War Cyclopedia - B
Backward Nations. The term applied to nations requiring foreign capital for their economic development, but unable to guarantee full protection' to such capital when it is Invested within their limits, with the result that they become the prey of creditor States. Instances of such "backward nations" are Morocco and Turkey. The modern tendency in the case of these nations is to open them to the capital of all nations on an equal footing and to make such tutelage, as may be necessary international, rather than that of single nations. The first of these two policies Is Indicated by the so-called "open-door policy" of the United States by which it was laid down that trade opportunity should be open to the capital of all nations without discrimination. The second policy was attempted by the conference of Algeciras, in 1906, but owing to lack of support at the time proved a failure. See Morocco; Turkey.
Bagdad. Bagdad controls much of the trade of Mesopotamia and Arabia, and is the strategic center for the region between Constantinople and the Persian Gulf. It is the terminus of a railroad from Constantinople projected before the war and hurried to completion since 1914. It was the objective of the Russian and British campaign of 1915-16 which was temporarily abandoned after the fall of Kut-el-Amara in April, 1916. Ia January, 1917, the British began a new advance up the Tigris. On March 11 (len. Mancle entered Bagdad. The continuation of the advance from the city caused a Turkish retreat into Mesopotamia, whither they were pursued by the Russians from Persia. A junction üf the British and Russian forces on April 4 was followed by a British drive up the Bagdad Railway to Samara, and the British occupation of the Euphrates Valley. Operations in this theater were retarded by the Russian revolution. See Constantinople; Kut-el-Arnara; Mesopotamia.
Bagdad Railway. See "Berlin to Bagdad"; Turkey.
Balance of Power. The theory that no State or group of States must be allowed to become so strong as to menace the liberties of other States. In accordance with this principle, which is expressive of the mutual rivalries and fears of dynasties, the States of Europe were wont, especially in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, to range themselves in two opposing alliances, one headed by Austria, the other by France. At its best, as in the wars against Louis XIV, the principle safeguarded the independence of the smaller States, but in the days of its deterioration it sometimes, as in the case of the partition of Poland, led to their destruction. Certainly, to-day its usefulness is outgrown. A diplomacy which accepted the democratic principle that governments rest upon the consent of the governed would leave no room for dynastic and imperialistic rivalries, but would appeal to the belief that the underlying Interests of the great mass of meii are friendly and cooperative. Such a diplomacy, the feasibility of which is proved by the historic policy of the United States toward the other nations of the Western Hemisphere, could unite the world in what the President has called "a community of power" to defend the general peace and promote the common civilization. See Aims of United States; America, Creed of; Monroe Doctrine; Pan-Americanism; -Permanent Peace, American Plan; War Aims of the United States
Balfour, Arthur James (1848- ). British statesman, at present Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He entered Parliament in 1874, held several cabinet positions, and became head of the Conservative party and Premier in July, 1902. 1-Ic resigned in December, 1905, just before a crushing defeat of his party at the hands of the Liberals in the elections of January, 1906. His leadership of the party in opposition was disliked, and he later resigned this leadership to Mr. Bonar Law. When the coalition cabinet was formed in May, 1915, Mr. Balfour became head of the admiralty, and in December, 1916, relinquished this for the post of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, succeeding Viscount Grey of Fahlodon. In this capacity he headed the British mission to the United States in the spring of' 1917. See Missions to the United States.
Balkan Problem. This is the general title around which are collected a number of special problems arising in or having reference to the Balkan States. These are: (1) problems of nationality, such as the Bulgarian claim to Macedonia and the Ronmanian claim to Transylvania; (2) economic problems such as Serbia's desire for an outlet to the sea and the Austrian desire to dominate the Vardar valley and the road to Saloniki; (3) the European problem of the changes In the balance of power as affected by the shifts in the Balkans and the attendant strengthening of the influence of Russia on one hand or of the Central Powers on the other. See "Mittel-Europa"; Pan-Gerrnanism; Pan-Slavism.
Balkan Wars. Fought in 1912-13. By showing the strength of Bulgaria and the other Balkan States, they aroused the fears of Austria and the cupidity of Germany. The first, involving Turkey on one side and Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Montenegro on the other, grew out of Turkish misrule in Macedonia, a territory inhabited by Greeks, Bulgars, and Serbs. In six weeks the Turks were driven back to within 25 miles of Constantinople; an armistice was promptly concluded, and a treaty of peace was signed in London on May 30, 1913. By that instrument, which was concluded under pressure of the powers, Turkey lost most of her European possessions. Unfortunately the victors quarreled among themselves. On June 29, 1913, Bulgaria treacherously attacked her Serbian and Greek allies in the hope of securing possession of Macedonia. She was not successful, and when Roumania attacked her in the rear, she was forced to sign the treaty of Bucharest, August 10, which awarded her only a small strip along the Aegean and forced her to cede territory to Roumania. Hence she has joined the Central Powers in order to recover the lands lost to Greece, Serbia, and Roumania. The Hohenzollern affiliations of several of the Balkan rulers helped to make their lands pawns in Germany's game. The Balkan wars disrupted the Balkan league, which might have been strong enough to prevent European intervention In the Balkans. See Pan-Germanism; Pan-Slavism; Serbia.
"Baralong" Affair. The British cruiser Baralong is alleged to have sunk a German submarine while the latter was in the act of sinking a British cargo steamer Nicosian, on August 19, 1915, and to have shot the commander and crew after they had offered to surrender and were struggling in the water. Affidavits to prove this allegation were presented to the British Government by the German Government through the United States as intermediary, and the demand made that the British Government proceed against the captain and crew of the Baralong for murder. The British Government in answer proposed that the affair be investigated by an impartial tribunal of American naval officers, along with three other incidents, in one of which a German destroyer was alleged on the day of the Baralong affair to have fired upon a British submarine stranded on the Danish coast, and upon its crew when they attempted to swim ashore. The German Government declined the proposal. See "Belgian Prince"; "Spurlos 'Versenkt" Applied.
Barbed-wire Entanglements. These are but one of many ancient or mediaeval principles revived for use in the present war, as e. g., the steel helmet, the hand grenade, the trench periscope of lineage as early as the sixteenth century, the trench itself, the mine and countermine, the flooded spaces which suggest the ancient moat, and the concealed pits with spikes at the bottom for men to fall into. The barbed-wire entanglement is merely the abatis revived. That was made of trees with their boughs cut off and sharpened. The entanglement is of wire with protruding points, run back and forth over ground to be defended. The wire is sometimes electrified.
Barrage. A new word in the - military vocabulary-specifically, the act of barring by artillery fire. By exact measurements a line of guns is brought to bear upon a certain terrain. The fire creates a complete screen of projectiles. Behind it a body of troops is safe; through it no enemy can advance. By moving the barrage line forward ("creeping" barrage) a detachment can advance with a minimum of casualties. It is controlled by observers at the front who find ranges and direct artillery fire by telephone or wireless, and it demolishes, in front of the attacking force, wire entanglements, trenches, and "pill-boxes."
Base hospitals. Base hospitals receive the wounded from the front, treat their wounds, and then pass them on to permanent hospitals in the rear. Shortly after the beginning of the war in Europe the American Red Cross proceeded to organize base hospital units in connection with medical centers. Each of these base hospitals has a staff of 22 physicians, 2 dentists, 65 Red Cross nurses, and 150 enlisted men of the Army Medical Corps. Before war was declared 26 of these units had been formed, while the total number of units ready for service is now much larger. Each unit purchased equipment for 500 beds and stored it away for use in war time. It costs on an average $75,000 to equip a base - hospital with beds, blankets, sterilizers, operating tables, tents, dental outfits, automobiles, and kitchens.
Base of Naval Operations. Article V of the Thirteenth Hague Convention (concerning the rights and duties of neutral powers in naval war) reads: "Belligerents are forbidden to use neutral ports and waters as a base of naval operations against their adversaries, and in particular to erect wireless telegraphy stations or any apparatus for the purpose of communicating with the belligerent forces on land or sea." Germany has frequently violated the provisions of this article. Officials of the Hamburg-American Line, including the managing director, Dr. Buenz, former German consul and once minister to Mexico, undertook, under the direction of Capt. Boy-Ed, naval attaché of the German Embassy, to coal and provision German raiders at sea. On the morning of July 31, 1914, the day before Germany declared war on Russia and two days before she invaded France, Buenz received a telegram asking whether he was ready, and answered, "Yes." Accordingly the Thor sailed from New York August 3, the Berwind and the Lorenzo two days later, and the next day the Forum and the Somerstad. "What did you consider your obligation to the United States?" Dr. Buenz was asked. "I didn't give it much thought," he replied. Ships sailed from other ports, including Norfolk and New Orleans; and the same autumn, under the direction of Capt. Boyd and the German consulate at San Francisco, the Sacramento and Mazatlan carried supplies to German war vessels in the Pacific. Dr. Buenz was convicted and sent to the penitentiary. It was proved that false manifests and clearance papers were sworn to and that over $2,000,000 had been spent. It was proved also that Buenz was acting under an agreement reached in the autumn of 1913 between his line and the German Government. In time of peace Germany had prepared to violate our neutrality in the event of war. See Wireless Stations.
Battalion. An organization of two, or more, generally four companies in the Infantry, Engineers, and Signal Corps, and of two or more batteries in the Field Artillery~ Two or more Coast Artillery companies are usually organized into provisional battalions for other than Coast Artillery formations. The total strength of a complete Infantry battalion In the United- States service is 26 officers and 1,000 men; of a machine-gun battalion of 3 companies 20 officers and 550 men, and of 4 companies 26 officers and 728 men; of a battalion of light artillery 17 officers and 579 men; of heavy field artillery 12 officers and 456 men; of a field signal battalion 14 officers and 248 men; and of an Engineer battalion 20 officers and 753
men. A trench mortar battalion has 17 officers and 747 men. In the present war the importance of the battalion has been greatly increased. See Company; Regiment.
Battery. The smallest administrative and tactical unit in the Field Artillery. A 3-inch gun battery (light artillery) has 5 officers and 193 men; a heavy field artillery (6-inch) has 5 officers and 228 men. The term "battery" includes both the personnel an(l materiel. It is also used to designate a Coast Artillery emplacement, the guns mounted therein, and the matériel and supplies necessary for their service. Two batteries of heavy batteries of light usually make up a battalion, under command of a major. See Artillery; Battalion; Regiment.
Battle Cruiser. A new type of war vessel provided for in recent naval construction programs. It combines the power of the battleship of the dreadnaught class with much of the speed and handiness in action of the cruiser. See Dreanmaught; Cruiser.
"Battle Line of Democracy." President Wilson writes:
"No one who is not blind can fail to see that the battle line of democracy for America stretches to-day from the fields of Flanders to every house and workshop where toiling, upward-striving men and women are counting the treasures of right and justice and liberty, which are being threatened by our present enemies. It has not been a matter of surprise to me that the leaders in certain groups have sought to ignore our grievances against the men who have equally misled the German people. Their insistence that a nation whose rights have been grossly violated, whose citizens have been foully murdered under their own 11 ag, whose neighbors have been invited to join in making conquest of its territory, whose patience in pressing the claims of justice and humanity has been met with the most shameful policy of truculence and - treachery, their insistence that a nation so outraged does not know its own mind, that it has not comprehensible reason for defending itself, or for joining with all its might in maintaining a free future for itself and its ideals, is of a piece with their deafness to the oft-repeated statement of our national purposes." (Letter to American Alliance of Labor and Democracy, September, 1917.)
Battle Line of Democracy. Title of a collection of prose and poetry of the great war, selected especially for home and school use and public recitation. Published at 15 cents a copy by the Committee on Public Information, Washington, D. C
Battleship. A large war vessel capable of steaming on the high seas, completely protected by heavy armor, Large., steel plates secured to its side and over important parts as a guard against gunfire, and carrying a heavy armament of guns. The first American battleship in the new Navy was the Indiana, commissioned In 1895. See Dreadnaught; Battle Cruiser; Navy, "New."
Beatty, Admiral Sir David (1871- ). Commander of the Grand Fleet of the British Navy, in succession to Sir John R. Jellicoe. He was present at and played a gallant part in the battle of Jutland in 1916, as commander of the First Battle Cruiser Squadron. In 1901 he married a daughter of Marshall Field, of Chicago.
Beef. Receipts of cattle at the seven leading markets increased 2.4 per cent for the first seven months of 1917 over a corresponding period in 1916, which was a record year to that date. The domestic and foreign demand for beef has increased more rapidly than the available supply, and importations, mostly from Canada and Argentina, have steadily decreased since 1914. Exports of beef in all meat forms during 1916-I 7 amounted to 303,451,493 pounds, worth $49,971,660. This was an increase in the exports of canned beef over figures for 1916, but the exports of -fresh, pickled, and other cured beef were forced to decline. Increased demand and other factors have caused a steady rise in prices. At wholesale, fresh beef has risen from $0.135 per pound In 1914 to $0.21 in November, 1917. Retail prices have increased from $0.27 per pound for sirloin in 1914 to about $0.35 in November, 1917. An equitable distribution of our beef supply so that we may win the war demands increased exportation to our associates and a decrease in our enormous per capita- domestic consumption, particularly of veal. See Food Economy Campaigns: Meat Supply.
Belgian Prince." A British cargo steamer, attacked by a German submarine In the vicinity of the Irish coast on July 31, 1917, while on a voyage from Liverpool to Philadelphia. According to the affidavit of William Snelll, an American cook, the crew were ordered from their lifeboats to the deck of the submarine and compelled to lay aside their life preservers; then, after running along on the surface for about 15 miles, the vessel submerged, drowning 48 men. Snell himself had concealed his life preserver under his mackintosh, and in this way was able to remain afloat till picked up by a British patrol boat. Two British sailors have made affidavits in confirmation of Snelll's story. These three are the only known survivors from the steamer. See "Baralong"; "Spurias Versenkt."
Belgium. Belgium is a neutralized constitutional monarchy, hereditary In the house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, having its capital at Brussels, and containing an area of 11.371 square miles, and a population in 1912 of 7,571,387. The present ruler is King Albert I. He succeeded his uncle, Leopold II, taking the oath of office on December 23, 1909. The reigning queen is Elizabeth, a princess of Bavaria. Belgium stood in the way of a German invasion of France from the northeast, and the Germans in 1914 made good the boast of Otto B. Tannenberg In 1911 that, "The Germans know the road from Belle Alliance (Waterloo] to Paris quite as well as that from Metz and Strassburg." See Albert I.
Belgium, Commission for Relief in An organization hurriedly built up at the outbreak of the war, under the direction of Mr. Herbert C. Hoover, for the purpose of relieving suffering and destitution in the invaded districts of Belgium and northern France. It was financed by British, Belgian, and French subsidies, and by private contributions, many of which came from the United States. Since June 1, 1917, the United States has advanced $12,500,000 a month to carry it on.
Belgium, Deportations. Almost immediately upon the invasion of Belgium the German army authorities, in pursuance of their system of terrorization, shipped to Germany considerable groups of the population. On October 12, 1915, a general order was issued by the German military government in Belgium providing that persons who should "refuse work suitable to their occupation and In the execution of which the military administration Is interested" should l)e subject to one year's Imprisonment or to deportation to Germany. Numerous sentences, both of men and women, were imposed under this order. The wholesale deportation of Belgian workmen to Germany, however, which was begun October 3, 1916, proceeded on different grounds; for, having first stripped large sections of the country of machinery and raw material, the military authorities now came forward with the plea that It was necessary to send labor in pursuit of Its Indispensable adjuncts. The deportation movement began at Ghent and Bruges and spread rapidly. It is still being carried on (October, 1917). The number of workmen deported to date is variously estimated at beween one and thr'~e hundred thousand. "The rage, the terror, and despair excited by this measure all over Belgium," Brand Whitlock reported to the Secretary of State, in January, 1917, "were beyond anything we had witnessed since the day the Germans poured into Brussels. I am constantly in receipt of reports from all over Belgium that tend to bear out the stories of brutality and cruelty. In tearing away from nearly every humble home in the land a husband and a father or a son and brother, they [the Germans] have lighted a fire of hatred that will never go out. [It is] one of those deeds that make one despair of the future of the human race, a deed coldly planned, studiously matured, and deliberately and systematically executed, a deed so cruel that German soldiers are said to have wept in its execution and so monstrous that even German officers are now said to be ashamed." Poland and the occupied parts of France have experienced similar treatment. See Belgium, Economic Destruction; Family Rights and Honor.
Belgium, Estates Destroyed. The Belgian Government has
recently issued a map showing the location of 43,000 estates In Belgium destroyed by German orders. Some of these have been burned as a result of bombardments and at least 20,000 on the ground of reprisals for alleged acts of hostility on the part of the civil population. (See New York Times, Oct. 22, 1917.)
Belgium, Economic Destruction. The Hague Regulations, Article XLVI, say "Private property can not be confiscated." This regulation has been violated by the Germans in Belgium in conformity with the Rathenau plan, devised at the very outset of the war. Dr. Walter Rathenau, president of a great German
electric company, proposed, in August, 1914, a comprehensive program for the mobilization and organization of the economic resources of the German Empire. Special stress was laid upon the necessity of obtaining raw materials, partly by purchase in neutral countries and partly by the seizure of all stores in the conquered lands. A new bureau, with 36 subdivisions, was created to carry out this plan, under the direction of the Ministry of War. As soon as Belgium was occupied this bureau derail its work. By 66 separate decrees in less than two years the Germans have seized thousands of machines, countless machine tools, lathes, oils an(l fats, chemical and mineral products, wool, linen, jute, cotton, thread of all kinds, rubber, automobiles, locomotives, motors, horses and other animals, hides, and ninny other products, completely stripping Belgium. The ultimate purpose of these seizures is disclosed in a speech of Herr Beumer in the Prussian Diet last February: "Anybody who knows the present state of things in Belgian industry will agree with me that it must take at least some years-assuming that Belgium is independent at all-before Belgium can even think of competing with us in the world market. And anybody who has traveled, as I have done, through the occupied districts of France will agree with me that so much damage has been (lone to industrial. property that no one need be a prophet in or(ler to say that it will take more than 10 years before we need think of France as a competitor or of the reestablishment Of French industry." See Contributions; Requisitions; German War Practices.
Belgium, Neutralization of. Belgium is so situated that Its owner, if a powerful State, might. endanger the safety of England, France, or Germany, and dominate the Rhine and the English Channel. Largely because of this a special treaty, signed April 19. 1839. by Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, as well as Belgium, guaranteed that Belgium should "form an independent and perpetually neutral Slate. It shall be bound to observe such neutrality toward all other States." On August 9, 1870, Prussia reaffirmed its "fixed determination to respect the neutrality of Belgium so long as the same shall be respected by France," and agreed with Great Britain "for the [joint] defense of the same" in case it should be violated by France. Despite these guaranties Germany made military plans to attack France by way of Belgium, and after 1906 began to construct strategic railways to the Belgian frontier, and the fears of the Belgians as well as of the French were aroused. But the German Chancellor, when questioned in the Reichstag, reiterated Germany's determination to abide by her solemn promise, and positive assurances were given the Belgian Governance, as late as 1913, that Germany would respect the neutrality she had guaranteed. See Neutralized States.
Belgium, Violation of. Notwithstanding her agreement to respect Belgian neutrality, Germany on August 2, 1914, demanded of the Belgian Government a free passage through to France. That this was a violation of law and right we have on high authority-the German Chancellor. In his speech to the
Reichstag on August 4, 1914, he said: "We are now in a state 2 of necessity (Notwehr) and necessity (Not) knows no law.
Our troops have occupied Luxemburg and perhaps have already entered Belgian territory. Gentlemen, that is a breach of international law. It is true that the French Government declared at Brussels that France would respect Belgian neutrality as long as her adversary respected It. We knew, however, that France 2 stood ready for an invasion. France could wait; we could not.
A French attack on our flank on the lower Rhine might have been disastrous. Thus we were forced to ignore the rightful protests of the Governments of Luxemburg and Belgium. The wrong-I speak openly-the wrong we thereby commit we will try to make good as soon as our military aims have been attained. He who is menaced as we are and is fighting for his highest possession can only consider how he is to hack his way through." Nothing more need be said. See "Kriegs-Raisom"; "Notwendigkeit"; War, German Ruthlessness.
Belgium's Woe. "And there where lives were not taken and there where the stones of buildings were not thrown down what anguish unrevealed! Families hitherto living at ease, now in bitter want; all commerce at an end, all careers ruined, thousands upon thousands of workingmen without employment; working women, shop girls, humble servant girls without the means of earning their bread; and poor souls forlorn on the bed of sickness and fever crying, '0 Lord, how long, how long?' . God will save Belgium, my brethren; you can not doubt it. Nay, rather, He is saving her which of us would have the heart to cancel this last page of our national history? Which of us does not exult in the brightness of the glory of this shattered nation? When in her throes she brings forth heroes, our mother country gives her own energy to the blood of those sons of hers. Let us acknowledge that we needed a lesson in patriotism. . . . For down within us all is something deeper than personal interests, than personal kinships, than party feeling, and this is the need and the will to devote ourselves to that more general interest which Rome termed the public thing, Respublica. And this profound will within us is patriotism." (Cardinal Mercier, pastoral letter, Christmas, 1914.)
Belgrade. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia, commands the Danube River at the Austro-Serbian frontier. It was shelled by the Austrians as early as July 29, 1914, withstanding, however, all attacks until December. December 1 the Serbians evacuated the city. The Austrians entered on December 2, being forced to conduct the bombardment from across the Danube, and reduce the city to ruins. The rally of the Serbians on December 5 enabled them to reoccupy Belgrade, December 13, 1914. The final fall of Belgrade took place on October 9, 1915.
Belligerent. A State or a community which is party to a legally recognized war. For convenience, one party to a war is often spoken of as "belligerent" and the other as "enemy .The term "belligerent" is also used synonymously with "combatant."
Benedict XV (Giacomo della Chiesa) (1854- ). Pope since the death of Plus X In 1914. He was formerly cardinal archbishop of Bologna. He expressed his horror at the mutilation of the cathedral of Rheims, and later endeavored to lead the warring nations to peace. See Peace Overtures; Rheims
Berchtold, Count Leopold (1863- ). Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1912-1915. As the statesman who signed the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia, he was nominally responsible for the outbreak of the war. See Potsdam Conference; Serbia,Austrian Ultimatum.
"Berlin to Bagdad." The grandiose scheme of German politicians, bankers, and merchants for the economic and political control of Central Europe and Western Asia. Soon after the Berlin Congress of 1878 the foundations of German military influence in Turkey were begun by Gen. von der Goltz,.
who was invited to Constantinople by Abdul Hamid to reorganize the Turkish army. In 1889 and again in 1898 WIlliam II visited Turkey, on the latter occasion declaring at the grave of Saladin: "The 300,000,000 Mohammedans that are scattered through the world may rest assured that the German Emperor will eternally be their friend." Shortly afterwards a German railway company secured from the Sultan very favorable concessions and financial assistance for extending a railway from Haidar L'asba on the Bosporus opposite Constantinople) to Bagdad. This railway would thus .virtually connect Bagdad by way of Constantinople, Sofia, and Vienna with Berlin. The length of the Bagdad Railway was estimated at 1,740 miles. At the outbreak of war in 1914 the tunnel sections under the Taurus Mountains and the desert sections eastward from Aleppo to the railheads which had been pushed forward from Bagdad were still unfinished. The Germans had hoped to extend the railway to the Persian Gulf, but England's insistence on a share in the control of this extension, by which the Germans might threaten India, held up the German negotiations with Turkey. An agreement with Great Britain reached in 1914 was nullified by the outbreak of the ~var. See Conquest and Kultur; "Drang nach Osten"; Goltz, von der; Kiel Canal; "Mittel-Europa"; Pan-Germanism; Turkey, German Influence in.
"Berlin to Bagdad," German View. Dr. Rohrbach, in his Deutschland unter den Weltvolkern, characterize(l the development of Germany toward Constantinople as "the greatest political efl(l which the present or the next generation can desire." The Alldeutsche Blatter, the organ of the Pan-Germans, said on December 8, 1895, that the German interests demanded as a minimum that Asiatic Turkey should be placed under a German suzerainty. The most advantageous way would be to connect Mesopotamia and Syria and place the whole of the Sultan's dominion under German protection (summarized by the author of The Pan-GermanDoctrine, 1&4, p. 216). Consequently, as remarked Prof. Spiethoff, of the German University at Prague (as quoted in the Round Table, March, 1917), "the establishment of a sphere of economic Influence from the North Sea to the Persian Gulf has been for nearly two decades the silent, unspoken aim of German foreign policy. Our diplomacy in recent years . . . only becomes intelligible when regarded as part of a consistent Eastern design. . . . A secure future for Germany is to he reached along this line and no other." See Conquest and Kultur.
"Berlin to Bagdad," Political Purpose. The Germans before the war, were fain to represent the Bagdad railway, which was the spinal cord of their Berlin-Bagdad vision, as primarily an economic enterprise for the regeneration of Asia Minor and Mesopotamia. But such was not the view held in Germany. "The Bagdad line," said the Alldeutsche Blatter on December 17, 1899, "can become of vast political importance" to Germany. How vast was shown by Karl Radek in the Neue Zeit for June 2, 1911: "The Bagdad railway being a blow at the interests of English imperialism, Turkey could entrust its construction only to the German company, because she knew that Germany's army and navy stood behind her, which fact makes it appear to England and Russia inadvisable to exert too sensitive a pressure upon Turkey." Prof. R. Mangelsdorf saw even greater possibilities: "To some extent, indeed, Turkey's construction of a railway system is a threat to England, for it means that an attack on the most vulnerable part of the body of England's world empire, namely Egypt, comes well within the bounds of possibility" (Akademische Blätter, June 1, 1911). And, said Dr. Paul Rohrbach, summing up the gains to Turkey Pan-Germanism, etc.
Bernhardi, Friedrich von (1849- ). German general who achieved political prominence through his volume Germany and the Great War (1911). In this he sets forth with frank cynicism the advantages, the necessity, and the inevitability of a war between Germany and England. Very briefly summarized, his argument is as follows: Germany can acquire that "place In the sun" which Is her due only by a war of aggression, ~ the Triple Entente-Russia, France, and England-each and alt endowed with vast colonial possessions which they can not and use, have been surrounding Germany with a of Iron comes it must be waged ruthlessly and "frightfully," with the purpose of destroying the balance of power in Europe and without regard to treaties or vested rights. The neutrality of Belgium need not be observed. "In one way or another we must square our account with France if we wish for a free hand in our international policy." For Germany the question is either "world power or downfall." War, moreover, is a biological necessity in the -life of nations and by war is secured the survival of the fittest-a kind of political neo-Darwinism which has been much in vogue in Germany in recent years. The war has shown that Bernhardi's ideas had taken a much stronger hold on the German mentality than had been usually supposed. While his book was too expensive to be widely read by common people, it had, nevertheless, gone through eight editions before the war. It exercised great influence on the upper and middle classes. ". Do you know, my friends nearly ran me out of the country for that. They said, 'You have let the cat out of the bag."' (Bernhardi to A. C. Walcott, In German Wear Practices, p. 13.) See "KriegsRaison"; Militaris; Nietzsche; Prussianisin; Trcitschke; I-Var, German View; "World Power or Downfall."
Bernstorff, Count J. H. von (1862- ). German ambassador to the United States, 1908-1917. He was absent from his post at the outbreak of the war, but returned at once not merely to perform his official duties but to direct the vast German propaganda. His activity in this latter connection was long suspected by public opinion, but little definite was known until the publication by the Committee on Public Information of an analysis of the von Igel papers. The State Department announced in September, 1917, that it possessed ample evidence to prove Count von Bernstorff's previous knowledge of the Zimmermann note. On January 22 he asked the German Foreign Office for $50,000 with which to try to influence Congress; and he was under instruction to stimulate strikes and sabotage in American factories. He was handed his passports on February 3, 1917. Since his return to Germany he has been appointed ambassador to Turkey in succession to Dr. von Ktihlmann, who became Foreign Minister. See Dumba; Igel, t'on, Papers of; Intrigue; Sabotage; Zimmermann Note.
Bernstorff, Intrigues of, against Canadian Pacific Railway. The German Government, through Secretary Zimmermann, cabled directions to Bernstorff for "energetic action in regard to the proposed destruction of the Canadian Pacific railway at several points." Capt. Boehm had been given detailed instructions as to the method to pursue. The general staff named three men in the United States "suitable for carrying out sabotage," one of whom was the now notorious Jeremiah O'Leary, editor of Bull. By this revelation Bernstorff was proved to have been engaged in intrigues against American neutrality, which he had specifically denied again and again.
Bethmann Hollweg, Dr. Thebald von (1856- Former German Chancellor. The son of a famous Prussian Liberal politician, he passed through the grades of the Prussian bureaucracy to the Ministry of the Interior. In July, 1909, he succeeded Prince Billow as Imperial Chancellor, and held office exactly eight years. Before the war Bethmann Hollweg posed as a Liberal, although his utterances revealed his unswerving devotion to the Prussian ideal. He seems to have desired an entente with Great Britain and had, apparently, achieved it in 1914, when, as he lamented, the war shattered his plans. As chancellor he must, of course, bearing responsibility for the outbreak of the war; but there is reason to believe that
has no judgment was overborne by the military partly on that Germany's violation of Belgium was a
the reference to the Belgian treaty as "a scrap of ," and the admission that Germany's pledges in the Sussex ase to the United States had not been in good faith, provide an Index to the caliber of the man. In German politics lie tried to hold the balance between the Pan-Germans and the Socialist refusing to commit himself to any definite peace program, but his majority was destroyed in July, 1917, when the Center, or Catholic, party suddenly allied Itself with the Socialists in favor of a peace without annexations or indemnities. But although Bethmann resigned nominally because he had lost the confidence of the Reichstag, it may be assumed, in Light of the past, that he had forfeited the confidence of the Emperor and the military party. See Belgium, Violation of; "Scrap of Paper"; "Sussex" Pledge.
Bismarck Archipelago. A German colony, consisting of islands in the Pacific Ocean; taken September, 1914, by an Australian force.
Bissing, General Moritz F. Freiherr von (1844-1917).
German military governor of Belgium, 1914-1916, and responsible, under the higher German authorities, for the scheme of reprisals and deportations that have horrified the world. To one of Mr. Hoover's aids he spoke of the time when the system of relief would break down: "Starvation will grip these people in 30 to 60 days. Starvation is a compelling force, and we would use that force to compel the Belgian working-men, many of them very skilled, to go into Germany to replace the Germans, so that they could go to the front and fight against the English and the French; the weak remaining the old and the young-we would concentrate opposite the firing line, and put firing squads back of them, and force them through that line so that the English and French could take care of their own people." Gen. von Bissing favored the retention of Belgium by Germany, and sought to disrupt Belgian unity by dividing time Flemings and Walloons into separate administrative districts. He died early in 1917. See Assassination; Belgium, Deportations; Cavell; Ghent University.
Blacklist, American. On December 4, 1917, the War Trade Board made public a list (which is obtainable upon application to the board) of more than 1,600 German-controlled banks and industries in South America, Cuba, and Mexico which are accused of aiding and fomenting uprisings and spreading propaganda and otherwise aiding the Central Powers. Henceforth all shipments from the United States to these concerns will be stopped entirely, and imports from them will be allowed to enter the United States only to liquidate American-held debts In the list are Included the great banks, manufactories, and public
utilities of Argentina, representing the most powerful and dangerous combination of German capital in Latin America. See Blacklist, British; German Intrigue against American Peace; Trading with the Enemy Act.
Blacklist, British. By an act passed December 23, 1915, Parliament enabled the Klnb to prohibit by proclamation all persons resident in the United Kingdom from trading with any persons or firms outside the kingdom "wherever by reason of the enemy nationality or enemy association of such persons" or firms "it appears . . - exi)e(lient to do so." A little later the British Government published a list of American firms with which British firms, especially steamship companies, were forbidden to do business. Our Government's protest against the breach of comity, rather than the Illegality of this measure, was vigorous (see Acting Secretary of State Polk's note of July 26, 1916), and It was followed by time passage by Congress of an act (approved Sept. 18) enabling the President to "refuse clearances to belligerent vessels observing it." The blacklist rests upon essentially the same principle as our own embargo upon trade with certain neutrals. This is the principle that a nation at war has the right to prevent its citizens from engaging in commercial activities which are of benefit to its enemies. See Alien Property Custodian; Neutral Rationing; Trading with the Enemy Act
signed in 1856 at the close of the Crimean War, forbade to all war vessels, including those of Russia and Turkey, the use of the Black Sea; prohibited the maintenance of arsenals on its shores; and declared its waters free to the ships of all nations. Russia was allowed to maintain armed vessels of hi~ht (lraft, merely in order to police her own shores. The primary object of the powers in thus neutralizing the Black Sea was to protect the Turkish Empire from a naval attack by Russia. Russia naturally chafed under these restrictions, and in 1870 Alexander II repudiated that section of the treaty of Paris which prohibited a naval force in the Black Sea. March, 1871, a conference of the powers held in London consented to this action, but by a reaffirmation of the Sultan's right to close the Dardanehles and the Bosporus to war vessels they greatly reduced the value of the fleet which Russia subsequently developed in the Black Sea. During the present war this fleet has proved of much assistance in the Russian campaigns against Turkey. See Congress of Berlin; Constantinople.
Blockade. A right, long recognized in international law, permitting a belligerent to station vessels before time ports of his enemy and intercept all trade; but it must be effective to be binding, and must constitute a real closing of the ports. The use of this right most familiar to American citizens is that which was made by time Union Government against the Southern Confederacy dunn,., the Civil War. The South depended in a large measure for the sinews of war upon the shipment of cotton to England and the Importation of supplies in exchange. If the South could have continued its European trade without interruption, the Civil War would have been prolonged indefinitely, and perhaps the Union cause would have been lost. But by stationing Union warships and cutters along the southern seacoast-that is, by blockading all southern ports and stopping nearly all trade abroad, the Government at Washington was able to starve out the Confederecy. Great Britain admitted the right of our Government to do this, though it ruined her cotton industry and threw thousands of her citizens into poverty and bankruptcy. The blockade Is not only a long recognized and universally accepted right, but it is one of the most painless and effective ways of bringing an enemy to terms. See Continuous Voyage, Doctrine of; Embarqo, British.
Board of Inventions. The Naval Consulting Board tendered Its services of Nationa ldefense to act as a board of inventions or in any other capacity which might be of use to the Government during the war. This tender was accepted by resolution of the council February 15, 1917. See Council of National Defense.
" Boche." The term commonly used by the French soldiers to designate time Germans. Time origin of the term as used in this way is disputed. It was used before the war as time equivalent of German. It was so used by the Paris printers to designate their German assistants. It was probably used also in the FrancoPrussian War in 1870, for Zola, in his novel La Debâclë, a story dealing with time war, puts -the term in the mouths of French soldiers to designate the Germans. The term ce boche was used, before the Franco-Prussian war at least, as equivalent to "that chump," and tête de boche is given by French dictionaries of slang as equivalent to- "wooden-pate" or "blockhead." It is perhaps for this reason that some French scholars derive the present use of boche from caboche, a French word meaning head.
Bohemia. A division of Austria, with an ni-en of 20,065 square miles and a population (1910) of 6,769,548, of whom the overwhelming majority is Czech. Bohemia was formerly an independent kingdom, which passed to the Hapsburgs in 1526; but Its independent political organization was suppressed in 1620 and has never been restored, despite a promise from the late Francis Joseph. Owing to their inability to secure concessions from the Vienna Government, the Czechs have shown outspoken sympathy with the Allies, as evidenced by the desertion of Bohenmian regiments, and they look to time Allies to secure for them, if not absolute independence, at least a measure of autonomy. See Magyarization; Slav.
Bolivia. Bolivia Is a Republic of South America containing an area of 514,690 square miles and a population estimated in 1915 at 2,492,377. Its capital is La Paz. President Jose Guttierrez began his term In 1917. BolIvia severed diplomatic relations with Germany on April 13, 1917.
Bolsheviki. A Russian word meaning "belonging to the majority" originaly the left or radical wing of the Russian Socialist Democratic Party. In 1905, at the time when the split In 1905 party occurred, the radicals led by Nikolai Lenine, were in the majority or bolshinsyvo and hence called themselves maximalists or bolsheviki, meaning the majority faction. The moderates, similarly, are called Minimalists or Me%sFieA,~7~fL ~t'1Ië Social Democratic Party is composed mainly of industrial workers. The other great Socialist party of Russia, the Social Revolutionary Party, is made up chiefly of peasants. In this party also a division occurred into a more amid a less radical wing, and in the summer of 1917 the more radical faction, finding themselves in agreement with Lenine on all points except agrarian policy, adopted the name Bolsheviki, and began to work for the most part in alliance with their radical brethren of the Social Democratic Party against the moderates, or Minimalists, of both old parties. See- Lenine,Nikolai,; Russian Revolution.
Bombardment. This matter is dealt with in Time Hague Regulations as follows:
"ART. XXV. The attack or bombardment, by whatever means, of towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings which are undefended is prohibited.
'ART. XXVI. Time officer in command of an attacking force must, before commencing a bombardment, except in cases of assault, do all in his power to warn the authorities.
"ART. XXVII. In sieges and bombardments all necessary steps must be taken to spare, as far as possible, buildings dedicated to religion, art, science, or charitable purposes, historic monuments, hospitals, and places where the sick and wounded are collected, provided they are not being used at the time for military purposes. It is the duty of the besieged to indicate the presence of such buildings or places by distinctive and visible signs, which shall be notified to the enemy beforehand."
In addition, time ninth Convention forbids "time bombardment by naval forces of undefended ports, towns, villages, dwellings, or buildings." The second of the above provisions is condemned by the German War Book as "completely inconsistent with war," and all of thmenm are inconsistent with war as waged by Germany. In December, 1914, German war vessels bombarded Scarborough and other English seaside resorts and killed several women and children, and since then German Zeppehins and airplanes have bombarded both towns and countryside promiscuously and without any pretense of preliminary warning. On the occasion of the air raid of June 13, 1917, on the densely populated and poorer sections of London, 97 people were killed an(l 437 were injured, of whom all were noncombatants and 120 were young children. See Explosives from Aircraft; Scarborough.
Bond Acts. Congress has passed two acts authorizing time borrowing of large sums of money for purposes connected with the war. (1) On April 24, 1917, time first bond act authorized the Secretary of time Treasury to borrow $5,000,000,000 on bonds bearing not more than 3~ per cent interest, in addition to $2,000,000,000 on certificates of indebtedness at the same rate in order to cover immediate expenses of Government. Under this law the first Liberty Loan of 1917 was sold to the extent of $2,000,000,000. (2) On September 24, 1917, Congress passed the second bond act, authorizing bonds to the extent of $7,538,945,460 at not more than 4 per cent interest, in addition to $2,000,000,000 in war savings certificates and $4,000,000,000 In short term notes. The second Liberty Loan of 1917 was ~under this act in October, 1917. It called for $3,000,000,000-as a minimum or $5,090,000,000 as a maximum; and the s indicate an oversubscription of the minimum by more than 50 per cent, the exact subscriptions being $4,617,532,300. Both of these acts authorized loans to other nations "engaged in war with the enemies of the United States." See Liberty Loans; Loans -to Allies; War Savings Certificates.
Bonds, United States. The United States Government issues bonds in two forms: (1) bearer bonds with interest coupons attached, commonly called coupon bonds; (2) bonds registered both as to principal and interest. Liberty Loan bonds are issued in both bearer amid coupon forms. (1) A bearer or coupon bond is payable to time bearer, time holder, time title passing by delivery. The Treasury Department does not require proof of ownership when such bonds are presented for payment or exchange, the holder thereof being recognized. Such bonds may be bought and sold without formality and without indorsemeats of any kind. (2) A registered bond is payable only to its owner or his order, and can be transferred only by being properly indorsed and assigned by the owner. The bond has inscribed on time face of it time name of the owner or payee, arid such fact is recorded on time books of the Treasury Department against the particular bond indicated. Time change in ownership of a registered bond is effected by time original payee indorsing and assigning the bond, using the form on time back thereof in accordance with time regulations of the Treasury Departnment. See "Pay as You Go" War; War Finance, Loans, and Taxes.
Boselli, Paolo. Premier of Italy from the fall of the Salandin ministry in June, 1916, until his resignation after the early Austro-German successes against Italy in late October, 1917.
Bosnia-Herzegovina. The two southernmost provinces of Austria-Hungary, situated in the north~vest part of time Balkan Peninsula. Originally part of the Turkish Empire, they were placed under Austrian administration by time Congress of Berlin, and in 1908 were definitely annexed by Austria, contrary to time agreement made at that Congress. Together they cover about 19,700 square miles with a population of 2,000,000. The great majority of the Inhabitants are Slav and wish to join with the neighboring and racially allied kingdom of Serbia. This feeling has resulted in numerous attempts on the lives of Austrian officials, together with a more or less open state of innsurrection on time part of the people, which Austrian officials have clammed was aided and abetted by Serbia. Finally, after time assassination of time Archduke Francis Ferdinand, at Serajevo, theo Bosnian capital, Austria-Hungary addressed to Serbia the Ultimatum Wlileb brought about the present war. See " Kingdom~ of the Serbs, Croata, and Slovenes."
Boy-Ed, Capt. Karl. Late naval attaché of tlie German embassy in Washington. He was dismissed by our government on December 4, 1915, for "improper activity in naval matters." See Igel, von, Papers of; Intrigue.
Brazil. The United States of Brazil is a federal republic with its capital at Rio de Janeiro. It has an area of 3,280,900 square miles and a population estimated in 1913 at 24,308,000. Its present President is Wencelas B. P. Gomez, who was inaugurated on November 15, 1914. There is a large measure of autonomy in the several States of Brazil, each having its elective governor and legislature. On October 26, 1917, Brazil declared war upon Germany, after having "revoked her neutrality" on April 10, 1917. "The Republic thus recognized the fact," the Brazilian ambassador wrote, "that one of the belligerents is a constituent part of the American continent, and that we are bound to that belligerent by traditional friendship and the same sentiment in the defense of the vital interests of America and the accepted principles of law." On December 5, the Brazilian Government published a decree authorizing the signing of an agreement with the French Government by which the latter is to take over 30 former German ships, held since the beginning of the European war in Brazilian waters. See Cuba; Guatemala; Panama.
Briand, Aristide (1862- ). French statesman, who has several times been Prime Minister. He began his career as a Socialist, but when invested with power and responsibility took a more conservative direction. His most notable achievement was the application of the law separating church and state, in which he displayed both tact and firmness. In 1909 he suppressed a railway sfrike by calling the strikers to the colors, ía spite of which he remains perhaps the leading member of the Socialist-Radical party. During the war M. Briand was Prime Minister from October 30, 1915, to March 17, 1917.
Bribery, Treachery, and Crime. See Forbidden Methods of Warfare; Intrigue.
Brigade. An Infantry brigade is a tactical organization commanded by a brigadier general, and is made up of brigade headquarters, two Infantry regiments, and a machine-gun battalion, with a total strength of 232 officers and 8,210 men, of which 17. officers and 202 men are noncombatants, I. e., the chaplain and the Medical Corps. A brigade of Field Artillery consists of brigade headquarters, two regiments of light artillery, one regiment of heavy artillery, and a trench mortar battery, with 72 guns, 12 trench mortars, and the necessary transportation, supplies, etc. It has a total strength of 185 officers and 4,781 men. A Cavalry brigade is composed of headquarters and three Cavalry regiments, and has a strength of approximately 181 officers and 4,575 men. See Regiment; Division.
British Empire. A vast aggregation of lands and peoples extending all over the world. The total area is 12,755,844 square miles, the population (estimated) 439,959,000. Not over 60.000,000 of the population are white, and the bulk of these are found in the United Kingdom. The sovereign is King George V. The task of organizing, defending, and governing these enormous territories 15 probably the most important political problem of the day, which Is complicated by the_autonomy~ ~of the self-governing Dominions (Canada, Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa) and the preponderance and wealth of the mother country. The Germans were obsessed with the idea that the British Empire was decaying and its scattered elements would seize an early opportunity to revolt or secede. The German plan to destroy England as the one great obstacle to ther dominating both sea and land has rallied the scattered dominions to great voluntary exertions and sacrifices in behalf of England. The possession of numerous islands furnishes the British fleet with bases of operations everywhere which have proved of great value in the war.
British Imperial Federation. A movement within the British Empire looking to the establishment of a closer union between the various members of the Empire and possibly later the establishment of joint sovereignty in certain fields of imperial life. The basis of the movement is the "imperial conference," meeting every few years and attended by the premiers and some representatives from the self-governing colonies, together with representatives from some Crown colonies and from the British Government. Together with this has been formed a "committee of imperial defense" to provide for imperial necessities in this field. The functions of these two agencies are only advisory, and their acts are not necessarily binding on the British or colonial Governments, although in practice they are usually accepted. Many advocates of imperial federation go yet further and advocate the establishment of a common executive and legislative, holding sovereignty in the fields of foreign policy, defense, and imperial trade and finance. The current opinion in the larger British colonies now seems to be running against this idea, many believing that in the present war the free and flexible connection at present existing has demonstrated its ability to stand the heaviest of strains. Gen. Jan Smuts has recently given eloquent expression to this idea. See Irish Convention.
British Imperial War Conference. In March, 1917, the premiers of all the self-governing Dominions of the British Empire, except Australia, met in London with the British war cabinet to discuss the problems of the Empire. In five resolutions, the conference recommended: (1) an imperial conference should be held every year, consisting of the premiers of the and of the Domlnlons and of representatives of India; (2) a special conference should be summoned for discussing the constitutional a ts of the Empire; (3) the treatment of Indians in-other parts of the empire should be settled on the basis of reciprocity; (4) the Admiralty should prepare an adequate scheme of naval defense and consider the production of the necessary supplies within the Empire; (5) special encouragement should be given to the development of the resources of the Empire. See British Empire; Imperial Federatimi; mt era flied Supreme War Council.
British Navy. The British Navy has for more than a.century been the largest and most powerful in the world, Its size made necessary by the island position of Britain, and the scattered dominions of the British Empire. Its modern development dates from the naval defense act of 1889, which adopted the principle that the British Navy must be as strong as the fleets of the next two naval powers together. Under the pressure of German competition, thts standard had to be abandoned after 1~O9. Nevertheless, at the opening of the war, the British fleet comprised 46 battleships, built and building, of the dreadnaught class, 40 older battleships, 125 cruisers, 287 torpedo craft, and 99 submarines. Large additions have been made since 1914, and despite losses, the fleet remains the most powerful fighting force afloat. See Navy.
Brusilov, Gen. Alexis A. Russian general, formerly commander in chief of the Russian armies. He was born in the Caucasus some 60 years ago. When the war broke out he was in command of one of the Russian armies in the invasion of Austria. After the removal of the Grand Duke Nicholas be was placed in command of the southwestern army, and was in charge of the Russian drive in the summer of 1916, which cost the Austrians 500,000 men. He accepted the revolution of 1917, and was soon after made commander in chief of all the Russian armies. He was in charge of the Russian drive of July, 1917, but when the Russian armies broke down he resigned because of the military disorganization.
Brussels. Brussels is the capital of Belgium. It was evacuated by the Belgian Government August 19, 1914. German forces occupied the city on August 20, levying a war tax upon the inhabitants on August 21. It has become the center of German administration for Belgium. See Bissing, Gen. von.
Bucharest. The capital of Roumania; it was threatened by Mackensen's advance in the Dobrudja in November, 1916, and the advance of Falkenhayn from Transylvania. On December 6 the Germans took possession of the city. See Roumania, German Treachery in.
Bucharest, Treaty of. See Balkan Wars.
Bulgaria. A constitutional monarchy situated in the Balkans with its capital at Sofia. Its area has been altered by gains and losses in the recent Balkan wars, and is estimated for 1913 at 114,017 square kilometers (approximately 45,000 square miles), while its population at that time was 4,711,917. In 1908 Bulgaria repudiated certain restrictions imposed by the Congress of Berlin and became an independent monarchy, Prince Ferdinand assuming the title of Czar. Like Serbia, Bulgaria is an essential link in the Berlin to Bagdad enterprise. On October 14, 1914, Bulgaria declared war upon Serbia and thus became an ally of the Central Powers. See Balkan Wars; Congress of Berlin; Ferdinand I.
Billow, Prince Bernhard von (1849- ). German statesman; Chancellor of the Empire, 1900-1909; ambassador to Italy, 1914-15. Since his failure to keep Italy out of the war, he has lived in Switzerland and is intimately associated with the German peace propaganda issuing from that country. This book Imperial Germany (1913) is an excellent presentation of the -moderate Prussian point of view.
Bundesrat. The laws that govern the German Empire are made by two bodies-the Bundesrat and the Reichstag. The Bundesrat is a kind of diplomatic assembly. It represents the rulers of the 25 States of which the Empire consists, being composed of delegates appointed by the rulers. The States of Germany are not represented equally in the Bundesrat. Of 61 members, Prussia has 17, and the 3 votes allotted to AlsaceLorraine since 1911 aj~e "instructed" by the Emperor. Thus Prussia has 20, Bavariã~has 6 Saxony and Württemberg 4 each, others 3 or 2, and 17 of the States have only 1 apiece. Inasmuch as each State delegation votes as a unit as the ruler orders, the Bundesrat is in reality an assembly of the sovereigns of Germany, responsible only to themselves. It is the most Iraportant element of the legislature, as most legislation begins in it; and every bill passed by the Reichstag is, after that, submitted to It for ratification or rejection. Thus the princes of Germany have an absolute veto upon the only popular element in the Government, the Reichstag. Representing the princes of Germany, the Bundesrat is a thoroughly monarchial institution, a bulwark of the monarchial order. The proceedings of this princely assembly are secret. See German Constitution; Land-tag; Reichstag.
"Business as Usual." This slogan originated in England In the early days of the war. It sprang from a desire to lessen the hardships of the great business disturbance that followed the outbreak of hostilities. It soon appeared, however, that business could not be "as usual." The call to arms brought men from the woikbench, the desk, the farm. Great munition factories were established to manufacture equipment for the army and navy. Railways, mines, and other industries of military importance gradually passed un(ler governmental control. The new and serious matter of waging, the war became the main business of the country. Germany has taught the world that a nation engaged in modern warfare must organize for war. The productive capacity of a nation is limited. Ia time of war this productive capacity must be largely directed to certain definite ends, which are not those sought in the piping times of peace. Modern warfare Is impossible without severe reorganization of Industry. We can not eat our cake and have it too. If we have "business as usual," we can not wage successful war. And if we wish to fight Germany with all our fOrce we can not have "business as usual." The evidence that business can not be as usual is seen in the readjustments on every hand; perhaps most notably in the stock and bond market, where the shrinkages in prices and in real values due to war conditions, taxation, etc., indicate a loss in excess of the value of the $2,000,000,000 (estimated) worth of the bonds of warring countries, Including Germany, held in this country. If business men and bankers had been unpatriotic enough to want' business to go on as usual, at the cost of national honor, they would have preferred the sure profits of peace and the safety of their fortunes and families. The German Government, which had calculated the profits of war at the cost of human lives and untold suffering, while calling the English "a nation of shopkeepers" and Americans "dollar-hunting Yankees," has found both nations abandoning wealth and fortune to defend their ideals and the hopes of mankind. See Cost
of War; Economy; L'uxury in War Time; Profiteering; "Rich Man's War, Poor Man's Fight."
"Business as Usual," Attitude of American Business. At Atlantic City, on September 23, 1917, the Convention of American Business Men resolved as follows: "It Is the spirit of American business that however fundamental may be the change in the relation of Government to business, the Government should have the power during the period of the war to. control prices and the distribution of production for public and private needs to whatever extent ninny be necessary for our great national purpose." See Council of National Defense; Profiteer
Byng, Gen. Sir Julian (1862 ). Commander of the British Third Army, which delivered the surprise attack toward Camibrai on November 20, 1917, and succeeding days. Gen. Byng is a younger son of the Earl of Strafford. He served with distinction in the Sudan expedition in 1884 and in the South African War. He was at the Dardanelles and was made lieutenant general and placed in command of a corps just before time withdrawal. He comannded the Canadian corps at the Battle of the Somme and in time capture of Vimey Ridge in the Battle of Arras. His early military experience was as a cavalry leader. See Cambrai.