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Jagow, Gottlieb von (1863- ). German Foreign Minister, 1913-1916. During the negotiations preceding the war he repeatedly declared that he had no previous knowledge of the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia, but he seems subsequently to have admitted that he had seen the note 14 hours before its presentation at Belgrade. See Potsdam Conference.

Japan. The Japanese Empire consists of four large and numerous small islands in eastern Asia. The area of the large islands is approximately 137,093 square miles. The population in 1913 was 53,362,682. Tokyo is the capital. The Emperor is Yoshihito, who has reigned since July 30, 1912. Japan, loyal to the Anglo-Japanese alliance, issued a declaration of war against Germany on August 23, 1914. See Kiaocflow.

Japanese-American Agreement. On November 2, 1917, Viscount Ishii for Japan and Secretary Lansing for the United States exchanged notes clarifying the policy of the United States and Japan regarding China. In a statement announcing the agreement Secretary Lansing spoke of the attitude of constraint arid doubt fostered by a campaign of falsehood adroitly and secretly carried out by the Germans, and declared that through the frankness and cordiality of the Japanese commissioners this propaganda of years had .been undone in a few days. The main points of the agreement were as follows: "The Governments of the United States and Japan recognize that territorial propinquity creates special relations between countries, and consequently the Government of the United States recognizes that Japan has special interests in China, particularly in the part to which her possessions are contiguous. The territorial sovereignty of China, nevertheless7 remains unimpaired, and the Government of the United States has every confidence in the repeated assurances of the Japanese Government that, while geographical position gives Japan such special interests, they have no desire to discriminate against the trade of other nations. . . . Moreover, they mutually declare that they are opposed to the acquisition by any Government of any special rights or privileges that would affect the independence or territorial integrity of China, or that would deny to the subjects or citizens of any country the full enjoyment of equal opportunities in the commerce and industries of China." The Chinese Government has issued a statement that it can not be bound by agreements concerning it entered into by other powers. See China; "Open Door" Policy; Sphere of Influence.

Jaurès, Jean Leon. Born, 1859, in Castres; became a lecturer at the University of Toulouse and went into politics as a moderate Socialist. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies, he became a great force and held posts in several cabinets. He wished to see capitalism abolished, but regarded many Marxian theories as impracticable. On many occasions he acted as unofficial arbitrator in great strikes. He was regarded as the most eminent Socialist in France, if not in the world. He was editor and part author of the 12-volume Socialist history of France since 1789. During the years 1912-1914 he took part in the revival of French patriotism, although urging his countrymen to be cautious. On July 31, 1914, just after lie had returned from an international Socialist conference meeting at Brussels to protest against war, he was assassinated by a demented French nationalist.

Jellicoe, Admiral Sir John R. (1859- ). The first figure In British naval management during the present war. He had seen service In all parts of the world, and at the outbreak of hostilities in August, 1914, was appointed commander in chief of the "grand fleet." The responsibility for the arrangements which have so effectually "bottled up" the German navy and rendered It powerless for offensive action almost from the first day was his. When succeeded by Sir David Beatty, in 1916, he became First Sea Lord at the Admiralty, in which capacity he is responsible for the direction of the entire British naval forces.

Jerusalem. Fall of. See Palestine.

Joffre, Gen. Joseph Jacques Césaire (1852- ). Late commander in chief of the French armies. He entered the army as a second lieutenant during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, commanding a battery in the siege of Paris. He later served with distinction in the French colonies in Asia and Africa. Appointed chief of the general staff of the French army in 1911, he assumed active command at the outbreak of the war, and his fame became world-wide when he stopped the German advance upon Paris at the battle of the Maine. On his recent visit to America as the head of the French mission he aroused popular sympathies as no other Frenchman has done since Lafayette's last visit in 1825. He was succeeded in active supreme command at the end of 1916, after two and a half years of the most arduous responsibility, by Gen. Nivelle, whose reputation was made in the defense of Verdun, but who was soon superseded by Gen. Pétain. Gen. Joffre was made marshal of France, and is now chief military advisor to the French Government.

Judge Advocate General. This officer stands at the head of the legal bureau of the War Department. He is attorney for the Secretary of War. He must know civil and military law and direct procedure in accordance therewith. Courts-martial, courts of inquiry, and military commissions are under his general direction.

Jugo-Slavs. See Slav; Ukraine.

Junker. A member of a noble Prussian family, who belongs to the landed aristocracy, and, as a rule, adopts .the profession of arms and enters the taste circle of the officer corps. Thanks to the survival of feudalism in the organization of German society, the term has acquired a broader significance. Hence as used commonly to-day it indicates a narrow-minded, arrogant, and, often, bellicose member of the aristocracy. Since 1862, when, under the leadership of Bismarck, the aristocratlc party came into political power, the term has been applied to those who hold reactionary views, because they desire to preserve intact the exclusive social, military, and political privileges belonging traditionally to the "well born." Junkerism and junkerdom indicate the policies and the customary round of ideas, judgments, and prejudices characteristic of the junker class. They have been and still are of great influence, for they have affected Prussian domestic policies by their organized efforts to preserve and protect large landed estates; they have molded German social life by their assumption of complete superiority to the ordinary man, especially to the man who engages in trade or manufactures, while the Prussian officer corps has taken its distinctive tone from their haughty aloofness from the civilian population. See Autocracy; Kaiserism; Militarism.

Jutland Battle, May 31, 1916. The most important naval battle of the war between the German high seas fleet, under Admirals Ripper and Scheer, and the British grand fleet, under Admirals Jellicoe and Beatty. Much of the engagement was fought in the mist and after dark, while the opposing statements of losses leave their exact extent in doubt. The Germans prematurely celebrated a victory with a school holiday, but their fleet retired to port and has not since ventured out to challenge the British fleet.