War Cyclopedia - D
"Dacia." A vessel belonging, before the outbreak of the European war, to the Hamburg-American Line, and habitually engaged in trade between German ports and ports of the Gulf of Mexico. At the time of the declaration of war it was on its way to Port Arthur, Tex., where, after arrival, it remained until its purchase by Edward Breitung, of Marquette, Mich., the following December. The vessel was then transferred to American registry, loaded with cotton, and dispatched to Bremen. On February 27, 1915, the French auxiliary cruiser Europe met the Dacia at the entrance of the English Channel and took her in charge. The French prize council decided that the transfer had been illegal and invalid and so held her good prize. See Ship Registry; Ship Transfer in Time of War.
Dalmatia. A province of Austria, lying along the Adriatic. Area, 4,956 square miles. Population, 660,336. The bulk of the population is southern Slav, but the towns on the coast are Italian. As portions of the inhabitants aspire to annexation, to Greater Serbia and Greater Italy, respectively, the disposition of the region will present a thorny problem with the discussion of peace terms.
Dardanelles. The straits which separate the Gallipoli Peninsula from Asia Minor and which form the western approach by water to Constantinople. In parts they are extremely narrow, and because of strong fortifications are almost impassable for an attacking fleet. In February and March, 1915, a Franco
British squadron carried on a bombardment and, after silencing the forts at the mouth of the straits, proceeded up to the narrow~. in April a expeditionary force of British and French troops was landed on the shores of the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Turks, warned of their danger, had made good use of the terrain, which was exceedingly well, fitted for purposes of defense. Behind good fortifications the Turk is an excellent fighter and the advance of the expeditionary force was checked decisively. Its losses were heavy, and in January, 1916, the attack on the Dardanelles was abandoned. The troops were skillfully reembarked and most of them sent to Saloniki. See Bagdad; Gallipoli; Saloniki.
"Daylight Saving." This movement plans "to set the clock ahead" one hour from May 1 to October 1. Thus an hour of sunlight Is substituted at one end of the day for an hour of -artificial light at the other. Benjamin Franklin originated the idea, but the modern proposal came first from William Willett, an Englishman, who in 1907 published a pamphlet entitled Waste of Daylight. Germany adopted the measure in 1916. Within a short time Holland, Austria, Turkey, England, France, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal, -and parts of Canada, together with a few cities in the United States, followed.
Death Rate from Casualties. See War, Low Death Rate.
Declaration of Intention. This is the official term for the oath which an alien takes two years prior to his. admission to citizenship, declaring his bona fide intention of becoming a citizen -of the United States and of renouncing all allegiance and fidelity -to any foreign prince or State. It is on the occasion of declaring his intention that an alien receives his "first papers," which entitle him to the protection of the Government when abroad for a limited period and with certain exceptions. See Citizenship, Naturalization; "Windber."
Declaration of London. In the winter of 1908-09 a conference of the leading maritime powers was held In London with
the object of fixing the principles of prize law for the government of the international prize court which had been agreed upon at The Hague Conference of 1907. The work of the conference was a declaration consisting of 71 articles "embodying a code of rules regulating the rights of neutrals and belligerents with -respect to neutral commerce." At the outbreak of the present
war the declaration had not yet been ratified by a sufficient number of belligerent powers to be reckoned a part of the accepted law of nations. Inasmuch, however, as it was distinctly favor-able to neutrals, President Wilson approached both sides with the suggestion that they indicate their adherence to it. Germany, the weaker naval power, professed willingness; England, to whom the real sacrifice was proposed, stipulated conditions, -and so the suggestion fell through. In point of fact, the declaration was already somewhat out of date. Thus cotton, to-day a constituent of high explosives, is listed by it as never contraband. Our Government has stated repeatedly that it does not regard the declaration as In force. See Freedom of the Seas; Navaliim.
Declaration of Paris. Was issued by the Congress of Paris in 1856, at the close of the Crimean War. It laid down the following epoch-making principles of maritime law: (1) privateering Is and remains abolished; (2) the neutral flag covers -enemy goods, with the exception &~2 contraband; (3) with the same exception, neutral goods under an enemy's flag are not subject to capture; (4) blockades to be binding must be effective. The declaration was signed by all the powers represented at the congress: England, France, Russia, Sardinia, Turkey, and Prussia; and most other powers have since signed. The United States refused to sign because, having a small Navy, it felt that, with private enemy property still subject to capture, it might find It necessary in case of war with a maritime power to resort to privateerlng. However, it has, in practice always observed the declaration and treated it as binding law. In 1898 the United States and Spain, neither of them a signatory, observed the rules. See Blockade; "Free Ships, Free Goo4s", Paper Blockade.
Declarations of War. See War, Declarations of, against -Germany.
"De facto," "de jure." "In fact"; "in law" or "of right." The recognition of new governments is apt to pass through two stages. At first the new government is recognized as the "de facto" government of the country; and then, when it becomes clearly able to discharge the duties of a member of
the family of nations and appears to be receiving the general -allegiance of those supposed to be subject to it, it is recognized as a "de jure" sovereign. The United States recognized the -Provisional Government of Russia on March 22, 1917, as the -de facto Government of that country. On September 15, 1917, the Carranza Government, hitherto recognized as the de facto Government of Mexico, was accorded recognition as the de jure -Government. See Mexico; Recognition.
Delbrück-Dernburg Petition.. In July, 1915, there was presented to Chancellor Bethmann Hollweg a petition against the -"incorporation or annexation of politically independent peoples." In general the petition urged that it was unwise for Germany to attempt the absorption of bitterly hostile peoples. The petition nevertheless declared for a peace that secured the "strategic needs" and "political and economic interests" of -the nation, i. e., such annexations as were absolutely necessary. -Among the 141 signers of this document were men who prefer colonial expansion, as Delbruck, or southeastern gains to annexation of near neighbors. Among t1~e distinguished names on this document were M. Foerster,Rohrbach, von Schmoller, von Siemens, Troeltsch, and Theodor Wolff. See German Government, Moral Bankruptcy of.
Democracy as a Social System. "The beauty [of democracy] - .. is that you do -not know where the man is going to come from, and you do not care, so he is the right man. -
You do not know whether he will come from the avenue or the -alley. . . . The humblest hovel . . . may produce your greatest man. A very humble hovel did produce one of your greatest men." (President Wilson, at Pittsburgh Y.M.C.A., Oct.24, 1914.)
Democracy as a System of Government. "The people of a democracy are not related to their rulers as subjects are related to a Government. They are themselves -the sovereign authority." (President Wilson, at Arlington, June 4, 1914.) "The Government is merely an attempt to express the conscience of everybody, the average conscience of the Nation, in rules that everybody is commanded to obey." (American Electrical Railway Association, Washington, Jan. 29, 1915.)
Democracy, the best Preventive of War. "Democracy is -
the best preventive of such jealousies and suspicions and secret intrigues as produce wars among nations, where small groups control rather than the great body of public opinion." (President Wilson, interview in the New York World, Nov. 5, 1916.)
Democracy, A World Safe for. "We are accepting this
challenge of hostile purpose because we know that in such a Government, following such methods, we can never have a friend; and that in the presence of its organized power, always lying in wait to accomplish we know not what purpose, there can be no assured security for the democratic Governments of the world. We are now about to accept the gage of battle with this natural foe to liberty, and shall, if necessary, spend
the whole force of the Nation to check and nullify its pretensions and its power. We are glad now that we see the facts with no veil of false pretense about them, to fight thus for -the ultimate peace of the world and for the liberation of its peoples, the German peoples included; for the rights of nations, great and small, and the privilege of men everywhere to choose their way of life and of obedience. The world must be made safe for democracy~ Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty. We have no selfish ends to -serve. We desire no conquests, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as the faith and the freedom of nations can make them. . . - But time right is more precious -than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have -always carried nearest our hearts-for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own Governments, for the rights and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a concert of free people as shall bring peace and safety to. all nations and make the world itself at last free." (President Wilson, to Congress, Apr. -2, 1917.)
Denmark. Denmark, by virtue of her location, commands the waterways connecting the Baltic and the North Sea. It. is a constitutional monarchy. Copenhagen is Its capital. The total area. according to the census of 1911, was 15,586 square miles, and the population at that time was 2,775,076. The reigning King, Christian X, ascended the throne on May 15, 1912. The Queen is Alexandrine, Duchess of Mecklenburg. See Kiel Canal;Schleswig-holstein.
Denmark, Neutral Problems. Denmark declared her neutrality at the outbreak of the war, and has never shown any -serious intention of departing from this policy. The great bulk of the population appears to favor the cause of the Allies, but her military inferiority in the face of Germany Will prevent Denmark entering the war. In addition, she has seemingly avoided any serious entanglement with Germany over submarine warfare, although she protested against the German decision of February, 1917, to wage unlimited submarine warfare. Trade questions are her greatest difficulty with the Allies; she is. a great producer of foodstuffs, and these are largely exchanged for German goods, notably coal. In order to prevent imports from the Allied nations reaching Germany or taking the place of home-produced goods exported into Germany, Denmark has, with other neutrals, been rationed by the Allies. See Neutrals; Rationing; Trade with Germany; "Willy and Nicky Correspondence."
Deportations. See Belgium, Deportations.
Dernburg, Bernhard (1865- ). Head of the German propaganda in America in the first year of the war. He spent a number of apprentice years in a banking house in New York, and after his return to Germany was connected with the Deutsche Bank, the Darmstadter Bank, and various other great financial and industrial concerns. In 1907 he became German secretary for the colonies; greater things were expected of him in the way of a businesslike administration of the colonies than he succeeded in accomplishing. In 1913 he was made a member of the Prussian Herrenhaus. Ostensibly as a private citizen he lived In America from the beginning of the war to June, 1915, when a wave of Indignation over his defense of the sinking of the Lusitania convinced him, or his Government, that his influence in America, if it had ever existed, was ended, and he sailed for Germany on a Scandinavian liner. See Delbrück-Durnburg Petition.
"Der Tag" For many years a favorite toast in the German army and navy was Der Tag-the day when war would come. "Not as weak-willed blunderers have we undertaken the fearful risk of this war. We wanted it; because we had to wish it and could wish it. May the Teuton devil throttle those whiners whose pleas for excuses make us ludicrous in -these hours of lofty experience. We do not stand, and shall not place ourselves before the court of Europe Germany strikes. If it conquers new realms for its genius,- the priesthood of all the gods will sing songs of praise to the good war. . . . We are waging this war not in order to punish those who have sinned, nor in order to free enslaved peoples, and thereafter to comfort ourselves with the unselfish and useless consciousness of our own righteousness. We wage It from the lofty point of view and with the conviction that Germany, as a result of her. achievements, and in proportion to them, Is justified in asking, and must obtain, wider room on earth for. development and for working out the possibilities that are in her. The powers from whom she forced her ascendancy, in spite of themselves, still live, and some of them have recovered from the weakening she gave them. . . . Now strikes the hour of Germany's rising power. - . . To be unassailable-to exchange the soul of a Viking for that, of a New Yorker, that of the quick pike for that of the lazy carp whose fat back grows moss-covered in a dangerless pond-that must never become the wish of a German." (Article by Maximilian Harden, translated in the New York Times, Dec. 6, 1914. Also in New York Times Current History, III, p. 130.)
"Der Tag "-When? Not long after the Spanish War ~ German diplomat, von Götzen, told an American Army officer: "About 15 years from now my country will start her great war. She will be In Paris in about two months after the commencement of hostilities. Her move on Paris will be but a step to her real object-the crushing of England. Everything will move like clockwork.We will be prepared and others will not be prepared. I speak of this because of the connection which it will have with your own country. Some months after we finish our work in Europe we will take New York and probably Washington and hold them for some time. We will put your country in its place with reference to Germany. We do not purpose to take any of your territory, but we do intend to take a billion or more dollars from New York and other places." (Testimony of Maj. N. A. Bailey to Dr. W. T. Hornaday, in a letter from Dr. Hornaday in New York Tribune, Aug. 11, 1915.) See America Threatened; Manila Bay; Spanish-American War, German Attitude.
Destroyers. Large torpedo craft of from 350 to 1,100 tons displacement. They have greater freeboard and higher speed than the torpedo boats, which they were devised to destroy. In the present war they have proved to be one of the best means for fighting submarines.
Destruction. Article XXIII of The Hague Regulations contains the following provision: "It is especially forbidden
to destroy or seize the enemy's property unless such destruction or seizure be imperatively demanded by the necessities of war." In the recent retreat of the Germans to the "Hindenburg line" schools, churches, municipal buildings, with their irreplaceable records, historical monuments which had survived a score of wars, were all ruthlessly and systematically destroyed; private property was ravaged, wells filled with dung, crossroads blown up, orchards cut down or girdled. An eyewitness writes "With field glasses I could see far in on either side of every road' for miles and miles; every farm is burned, fields destroyed, every garden and every bush uprooted, every tree sawed off close to the bottom. It was a terrible sight and seemed almost worse than the destruction of men. Those thousands of trees prone upon the earth, their branches waving In the wind, seemed undergoing death agonies before our eyes."
Such is the German view of what is "imperatively" demanded by the necessities of war. See Belgium m, Economic Destruction of; Louvanm; "Frightfulness"; Rheims.
Detention. The acti4n of a belligerent in keeping in port, pending their examination, neutral vessels and their cargoes which has intercepted on the high seas on suspicion of their being involved in forbidden trade with the enemy. Previously the examination of such cargoes and vessels was usually carried out at sea, but the British Government, early in the present war, introduced the practice described above on a large scale, and so provoked protest by the neutral United States. The British Government defended the innovation on the ground that examination at sea had been rendered' impracticable (1) by the great size of ocean carriers to-day and (2) by the submarine menace. It has shown itself liberal in compensating neutral owners for losses resulting from detentions. See Blockade; Embargo, British; Visit and Search.
"Deutschland.". An unarmed German merchant submarine about 300 feet long, and carrying a cargo of about 800 tons. In 1916 it twice sailed from Germany to the United States and returned. Each crossing of the Atlantic took from 16 to 22 days. The German cargo was reported to consist chiefly of dyestuffs; the American cargo of rubber and nickel. For several months German sympathizers built high hopes on the Deutschland, believing that it would prove to be only the first of a large number of German submarine freight boats and that the Allied blockade of Germany would thereby be broken. But no other such vessel ever reached an American port, although the sailing of a companion vessel, the Bremen, was reported. See Dyestuffs; War Chemistry.
"Deutschland über Alles." The refrain of a popular German song that has acquired a new and sinister meaning since 1914. If it meant only the supreme love of the loyal German for his fatherland it would embody a virtue; its vice and menace lie In the belief among many. Germans that their Germany is to dominate the world, that they have a destiny that warrants them in forcing other nations to submit to their will. See Kultur; Militarism; Pan-Germanism.
Diaz, Gen. Commander in chief of the Italian armies since November 8, 1917, when Gen. Cadorna was removed from command and made Italian military representative on Supreme War Council of the Allies. Diaz is a native of southern Italy, and had spent many years on the Italian General Staff. He served with distinction in the Libyan War as a colonel.
Diplomacy. The normal, peaceful intercourse of states, as carried on through certain recognized agency and in accordance accordance with a certain conventionalized etiquette. Also, the whole system of State relationships which has been thus created. "The peace of the world must depend upon a new and more wholesome diplomacy." (President Wilson, before the League to Enforce Peace, Washington, May 27, 1916.) See Balance of Power; German Diplomacy; President, Diplomatic Powers; Secret Treaties Revealed by Russia.
Diplomatic "Books." At the outbreak of the war the European Governments published their diplomatic correspondence in pamphlets with covers of various colors, according to long-established usage. Hence the terms often met with in discussions of the war, British Blue Book, French Yellow Book, etc. Collected editions of the documents have been published .by the British Government, Collected Diplomatic Documents relating to the outbreak of the European War, and by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Diplomatic Documents Relative to the Outbreak of the European War. Our State Department has issued several White Books containing Correspondence with the belligerent Governments before we entered the war.
Diplomatic Immunity. Diplomatic agents, their places of residence, the members of their households, and their effects are, generally speaking, free from the control of the country to which the agent is accredited. The inviolability of the person of the agent himself is one of the most ancient, as well as most indispensable, rules of intercourse among civilized States. Yet on the occasion of the breach of relations between Germany and our country the German Imperial Government did not hesitate to delay the departure of Mr. Gerard from Berlin, and to threaten to detain Americans generally unless he should sign a renewal and extension of certain articles of the Prussian treaties. At the same time he writes: "Our telegraph privileges were cut off. I was not even allowed to send telegrams to the american consuls throughout Germany giving them instructions. Mail was also cut off, and the telephone. My servants were not even permitted to go to the near-by hotel to telephone." (J. W. Gerard My Four Years in Germany, pp. 378, 383.) The Germans sought to justify themselves by alleging a rumor that von Bernstorff was being mistreated in America; and when this rumor was refuted by authentic information, and after Mr. Gerard had refused decisively to have anything to do with the proposed treaty, these annoyances were discontinued. So at the end of the episode It was the Germans who had transgressed the rules of International conduct and not we Americans. See German Diplomacy; Prussian Treaties.
Disarmament. The - Idea of disarmament Is not new; a hundred years ago, at the Congress of Vienna, men hoped that the nations would lay down their arms and live in peace. There was no formal action at the time, but in practice all European Governments greatly reduced their military establishments. After the wars, however, of Italian and German unification (1859-1871) conscription was generally adopted in Europe, only to be found a burden and a danger. Accordingly in 11898 the Czar of Russia invited the nations represented at his capital to a conference for the discussion of disarmament The conference met at The Hague in 1899, but, although much was done to promote the cause of peace, disarmament was ruled out by the resolute opposition of Germany, whose delegates boasted that armaments were not a burden but a privilege, and that Germany could Increase her expenditures indefinitely. The conference therefore could only resolve that "the restriction of military charges - . . is extremely desirable." As the time for the second conference drew near the German Emperor declared to Edward VII, of England, that he would go to war rather than allow the question of disarmament to be discussed. At this conference In 1907, however, it was resolved that "the governments should resume the serious examination of this question." In the years immediately preceding the present war, Great Britain endeavored to effect by agreement with Germany some limitation of naval programs, but again the same opposition was encountered. The difficulties of disarmament are undoubtedly great, the matter can not be solved by a mere resolution; but no progress toward a lasting peace can be made until all nations are agreed in principle to disarm. As President Wilson has said, "There can be no sense of safety and equality If great preponderating armaments are henceforth to continue here and there to be built up and maintained." (Jan. 22, 1917.) See Conquest and Kultur.
Disarmament, German Attitude. "Gentlemen, If the Great Powers wish to come to an understanding in regard to a general international disarmament, they will first have to come to an agreement in regard to the respective rank to which the different nations may lay claim, as compared with each other. An order of precedence, so to speak, would have to be drawn up, and each single nation would have to be entered, according to its allotted number, together with the sphere of influence that is to be accorded to it, in some such way, perhaps, as in the case of the Industrial syndicates. I must decline, gentlemen, to draw up such a list or to submit it to an international tribunal.
Gentlemen, whoever considers the question of a general disarmament objectively and seriously and follows it up to its last consequences must come to the conviction that it can not be solved so long as human beings are human beings and so long as States are States." (Chancellor von Bethmann-Hollweg, Reichstag, Mar. 30, 1911.) "Any agitation In Germany in favor of disarmament is- absolutely unpardonable. . . . Germany is, among all the powers, the only one which possesses not only sufficient men but also sufficient gold to increase armaments on land and sea to an extraordinary degree. Germany, however, is at the same time the nation that needs this increase of armaments the most. We stand not at the end, but at the beginning of a great development." (Hans Delbruck, Erinnerungen, quoted' in Germany's War Manila, 1914, pp. 256, 260.) See Arbitration; Conquest and Kultur; German Military Autocracy; Militarism or Disarmament; William II.
Division. The Infantry division Is complete In itself, having Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, Engineers, Signal and Quartermaster Corps troops, medical and sanitary troops, and all necessary supplies, materiel, and transportation, with the headquarters personnel enabling It to act independently of any other organization. It Is the command of a major general. The Infantry division of the United States Army is now corn posed of division headquarters, two Infantry brigades, each of two regiments of Infantry and one machine-gun battalion, one Field Artillery brigade (having two regiments of light and one of heavy Field Artillery and one trench mortar battery), one divisional machine-gun battalion, one regiment of Engineers, one Field Signal battalion, headquarters train, and military police, and Engineer, ammunition, supply, and sanitary trains. The division has a total strength of 887 officers and 26,265 enlisted ~ ~b. Cavalry d1vl~Ion at the beginning of the present war included headquarters and three brigades of Cavalry, with horse artillery, mounted Engineers, train, etc., _ and its total strength was 711 officers and 17,537 men. This organization will, in all probability, be somewhat changed to meet present conditions. See Battalion; Brigade; Company; Corps; Regiment.
Dobrudja. A Danubian province of Roumania bordering
upon Bulgaria. It is low and swampy and controls the southern bank of the Danube at its marsh. It was left undefended against Mackensen's forces when Roumania entered the war. Dobrudja was overrun by German, Austrian, Bulgarian, and _ Turkish forces in November and December, 1916.
Domicile. Legal residence; the place of one's permanent abode. In English and American practice domicile is important In determining the enemy character, and this is the test which is primarily adopted In the recent trading with the enemy act. See Alien Property Custodian; Naturalization; Trading with the _ Enemy Act.
Draft. A military draft is based upon the universal liability to service of all male citizens and permanent residents. The principle Is as old and as universal as government. The French Revolution revived and systematized universal liability to service, which became the foundation of military power on the continent of Europe in the nineteenth century, the liability being extended from service in a national emergency to service in time of peace, on the theory that if one is liable to serve one is also bound to receive the training necessary for useful service. In the United States Washington desired the draft in the Revolution, and Madison was intending to employ it in 1815, when the close of war rendered It unnecessary. In the Civil War It was resorted to by both Union and Confederate Governments. LIncoln first applied it in 1862, at that time calling upon the governors, without special legislation, to use their constitutional power to draft within the several States. In 1863 Congress provided for a national draft, which was applied throughout the war. The draft has taken many forms. The ages between which there is liability to service are traditionally 16 to 60. In a modern State all persons between the stipulated age could not be employed, and so from the total a certain number is drafted. All systems attempt to equalize the burden between the various communities by calling for the same pro.~ portion or quota from each. Should this number be chosen by lot, we would have a simple draft system. In all cases, how-ever, the attempt is made to draw first the most fit or those who can best be spared. Any such system is a selective draft, though the principles 'upon which the selection is made vary. Any draft Is a conscription, though In common usage conscription is usually -applied to an elaborate and generally to a permanent , as contrasted with use for an emergency only. 5ee~ëZeetive Service.
Draft, Constitutionality of. The notion Is sometimes advanced that the draft conflicts with the thirteenth amendment to the Constitution. This idea is sufficiently met by the following passage from a recent decision of the Supreme Court: "The thirteenth amendment declares that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist. This amendment was adopted with reference to conditions existing since the foundation of our Government, and the term involuntary servitude was Inc. tended to cover those forms of compulsory labor akin to African slavery, which In practical operation would tend to produce like undesirable results. It introduced no novel doctrine with respect of services always treated as exceptional, and certainly was not intended to Interdict enforcement of those duties which Individuals owe to the State, such as services in the Army, Militia, on the jury, etc. The great purpose in view was liberty under the protection of effective government, not the destruction of the latter by depriving it of essential powers." (Butler v. Perry, 240 U. S., 328, 332-333). It may be added that the Civil War draft and the thirteenth amendment came from Congress at practically the same time. See War Powers.
"Drang nach Osten." A German phrase meaning "push toward the east." It originally signified the eastward-movement of the Germans from the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries, by which they conquered or dispossessed the thinly settled Slays beyond the Elbe und along the southern shores of the Baltic. In recent years Drang nach Osten has been used to designate the extension of German power and influence to the southeast, especialy In Asiatic Turkey. It is brought about through the political friendship of Germany and Turkey, through the settlement of Germans, and especially through the activities of German banks, trade, and railways. In the case of Austria-Hungary, Germany's ally, the Drang nach O8ten has taken the form of an attempt to extend Austrian influence over the Balkan States, especially in the control of their foreign relations; of late years it has manifested an economic turn, looking to the control of the Danube Valley and the Vardar Valley in Macedonia and its outlet at Saloniki, which would secure outlets for Austrian trade to the Black Sea and to the AEgean. For this reason every effort has been made to keep serbia in economic dependence on Austria by depriving her of an independent outlet to the sea. In general, Drang nach Osten is the expression of those economic and political policies of the Central Powers which led them to precipitate the European war In August, 1914. See "Berlin to Bagdad"; Conquest a.n4 Kultur; "Corridor"; Constantinople; "Mittel-Europa."
"Dreadnaught." - A' British battleship, first of a new type of heavy battleship, designed under direction of Admiral Sir John Fisher and launched in 1906. The size and power of this type forced upon all maritime nations a revision of their naval programs, while Germany was forced also to undertake the enlargement of her Kiel Canal in order to accommodate such vessels. The opening of the widened and deepened Kiel Canal was celebrated July 1, 1914.
Dual Citizenship. Native citizenship may be determined by either of two principles: The jus soli, which makes place of birth the test, and the jus sanguinis, which makes parentage the test. The former is illustrated by the fourteenth amendment, which declares that "all persons born . -. In the United States . . . are citizens of the United States." - The latter is illustrated by section 1998 of the Revised Statutes, which provides that "all children . . . born out of the limits of the United' States whose fathers . . . may be, at the time of their birth, citizens thereof, are declared to be citizens of the United States." Thus the United States claims allegiance by both titles, and so do other States. Hence conflicts arise. In the recent case of Lelong the State Department ruled that a person who was born in the United States of a native French father was a person of ~' dual nationality" and liable, if he voluntarily entered the jurisdiction of France, to be held for military service In that country. There is a growing tendency on the part of States to avoid conflicts of this character by allowing the State having actual jurisdiction in the case of a person of dual nationality to claim his allegiance, on the ground that such person' has voluntarily chosen his domicile. But treaty provisions sometimes modify this tendency. See Naturalization.
Dual Citizenship, German Law. The German Imperial and State citizenship law of July 23, 1913, often called the Delbruck law, provides that "a former German who has not taken up his residence in Germany may, on application, be naturalized by the State [of Germany] of which he was formerly a citizen . . . the same applies to one who is descended from a German or has been adopted as a child of such." In other words, Germans who have been naturalized in the United States and their children may acquire citizenship in the Fatherland without leaving the United States or affording our Government any Indication that they owe allegiance to Germany. The same law further states (sec. 25) that "Citizenship is not lost by one who, before acquiring foreign citizenship, has secured, on application, the written consent of the competent authorities of his home State to retain his citizenship." It would be impossible for a German applicant for citizenship in the United States to avail himself of this section without perjury. See Naturalization, Oath of; Dumba, Recall of.
Due Process of Law. When people can find no better reason for not wlshing to obey an act of Congress they say that it deprives them of "liberty and property without due process of law." The fact of the matter is, however, that the "due process" clause of the fifth - amendment was never meant to prevent Congress from passing all laws "necessary and proper" for carrying into execution Its powers and the powers of the other organs of the Government. For as the Supreme Court has said more than once, the Constitution does not contradict itself by granting Congress power in one section and then taking it away in another. See Congress, Implied Powers of; War Powers.
"Dugout." (1) A term applied at the beginning of the war to retired British officers who were "dug out" of their retirement and were set to drilling recruits. (2) An underground residence or barracks built In connection with the trench system as a refuge for reserve trench troops during a bombardment. See " Pill-boxes."
Dumba, Recall of. Dr. Constantin Dumba was Austro-hungarian ambassador to the United States until recalled at the request of Secretary Lansing. In a letter to the Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs, dated August 20, 191~, Dr. Dumba recommended "most warmly" to the favorable consideration of the Austro-Hungarian foreign office "proposals with respect to the preparation of disturbances in the Bethlehem Schwab's steel and' munitions factory, as well as In the Middle West." He felt that "we could, if not entirely prevent the production of war material in Bethlehem and in the M~dd1e West, at any rate strongly disorganize it and hold it up for months." This letter was entrusted to an American newspaper correspondent named Archibald, who was just setting out for Europe under the protection of an American passport. Archibald's vessel was held up at Falmouth, England, and his papers seized, and their contents cabled to the United States. On September 8 Secretary Lansing instructed Ambassador Penfleld at Vienna to demand Dr. Dumba's recall, and his demand was soon acceded to by Vienna. Dr. Dumba's own apology was that he was merely endeavoring to dissuade Austro-Hungarian subjects from engaging in an employment which would involve them "in treason against their own country"; that Is to say, he assumed that Austria might continue to regulate the conduct of her subjects after they had come to the United States to reside. His employment of an American citizen, with an American passport, as a messenger was, of course, an attempt to impose upon the good faith of countries with which the United States was at peace. it Is known to-day that Bernstorff was equally guilty with Dumba In fomenting riot and disorder in American Industries. His escape at the time from detection is explained by Dumba thus: "Count von Bernstorff took the position that these slanders required no answer au4 had the happy inspiration to refuse any explanation." 8e~ ~1qI~jtnftigt~e:
Dum-Dum. The location of an ammunition factory in India, at which, about 1897, there was Invented a bullet with a soft nose, which expanded upon meeting resistance and produced a specially destructive wound. The use of bullets of dum-dum type, as well as explosive bullets, was forbidden by The Hague treaty. Both belligerents, in 1914, complained to the United States that the enemy was using dum-dum bullets; probably without great warrant on either side, for the regulation bullet at close range often flattens, producing wounds of the dum-dum type.