiral Dewey established a strict blockade. Men-of-war of various nationalities soon appeared, but all except the German forces observed the proprieties of the situation with the utmost nicety. The German squadron, under Vice Admiral von Diedrichs, soon consisted of five men-of-war, two of which had a heavier displacement than any of the American vessels, besides a transport with 1,400 extra men on board. In calling on the German commander Admiral Dewey mildly suggested that the former's force was somewhat disproportionate to German interests in the Philippines, there being but one German commercial house in Manila. Von Diedrichs answered: "I am here by order of the Kaiser, sir." From the first the Germans conducted themselves with their customary bumptiousness and bad manners, committing repeated breaches of international and naval etiquette. Finally, they undertook to disregard the blockade itself and to land supplies. Dewey, who had thus far contained himself in patience, now sent his flag lieutenant, Brumby, to present his compliments to Diedrichs and to inform him of his "extraordinary disregard of the usual courtesies of naval intercourse." The German commander thereafter treated the Americans with some show of consideration. (John t~. Long, The New American Navy, II, 111-112.) See America Threatened; "Der Tag," When?; Monroe Doctrine, German Attitude; Spanish-American War, German Attitude.
Marine Corps. An independent branch of the military service of the United States, used in garrisoning navy yards and naval stations at home and in performing many duties beyond the seas; landing, for instance, in case of disturbance in foreign countries to protect American interests and to guard our embassies and legations. It serves generally under the direction of the Secretary of the Navy. But the corps may be detached by order of the President for service with the Army. The authorized strength of the corps at the beginning of the year 1917 was about 15,000 men.
Marine League. The distance from shore over which, by a well-recognized rule of international law, a State is entitled to exercise jurisdiction. The rule, which was originally based on the fact that a cannon shot carried 3 miles, is not strictly applied in the case of arms of the sea, like the Delaware and Chesapeake-Bays. These are regarded by the United States as a part of its territorial dominion. The jurisdiction which a State may exercise over the waters within a marine league of its shores is limited by the right of innocent passage ;that is, the right of foreign vessels to pass through these waters if they conduct themselves peaceably.
Maine. A French river north and east of Paris flowing into the Seine. On September 3, 1914, the Germans crossed the Maine in their drive toward Paris. On September 6 the French and British forces, under Gen. Joffre and Gen. Sir John French, checked the German invasion and drove the Teutons back across the river in a four-day battle. The battle of the Maine turned the tide of the German Invasion and, with the exception of the thrust toward Calais and the desperate attempt to capture Verdun, reduced the German campaign in the west to defense and devastation.
Marx, Karl (1818-1883). A German of Jewish ancestry, who is commonly regarded as the founder of collectivist socialism. Being expelled from Prussia, after living In Paris and Brussels he settled in London, where his home became a center for fellow exiles. His Communist Manifesto, published a few days before the wave of revolutions which swept over Europe in 1848, made him the leader and eventual head of the International Workingmen's Association. This "International" had an active existence from 1864 onward in uniting the restless proletariat of Europe against capitalism, but it became infected with anarchism, and was silenced by the patriotic spirit engendered by the Franco-Prussian War; it has since been revived and is prominent In peace propaganda to-day. Marx also published in 1859 the first volume of his great historical and theoretical work, Capital. It teaches that all history has been a class struggle of patrician against plebs, of noble against serf, of capitalist against workingrman. In the past the upper class has won. But in the class struggle of the future, as the rich grow richer and fewer, and the poor grow poorer, more numerous and more discontented, the poor will triumph and seize into their hands all the instruments of production. This doctrine became the basis of "historical," of "revolutionary" socialism, in contrast to the earlier middle-class utopian socialism of men like Owen and Fourier. Marx is thus the main Inspiration of the Social Democratic Party in Germany and of Socialist parties In most other countries. Some leading socialists to-day, however, recognize that some of the Marxian doctrines are out of date and need revision; the ablest of these "revisionists" is Eduard Bernstein. See German Political Parties; Liebknecht.
Maximalists. See Boishevi hi.
Mazurlan Lakes. A series of lakes in East Prussia, which was invaded by the Russians In August, 1914. The Russian advance was checked at Tannenberg August 26-31. In January, 1915, the invasion was resumed, the Russian armies crossing the lake region while the waters were frozen. In February the Germans prepared their resistance, screening their concentration behind the lakes. Learning ~f these preparations, on February 4 the Russians began a retreat. The Germans advanced upon the retreating Russians on February 7 and succeeded in harassing but not preventing a retreat to positions beyond the Niemen.
Materiel. A French word commonly used to describe the whole body of tools and commodities used in war.
Maubeuge. Maubeuge is a French town just south of the Belgian boundary. It was captured by the Germans September 7, 1914, after an investment of 12 days.
Meat Supply. The world's meat supply has been depleted during the European war. European herds have been decreased by 28,000,000 cattle, 32,000.000 hogs, and 54,000,000 sheep. The supply of cattle on hand in the United States in January, 1917, was reported to be larger than in 1913, the receipts of animals at the nine most Important western markets having been higher In 1916 than in any preceding year. For 1917 (to Sept. 1~ the receipts of cattle were 2.4 per cent greater than receipts for a corresponding period in 1916. Hogs and sheep, on the other hand, decreased 65.7 per cent and 37.1 per cent. Slaughtering have Increased each year, and the available meat supply can be seen to be moderately increasing, but only at a dangerous expense to the herds. The demand meanwhile has increased in leaps and bounds. Exports In meat and dairy products jumped from $220,051,847 in 1914-15 o to $290,899,680 in 1915, and to $404,143,751 in 1916-17. Some of this increase in value is due to Increased prices obtainable in the last two years. For the successful prosecution of the war the volume as well as the value of exports must be enlarged or a real shortage of meats and fats is likely to result.
Mediation. See Gooa Offices.
Medical Department. In the United States Army this department is composed of the Medical Corps (surgeons, etc., regularly commissioned), the Dental Corps, the Veterinary Corps, the Nurse Corps, and an enlisted force, which may be enlarged to meet the advancing needs of the service. The inoculation of individuals in the fighting forces against disease and the sanitation of their camps are matters for its solicitude as well as the care of the sick. - The wounded from accident or battle are gathered into field and base hospitals for treatment and care. The ambulance service, by which the injured are brought to the hospitals, also falls within the province of this department of military administration. See Red Cross.
Medical Section. A subordinate agency of the Council of National Defense, established December 12, 1916, which, under the leadership of Dr. Franklin Martin, member of the Advisory Commission, and Dr. F. F. Simpson, chief of the medical section, has been of invaluable service to the Army and Navy medical services in the securement of officers and nurses. Through its g4neral medical board it has mobilized the medical profession so that to-day it is possible within 24 hours to get in touch with officials of nearly every State and county medical society in the United States. Through the medium of this board also have been established close cooperative relations with the Surgeons General of the Army and the Navy and the United States Public Health Service. Its work of standardization has included not only the standardization of instruments and supplies, but the substituting of instruments for those which had been previously furnished by Germany. Through its State and county committee organization the medical section currently stimulates the interest and support of the medical profession for the purposes of the war and assists in efforts to safeguard the home interests of doctors in military service.
Medical Students and Interns. Because of the importance of keeping up the supply of physicians, medical students in their "second year in any well-recognized medical school," as well as more advanced students and hospital interns, may be discharged from immediate service under the draft in the National Army upon enlisting In the Enlisted Reserve Corps of the Medical Department.
Melting Pot." A name given to the United States because its historic policy has been to keep open doors to the oppressed peoples of all nations and to merge those who accept its hospitality into one nation of common language and common political ideals. "America is not made out of a single stock. Here we have a great melting pot." (President Wilson, Music Hall speech, Cincinnati, Oct. 26, 1916.) "Here in America we have tried to set the example of bringing all the world together upon terms of liberty and . . . peace. . .. America has been a sort of prophetic sample of mankind." (President Wilson, at Charlotte, N. C., May 20, 1916.) "A nation made up out of the world should understand the world." (President Wilson to the New Citizens Alliance, Chicago, Oct. 19, 1916.) See Immigration; Naturalization.
Merchant Marine, United States. The merchant marine of the United States comprised 26,943 vessels of 7,928,688 gross tons on June 30, 1914. By June 30, 1915, tonnage had been increased 460,741 gross tons, the largest annual increase to that date. Foreign tonnage meanwhile increased faster than total tonnage, rising from 1,076,152 In 1914 to 1,871,543 gross tons in 1915. In 1916 the total tonnage was 8,469,649, an increase of 80,220 gross tons. Foreign tonnage in 1916 had increased to 2,191,715 gross tons, more than doubling the figures of 1914, an unprecedented growth in maritime history. The entrance of the United States Into the war has greatly affected the merchant marine. Figures for the fiscal year 1916-17 are misleading. They show a total of 26,234 vessels of 8,803,745 gross tons, a tonnage increase for the year of 334,096, whereas the confiscated German ships alone give an increase of about 620,000 gross tons. Repairs were not sufficiently advanced to permit the inclusion of more than a small per cent of this increase by June 30. Au increase of at least 540,000 gross tons should be added to the official figures to represent shipping under repair. The results show 1916-17 to be a phenomenal year in the history of the merchant marine. See Ship Corporation; Shipping; Ship Registry; Shipping Board; Submarine Warfare, British Losses; Submarine Warfare, Neutral Losses.
Mercier, Désiré Joseph, Cardinal (1851- ). Archbishop of Malines in Belgium, cardinal, Belgian patriot. He was professor of philosophy at Mallnes and at Rome, became archbishop of Malines in 1906, cardinaL 1907. When the Germans ~invaded Belgium he drew world notice by his patriotic labors and magnificent courage, his pastoral letter of Christmas, 1914, being a flaming indictment of Germany and an appeal for patience and patriotism on the part of all Belgians. For this tie was forbidden by the German authorities to leave his Episcopal residence, an act which drew on Germany the protest of the Pope. Since 1914 Cardinal Mercier has been tireless and fearless in his efforts to call attention to the pitiful state of Belgium. Every effort has been made by the Germans to prevent his words from being heard, but thus far these efforts have been unavailing. See Belgium; Belgium's Woe.
Mesopotamia. A region in western Asia, formed of the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (the word means "between the rivers"). Its area is 143,250 square miles. Some centuries ago the whole country was the abode of a flourishing civilization, reflected in the Arabian Nights. Under the blight of Turkish rule the population has sunk to perhaps 2,000,000, and the country Is a vast waste. Bagdad, the capital, is, how-ever, the center of a large trade, and there are valuable oil wells assumed considerable importance because of the Bagdad rail-way and the rivalry of Great Britain and Germany. As a result of the British occupation, effected gradually during the war, the people, who are Arabs, have been delivered from their Turkish masters, and the "Berlin to Bagdad" project has received a severe blow. See Bagdad; "Berlin to Bagdad;" Kut-el-Amara.
Mexico. Mexico is a federal republic south Of the United States. The capital is officially Mexico City, but the de facto Government proclaimed Queretaro the capital on February 14, 1916. Mexico contains 767,258 square miles, and a population in 1910 of 15,160,369. Gen. Venustiano Carranza, formerly the constitutionalist leader, has been recognized as the lawful leader of the Government under a new constitution, adopted in 1916. The official policy in regard to the European war is one of neutrality. See "Dc Facto," "de Jure"; Latin America, President Wilson on; "Watchful Waiting."
Mexico, German Intrigues in. In January, 1915, German agents began intriguing with Gen. Huerta, an unsuccessful claimant to the Mexican presidency. When Huerta sailed from Spain to New York, von Rintelen, a German of high rank and friend of the Crown Prince, met him there. Huerta proposed an invasion of Mexico. Von Rintelen agreed to furnish him arms, ammunition, and possibly German reservists. It was hoped to start trouble in Mexico and then unite Mexico against the United States. Such a war would tie up the oil wells at Tampico, from which the British navy draws supplies, and would keep the United States so busy that it could not allow the exportation of arms to Europe. It would further compel the United States to keep hands off in Europe. Huerta started west, pretending to visit the San Francisco Exposition but when he turned south toward El Paso he was arrested by United States Government agents. Since that time there has been a series of plots by Germans to stir up trouble for us In Mexico. Several Mexican newspapers are said to be in the pay of the German Government, and the German propaganda has been very active in every way. See Cronholm, Mexicans Adventures of; Zima merman Note.
Michaelis, Dr. Georg (1857- ). German Chancellor In July-November, 1917, in succession to Dr. von Bethmann Hollweg. Before the war he was Prussian undersecretary of finance, and later added the duties of food controller, in which post he achieved a very fair success. He seems to have been chosen at the last moment by the intervention of Gens. Hindenburg and Ludendorff. He failed to satisfy any faction by his policy of ambiguity and trimming.
Middle Europe. See "Mittel-Europa."
Militarism. Broadly, a policy which maintains huge standing armies for purposes of a~gress1on. More narrowly, a system of government in which the military power Is not accountable to the civil power. In Germany the Emperor, by definition and profession a soldier, is commander in chief of the army and navy, and his tenure is for life. In the United States the
President, a civilian and holding office for four years, is commander in chief. Under the constitution of Prussia, whose contingent comprehends the greater part of the German army, the Emperor-King may apply to the support of the army the amount last voted by the Diet, from year to year indefinitely. The German soldier takes an oath to support the Kaiser and not as in other lands the constitution. Under the United States Constitution no appropriation can be voted by Congress itself for more than two years. In Germany, finally, the military authorities are accountable for their acts only to military tribunals, while in this country all authorities are ultimately answerable to the ordinary courts. The militaristic character of the German system is vividly illustrated by the Zabern incident. See Junkerism; Lu embourg, Rosa; Zaberm.
Militarism or Disarmament. Dr. Eduard David, one of the leaders of the Social-Democratic Party in Germany, in the Reichstag, March 16, 1910, exposed the militaristic policies of the Imperial Government: "At the interparliamentary conference in London in 1906, in which, as you know, members of this house took part, Mr. Campbell Bannerman once more set forth the whole matter, and that conference resolved unanimously to submit the question of the limitation of armaments to the second conference at The Hague. And after all this-these words are meant for those gentlemen who formed that resolution-you ranged yourselves on the side of Billow's policy, which amounted to this, that the question of the limitation of armaments was being prevented from being discussed, and that the British Government was disavowed. On April 30, 1907 . . . you backed up Prince Billow in this house, when he carried this policy against the Liberal English Government. Nevertheless, the Liberal English Government persevered in its efforts to further the matter. I need only remind you that Mr. Lloyd George and others . . . tried once more to take the matter up with the German Government. . . . You will have to bear these facts in mind in order to understand what has happened in England. The Liberal Government has taken a stand on this question during all these years. had pledged Its authority, and bad taken the lead by practical proposals. It was disavowed by Germany. - . . And now the Liberal party finds itself compelled, in order not to be swept out of power under the influence of the 'German terror,' to make this tremendous increase of the navy a plank of its own platform. This Is what we have achieved." See Arbi
Military Government. Military government Is the govern-meat maintained by the belligerent occupant of a conquered region. It rests upon the will of the commander in chief, whose discretion, within the limits set by international law, may supersede the laws ordinarily in force in the occupied district. See Biasing.
Military Information. Article XLIV of The Hague Regulations reads: "A belligerent is forbidden to force the inhabitants of territory occupied by it to furnish information about the army of the other belligerent or about its means of defense." Germany declined to ratify this rule, of which the German War Book remarks: "However much it may ruffle human feeling to compel a man to do harm to his own fatherland, and indirectly to fight his own troops, none the less no army operating In an enemy's country will altogether renounce this expedient." See Militay Operations; Requisitions.
Military Resources of the United States. These are expressed in man power and in material terms. The population of the country in 1915 was probably 100,000,000. There are more than 20,000,000 men in the United States between the ages of 18 and 45 years. It Is computed that at least one-half of these would be available for active military service. Perhaps 600,000 more youths of fighting capacity would come of age each year if the war were prolonged. It was estimated at the outbreak of the war in 1914 that the United States had $1,887,270,664 in gold, approximately $19 per capita. On October 1, 1916, this total had been so increased that it was more than $26 per capita. We had silver and paper in circulation equal to $15.50 per capita. Our total stock of money when we declared war on Germany was about $4,200,000,000, or $42 per capita. The taxable wealth of the country was set down in 1914 at $187,739,071,090, about $19.65 per person, making us the richest people in the world. The resources of the United States-agricultural, mineral, and manufacturing-founded upon our native supplies are immense and are capable of vast and rapid expansion. See Gold; War Taxes.
Militia. In the second amendment of the Constitution of the United States it is said that "a well-regulated militia" is "necessary to the security of a free State." Until lately each State of the Union followed its own rules concerning the establishment and management of its own troops. In general the discipline was loose and service haphazard, little designed to produce valuable fighting units when they were called upon for Federal use. But by the Dick law of 1903 Congress pledged certain money grants to the State military organizations on condition that they should make themselves more efficient. In the national defense act of 1916 Congress went further and provision was made for federalizing the militia of the several states and draft tag it into the general service. Constructively now all able-bodied male citizens and "declarants" more than 18 years and not more than 45 years of age are militiamen. These are divided into the National Guard, the Naval Militia, and the unorganized ~ militia. Militia enlistment, however, remains voluntary. See National Defense Act; National Guard; Naval Militia.
Milyukov, Pavel Nikolaievich (1859- ). Prof. Milyukov has long enjoyed an international reputation as a scholar, particularly in history, and as one of the most persistent and boldest friends of Russian liberty. He was a member of the faculty of Moscow University in the early nineties. He was banished for his political views and came to the University of Chicago, where he lectured on Russian history. Later be returned to Moscow, ,but was taken from his classroom and given two years of exile to Siberia, where he wrote his History of Russian Culture. On his return to western Europe he taught for a time in the university at Sofia. He defied the Russian Government by removing to Petrograd and was imprisoned for six months. On his release he made his second journey to America and filled out four years of service as professor in the University of Chicago. When the revolution of 1905 broke out he returned to Petrograd. He was prevented by the Government from sitting in the first and second dumas, but served in the third and fourth. As leader of the Constitutional Democrats, he assumed general leadership of all the more liberal factions. In November, 1916, he attacked Prime Minister Stflrmer with such success that the latter resigned. After the revolution of March, 1917, Milyukov strove to establish a government on the English or the American model. As Minister of Foreign Affairs be committed himself to a policy of pursuing the war to complete victory, and to carrying out the Imperial Government's plans to secure Constantinople and Armenia for Russia as fruits of the war. These views were obnoxious to the Socialists, who forced Milyukov's resignation from the Government in May, 1917. See con8tantinople; Russian Revolution of 1017.
Mines, Marine. An underwater explosive device used for the injury of shipping at sea; of two types, (1) automatic, which explodes upon contact, and may be either anchored or drifting, and (2) controlled, which can be exploded only by action at the keyboard of the control station. The first article of the Eighth Hague Convention of 1907 reads: "it is forbidden:
(1) To lay unanchored automatic contact mines, except when they are so constructed as to become harmless one hour at most after the person who laid them ceases to control them; (2) to lay anchored automatic contact mines which do not become harmless as soon as they have broken loose from their moorings; (3) to use torpedoes which do not become harmless when they have missed their mark." From the outset of the war Germany has repeatedly sown mines along her own coasts and over portions of the North Sea in violation of these provisions, and in February, 1915, the American vessels Evelyn and Carib ~yi~riLb1QlYflJ1ILbflSB~Stfl~ted by Bernstorff, they proceeded "contrary to the directions" of the German admiralty and without a German pilot. Recently German mines have been encountered in the Bay of Biscay. See ; Forbidden Weapons; Poison.
Mine Sweepers. Vessels engaged in detecting and removing mines laid by the enemy. Ordinarily two small vessels patrol the mined area abreast. arranging a wire cable with - an end on each vessel. The mines are caught or swept by the cable and are then destroyed. See Trawlers.
Minimalists. Also called Mensheviki; the more moderate faction of Russian Socialists. See Bolsheviki.
Missions to the United States. After the United States entered the war, the various Governments associated with us dispatched missions to this country for the dual purpose of establishing contact with our Government and of explaining to American public opinion the issues of the war as understood abroad. The first to arrive were the British, headed by Mr. Arthur James Balfour, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and the French, headed by M. Viviani, vice president of the Council of Ministers, and Marshal Joffre, former commander in chief of the French armies. They were received with great enthusiasm, and laid the foundations for effective cooperation by the United States with the Allied Governments in the prosecution of the war. Later missions arrived from Russia, Italy, Belgium, Roumania, and Japan. Many of the missions traveled extensively in the United States and issued strong appeals to naturalized Americans from their respective countries to support the country of their adoption in the war.
" Mittel-Europa." The title of a book by Friedrich Naumann (English translation, Central Europe), and the expression of an idea. The idea is the consolidation of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, and the Balkan States into a single economic unit, which might be exploited by Germany In the interests of German commerce and German militarism. Nanmann's book, written in 1915, revealed to the general public the magnitude of the scheme and its dangers to the non-Teutonic world. He argues that the political socialism of Europe will continue after the war in an economic sense, and that Germany must protect herself by a close union, first with Austria-Hungary, and next with other contiguous States. "And over all these; over the Germans, French, Danes, and Poles in the German Empire; over the Magyars, Germans, Roumanians, Slovaks, Croats, and Serbs In Hungary; over the Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, and southern Slays in Austria, let us imagine once again the controlling concept of Mid-Europe. Mid-Europe will have a German nucleus, will voluntarily use the German language, which is known all over the world and is already the language of intercourse within central Europe, but must from the outset display toleration and flexibility in regard to all the neighboring languages that are associated with it." See "Berlin to Bagdad"; "Conquest and Kultur"; Constantinople; "Corridor"; "Flag Day Address"; German Military Autocracy, Plan of; German Military Dominance; Netherlands, German View of.
"Mittel-Europa" Realized. In 1917 "Mittel-Europa" is an accomplished fact, militarily speaking. Unless Germany is defeated she will emerge from the war tile political and economic master of the territory stretching from Hamburg to Mesopotamia. To preserve these conquests is the object of her intrigues for peace. (See map at end.) Germany has Montenegro, Albania, Serbia, most of Roumania, 260,000 square kilometers of Russia, nearly all of Belgium, 20,000 square kilometers of France, making 500,000 square kilometers of conquered territory. In this territory she has "scientifically enslaved" 42,000,000 human beings, a large number of whom are forced to labor for her. She has seized the war material and the railroads; she has seized and taken away animals, grains, potatoes, sugar, alcohol, metals of many kinds, oils, textile fabrics, motors, machinery, rolling mills, electrical engines, looms, etc. She has helped herself to the personal property of the inhabitants-tapestries, rugs, pictures, jewels, securities, etc. By her system of loans to her allies she has brought Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey absolutely under her control. These countries owe Germany not only the money advanced to them but enormous sums for war material as yet unpaid for. This control means that she will have a monopoly in exploiting the great resources of the Balkan States and Asia Minor. Further, her position in Middle Europe and Constantinople will force the economic subordinations of Russia, whose resources she will exploit. "Germany has really wrung from the war present and future profits which can be computed only in hundreds of billions of francs. This war therefore has brought Germany boundless material gain such as no war in history has ever brought to one people."
"German victory and the fruition of her most important war advantages depend directly in the maintenance of Central Pan-Germany, made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Turkey. Now, this maintenance is based on two prime conditions: (1) The continuance of Serbia's state of subjection to Austria-Hungary. (2) The preservation of the new economic and military lines of communication between Berlin on the one side and Vienna, Budapest, Sofia, and Constantinople on the other. . - . Finally, if the present order of things is preserved, Germany can maintain the Hamburg-Bagdad line. This would be assured by the adoption of the formula 'peace without indemnities and annexations.'" (Chradame, in Atlantic Monthly, November, 1917.)
Mobile Speech. See Latin America, President Wilson on.
Mobilization. The act of bringing together men, materiel, and all other military paraphernalia for instant use in war. Careful usage distinguishes between "mobilization" and "military preparations," though it is hard at times to draw the line. Mobilization was accomplished with unexampled facility in Europe, especially by the Central Powers, in 1914. In the words of Hermann Bahr "when we saw the miracle of this mobilization-all Germany's military manhood packed in railway trains rolling through the land, day by day and night after night, never a minute late and never a question for which the right answer was not ready and waiting-when we saw all this, we were not astonished, because it was no miracle; it was nothing other than a natural result of a thousand years of work and preparation; it was the net profit of the whole of German history." It was upon her careful preparations and ability to mobilize quickly that Germany counted in an attack on Russia and France. The latest evidence indicates that In the weeks before the war she had covertly gathered and located troops in such a way that mobilization was under way before the formal order went out. See Cantonments.
Mobilization Controversy. A great deal is made by German advocates of testimony given in the trial of Gen. Soukhomlinov, in September, 1917, which shows (it is alleged) that the Russian mobilization order was signed by the Czar either on July 29 or 30, whereas German mobilization was not ordered until August 1. But articles by the author of I Accuse, in the Zurich Freie Zeitung for September 22, and October 24, 1917, show: (1) That Russian mobilization was brought about by the refusal of Germany to transmit to Austria conciliatory proposals made on 'July 30 by the Russian Foreign Minister; (2) that Germany had actually been mobilizing for a long time (see evidence in Das T7erbrechen by the above author; also an article in Nineteenth Century for June, 1917); (3) that Russia's general mobilization was not considered as a cause for war by Austria, seeing that Vienna had resumed the negotiations with Petrograd on August 1; (4) that the Wolff news agency in its account of the Soukhomlinov trial changed the date of the' Russian mobilization and falsified a text establishing the culpability of Germany by substituting the word "Czar" for "Germany." See Potsdam Con ference; Sazonor's Efforts to Maintcti Peace; Soukhomlinov; War, Responsibility for, in 1914.
Mohammed V (1844- ). Sultan of Turkey since April 27, 1909, when he succeeded his deposed brother Abdul Hamid II. He had lived in retirement for more than 30 years, and since his accession to the throne has been a supple instrument in the hands of the Young Turks. See Enver Pasha; J'oung Turks.
Monastir. A Serbian city on the frontier between Serbia and Greece. Anglo-French forces were unable to prevent the evacuation of Monastir in December, 1915. On November 19, 1916, the city was reconquered from the Bulgarians by the Serbians.
Monroe Doctrine. A statement of principles made in the famous message of December 2, 1823. The occasion of the utterance was the threat by the so-called Holy Alliance to interfere forcibly in South America with a view to resenting Spain in control of her former colonies there. President Monroe, pointing to the fact that it was a principle of American policy not to intermeddle in European affairs, gave warning that any attempt by the monarchies of Europe "to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere" would be considered by the United States "as dangerous to our peace and safety." This warning fell in line with British policy, which was then directed by Canning, and so proved efficacious. In a later section of time same message the proposition was also advanced that the Amen-
can Continent was no longer subject to colonization. This clause of the doctrine was the work of Monroe's Secretary of State, J. Q. Adams, and its occasion was furnished by the fear that Russia was planning to set up a colony at San Francisco, then the property of Spain, whose natural heir on~ the North American Continent, Adams held, was the United States. It is this clause of the doctrine that has furnished much of the basis for its subsequent development.
Monroe Doctrine, German Attitude. In 1902 Germany united with Great Britain and Italy to collect by force certain claims against Venezuela. President Roosevelt demanded and finally, after threatening to dispatch Admiral Dewey to the scene of action, obtained a statement that she would not permanently occupy Venezuelan territory. Of this statement one of our most experienced and trusted publicists, an avowed friend of Germany, remarked at the time that, while he believed "it was and will remain true for some time to come, I can not, in view of the spirit now evidently dominant in the mind of the Emperor and among many who stand near him, express any belief that such assurances will remain trustworthy for any great length of time after Germany shall have developed a fleet larger than that of the United States." He accordingly cautioned the United States "to bear in mind probabilities and possibilities as to the future conduct of Germany, and therefore increase gradually our naval strength." Bismarck pronounced the Monroe doctrine "an international impertinence," and this is still the German view. Said the Afldeutsche Blätter of January 17, 1903:
"The Monroe doctrine can not be justified. It remains . . -what we Europeans almost universally consider it, an impertinence." Dr. Zorn, one of the most conservative of German authorities on international affairs, concluded an article in T,~ie Woche of September 13, 1913, with these words: "Considered in all its phases, the Monroe doctrine is in the end seemed to be a question of might only and not of right." The German Government's efforts to check American influence in the Latin American States have of recent years been frequent and direct; the encouragement of German emigration to certain regions, the sending of agents to maintain close contact, presentation of German flags in behalf of the Kaiser, the placing of the German Evangelical Churches in certain South American countries under the Prussian State church, annual grants for educational purposes from the imperial treasury at Berlin, and the like. The "Lodge resolution," which was adopted by the Senate in 1912, had in view the activities of certain German corporations' in Latin America, as well as the episode that immediately occasioned it; nor can there be much doubt that it was secret interference by Germany at Copenhagen that thwarted the sale of the Danish West Indies to the United States in 1903. See "Conquest and Kultur."
Monroe Doctrine, "Lodge Resolution." In view of a report that a Japanese corporation, closely connected with the Japanese Government, was negotiating with the Mexican Government for a territorial concession off Magdelena Bay, in
Lower California, the Senate, in 1912, adopted the following resolution, which was offered by Senator Lodge, of Massachusetts: "Resolved, That when any harbor or other place in the & American Continent is so situated that the occupation thereof for naval or military purposes might threaten the communications or the safety of the United States, the Government of the United States could not see without grave concern the possession of such harbor or other place by any corporation or association which has such a relation to another Government, not American, as to give that Government practical power or control for naval or military purposes." See Japanese-American Agreement.
Monroe Doctrine To-day. The great idea underlying the Monroe doctrine is still vital to-day. Said President Wilson in his address to the Senate of January 22, 1917, in which he sought to define the bases of a permanent peace: "I am proposing, as it were, that the nations should with one accord adopt the doctrine of President Monroe as the doctrine of the world; that no nation should seek to extend its policy over any other nation or people, but that every people should be left free to determine its own policy, its own way of development, unhindered, unthreatened, unafraid, the little along with the great and powerful." Other phases of the original doctrine are less in accord with the modern situation of the United States and that of its Latin American neighbors. "What affects mankind is Inevitably our affair, as well as the affair of the nations of Europe and of Asia." (President Wilson to the League to Enforce Peace, Washington, May 27, 1918.) "In the day in whose light we now stand . . . there is no claim of guardianship . . . but a full and honorable association as of partners between ourselves and our neighbors in the interests of America." (To Congress, Dec. 7, 1915.) See Aims of United States; Balance of Power; Equality of Nations; Pam-Americanism; Permanent Peace.
Mons. Mons is a city of southern Belgium from which the Anglo-French forces were forced to retreat on August 23, 1914.
Heavy fighting, constituting the battle of Mons, took place August 23-27. The Allied retreat continued until September 4,
forcing the French and British armies from a position about Mons to one south of Meaux.
Montenegro. Montenegro is a small Balkan monarchy overthrown by the German invasion of 1915. The area before the war was 3,500 square mil~ and the population was approximately 435,000. Its official capital is Cettinje. Nicholas I is the reigning monarch. He has taken refuge in France since the Austrian troops overran his kingdom In' February, 1918, and the Government has been transferred to Bordeaux.
Morality of Nations, American versus Prussian. (1) "The foundation of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality, and the preeminence of free government be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens and command the respect of the world." (George Washington, first inaugural, Apr. 30, 1789.) "We are at the beginning of an age In which it will be insisted that the same standards of conduct and of responsibility for wrong done shall be observed among nations and their governments that are observed among the individual citizens of civilized States." (President Wilson, before Congress, Apr. 2, 1917.) (2) "The question of right Is an affair of ministers. . . . It is time to consider it in secret, for the orders to my troops have been given." "Take what you can; you are never wrong unless you are obliged to give back." (Frederick the Great, in 1740, in justification of his seizure of Sllesia.) See America, Creed of; Belgium, Violation of; German Diplomacy; German Government, Moral Bankruptcy of; "NotwencUgkeit."
Moratorium. In order to save the credit of individuals who might be called upon to repay all their loans unexpectedly most of the European countries declared at the opening of the war a moratorium, or period of delay. Until this period had elapsed no debts could be collected by legal process. At the time of the Civil War some of the States authorized moratoriums for the benefit of their citizens who were entering the service of the United States, and their action was sustained by the courts In the face of the constitutional prohibition against laws "impairing the obligation of contracts." The power of the National Government to do the same thing as a "necessary and
proper war measure Is, of course, not open to question. The civil rights bill, under consideration in the last session of Congress, proposed to relieve the soldier of judgments taken against him by default when it is impossible for him to appear in court; to set aside the statute of limitations, so that debts owing him can not be outlawed because of his inability to take legal steps; to prevent the eviction of his family during his absence for failure to pay rent, the foreclosure of mortgages against him, and the lapsing of his life insurance policies; and some such measure will probably be enacted by Congress. As Judge Advocate General Crowder has recently said:
"This is but simple right and justice. Surely the law will not be permitted to work a destruction of the soldier's civil rights while he is away on the battle line fighting that our very law and institutions may be preserved. The law can not assail one who has risked his life that it might live." See Due Process of Law.
Morocco. A State formerly independent, now mostly French. on the west of North Africa, bounded by Algeria, the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and the Sahara. The area has been estimated at about 350,000 square miles. It is said to be one of the African territories richest in resources; horses and cattle are reared in great quantities and are exported to European markets. The soil has great agricultural possibilities and the mineral wealth is believed to be very great.
Morocco Question. Owing to its great natural resources Morocco has long been recognized as a profitable field for the
Investment of European capital. On that account, no doubt, and because of the weakness of its Government, intervention by foreign powers has been frequent. Because of the heavy investment of French capital and because the prevailing anarchy in Morocco threatened French interests in Algeria, France came to be regarded as having special interests in Morocco. In 1904, when France gained the assent of Britain and the cooperation of Spain in her Moroccan policy, Germany said nothing, and Chancellor von Bullow declared that Germany's interests In Morocco were purely economic. But in 1905 Germany demanded a reconsideration of Moroccan affairs, and forced France, against the will of her Minister of Foreign Affairs, De1cass~ (who resigned In consequence), to come to the conference at Algeiras. That conference discussed placing Morocco under international tutelage, but, because France was the only power In a position to undertake the necessary task of repressing Moroccan anarchy, France was left in charge, subject to certain Spanish rights, and continued her work. Germany seemed satisfied, and von Bullow said that Germany had no political interests in Morocco. In 1909 Germany and France came to an agreement, by which France granted equality of treatment to German merchants and Germany recognized the political interests of France. But in 1911, when France made disorders in Morocco an occasion for penetrating farther into the interior, and when German merchants complained that they were not getting equality of treatment, Germany for a second time reopened the question, by sending the gunboat Panther to Agadir, on the west coast of Africa, as if to establish a port there and tap the hinterland, although she bad no economic interests in that part of the country. France protested vigorously and Britain supported France, an act which the Germans regarded as one of pure interference. Matters came very close to war. Germany, however, surprised at the extent to which England and France were ready to make common cause, and not yet ready to force war upon so formidable a combination, recalled her gunboat, and accepted compensation in the French Congo. Her withdrawal, although by no means empty-handed, was looked upon by many Germans as a humiliation, and German periodicals showed great bitterness. The Pan-Germans refused to regard the Moroccan question as closed. Britain, they said, has taken Egypt, now France has Morocco; what do we get? From this time it was a growing belief among Germans that Germany would have to fight the Entente powers. See "Conque8t and Kultttr"; "Open Door" Policy.
Morocco Question, German View. "Morocco is easily worth a big war, or even several. At best-and even prudent Germany is getting to be convinced of this-war is only postponed and not abandoned. Is such a postponement to our advantage? .
They say we must wait for a better moment. Walt for the deepening of the Kiel Canal, for our navy laws to take full effect. It is not exactly diplomatic to announce publicly to one's adversaries, 'To go to war now does not tempt us, but three years hence we shall let loose a world war.' . . . No; if a war is really planned, not a word of it must be spoken; one's designs must be enveloped in profound mystery; then brusquely, all of a sudden, jump on the enemy like a robber in the darkness." (Albrecht Wirth, Unsere aitssere Politik, 1912, pp. 35-36.) German policy followed the line here recommended.
Motor Transport. A vast new agent of war due to the development of the gas engine as a method of propelling vehicles. The ground behind a fighting front is to-day filled with auto tracks and concrete roads; with tractors moving material and supplies; with cars carrying up reserves of men; and with ambulances bringing back the wounded. New heavy-service motor trucks, with a special ~Liberty motor designed for the purpose, have already been delivered in Washington. The British use the term "lorry" for the motor truck; the French call the whole motor service camion. See Liberty Motor; Petroleum.
Munitions Ministry, British. A new executive department of the British Government, established in June, 1915, to provide munitions of war for the conduct of military operations during the present war. The principal officer is the Minister of Munitions. The ministry has taken over the former Government ordnance factories, has established about a hundred new factories for the manufacture of guns, shells, and other munitions, and exercises detailed control over large numbers of establishments manufacturing munitions supplies for the Government. The ministry has been given vast powers to acquire property, to control the management of plants, to limit profits, to regulate the conditions of labor, and also to regulate many other matters which may affect the efficient production of munitions. Special committees have been appointed for particular problems, notably that on the health of munitions workers. An extensive series of munitions tribunals have been set up to settle labor disputes and complaints of violations of the regulations of the ministry. See Lloyd George; Priority; War Indu8trie8 Board.
Munitions Trade. Trade in munitions is permitted in international law, notwithstanding which the German Government on December 15, 1914, and April 4, 1915, protested against the supply of such commodities on a large scale by American firms to the Entente Allies. The Austro-Hungarian Government likewise presented a vigorous protest on June 29, 1915. They admitted that "under the general principles of international law no exception can be taken to neutral States letting war materials go to Germany's enemies from or through neutral territory." But it was claimed that it was contrary to the spirit of true neutrality to permit trade in munitions of war on so large a scale for the sole benefit of one side of the contest. Secretary Lansing in his reply of August 12 observed that this view would impose upon every nation a duty to sit In judgment on the progress of the war and to restrict its commercial intercourse with a belligerent whose naval successes prevented the neutral from trade with the enemy. He concluded his reply to the Austro-Hungarian Government as follows: "The principles of international law, the
practice of nations, the national safety. of the United States and other nations without great military and naval establishments, the prevention of increased armies and navies, the adoption of peaceful methods for adjustment of international differences, and, finally, neutrality itself are opposed to the prohibition by a neutral nation of the exportation of arms, ammunition, or other munitions of war to belligerent powers during the progress of the war." See Contraband of War.
Mutton. Receipts of sheep at the western markets from the beginning of the year to September 1, 1917, show a decrease of 37.1 per cent from the receipts for a corresponding period in 1916. The supply of frozen mutton in storage on July 1, 1917, was 60 per cent larger than on July 1, 1916. Exports for the past fiscal year have fallen from 5,552,918 pounds in 1915-16 to 3,195,576 pounds in 1916-17. The pressure of demand upon the supply of mutton is somewhat less heavy than in the cases of beef and pork. The Food Administration has urged the use of mutton, where meat must be used, whenever it is found possible to do so, although the supply of mutton as well as that of other meats must be conserved for military uses and for an increased exportation to our associates. See Beef; Pork; Meat ~Supply.