War Cyclopedia - A
Acts of Congress. The authority for national defense rests upon acts of Congress, and especially upon the national defense act of June 8, 1916, which provided for an increase in the Regular Army and its reorganization on efficient lines as to General Staff nod reserves, suggested by the experience of Europe. Following the declaration of war on April 6, 1917, Congress passed and the President approved: (1) the deficiency appropriation bill; carrying an extraordinary item "for the national security and defense-to be expended at the discretion of the President." The sum was $100,000,000. (2) The bond act authorizing loans not to exceed $7,000,000,000 in bonds and certificates, under whose provisions the sale of the Liberty Loans was concluded. (3) Authority was given the President to take over enemy vessels found in the ports or waters of the United States. (4) The selective service act became a law on May 18. hailer its provisions the Regular Army was expanded to its maximum strength, arrangements were made for bringing the National Guard into Federal service, for registering all men between the ages of 21 and 30 inclusive, and for training the first divisions of the National Army. (5) The war appropriation act of June 15 carried total credits of $3,281,094,541.60, and there had already been made on March 2, 1917, a special naval appropriation of $535,000,000. (6) The espionage act conferred upon the President the power of placing an embargo on exports. (7) $640,000,000 were appropriated for the construction and establishment of an aircraft arm of the military service. (8) The priority act, giving the President power to direct freight transportation to meet the necessities of national defense, was passed on August 6. (9) The food and fuel control bill for guarding the economic interests of Government and people under stress of war conditions was approved on August 10. (10) A second bond act authorizing $13,538,945,460 in bonds and certificates.
(11) A great war revenue bill. (12) An act to regulate trading with the enemy. (1.3) A law for soldiers' and sailors' insurance.
To speak of it as. an epoch-making session is a commonplace," said the New York Nation (Sept. 20, 1917) Its work forms a mass of legislation which for bulk and comprehensiveness, for the great issues involved and the enormous figures dealt with, for its drastic innovations and its effects on the multifarious phases of national life stands without a rival)' "I presume to say that no other parliamentary body in so short a time
ever passed so great a volume of welI-considered and prophetic legislation as has our present Congress In the past five months." (Secretary Lane, at Atlantic City, Sept. 18, 1911.) See the Various acts by title. Consult No. 10 in War information Series published by Committee on Public Information.
Agadlr Incident. See Morocco Question.
Adjutant General An officer who keeps the records, orders, and correspondence of the Army. He serves under the direction of the Secretary of War and the Chief of Staff. Through
him and over his name instructions and regulations of the War Department are sent forward to military officers and troops. He is at once a secretary and archivist to the Secretary of War. Agricultural Credit. Refers to loans made to farmers for use In the purchase of land and the cultivation of the soil. Conditions of Isolation and economic disadvantage have forced the American farmer io pay exorbitant rates of interest or to go without credit. These high rates have burdened him and hindered the production of food and materials. To secure a lessening of these charges the Federal farm loan act was passed in 1016. Under this act there are 12 Federal Land Banks In the country, empowered to lend funds and sell bonds. Farmers in any locality can form a farm loan association, the members of which secure loans by mortgaging their farm property. The association gives the mortgages to the land bank In exchange for the funds. The bank secures funds by selling bonds to the public with the mortgages as security. Under this system, already in operation, capital is gradually flowing from the money centers to the basic industry of agriculture. Any reliable farmer can obtain needed funds on reasonable terms - repayment in In 5 to 40 years-and at low rates of interest-6 per cent or less. On October 1, 1911, loans had been approved amounting to some $64,000,000; and about $200,000,000 of loans were In sight, See Farm Loans; Federal Reserve Act.
Aim of United States. The purposes of the United States in this war are known to the whole world, to every people to whom the truth has been permitted to come. They do not need to be stated again. We seek no material advantage of any kind. We believe that the Intolerable wrongs done in this war by the furious and brutal power of the Imperial German Government ought to be repaired, but not at the expense of the sovereignty of any people-rather a vindication of the sovereignty both of those that axe weak and of those that are strong. Punitive damages, the dlsmembershlp of empires, the establishment of selfish and exclusive economic lea . we deem inexpedient and in the end worse than futile, no proper basis for peace of any kind, least of all for an enduring peace. That must be band upon justice and fairness and the Common rights of mankind." (American reply to the pence overtures of the rope.) See America, Creed of; War Aims of the United States.
Aircraft. See Aviation; Artillery
Aisne. A French River flowing through Soissons, tributary to the Oise. The Germans occupied strong positions north of the .hisne after their retreat from the Maine in September, 1914. September 12-28, 1914, the Allied forces succeeded In par-tinily dislodging the Germans from these positions. Some of the most bitter fighting of 1917 has take" place in this vicinity. See "Rindenburu Line"; Chen,in des Dames.
Albania. Albania, a former province of Turkey, was matte an .depeñdent State after the Balkan Wars and was given a German prince, William of Wied, who, however, failed to make good his right to rule. It is situated on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. Italian forces occupied the southern part of Albania. In 1915. In January, 1916, the Austro-Gerrnan-Bulganian forces,proceeding from their conquest of Serbia and Montenegro, overran the country as far south as Aviona, which was held by the Italians. On June 3,1917, the general in charge of the Italian forces proclaimed-Albania an Independent country
under Italian protection. See Balkan war and Italia Irredemta.
Albert I(1875-)King of the Belgians, succeeding to the throne Decemnber 23, 1909, In succession to his uncle, Leopold II. - Becoming heir apparent at the age tf 17 by -the death of hIs elder brother, he passed through the educational steps regularly marked out for Belgian royalty-the military school, extensIve travels, participation as member of the Senate in national politics. At the time of his accession he was regarded with general favor as an earnest student, unquestionably devoted to the welfare of his country, although the -Socialists at this time did not hesitate to attack monarchical institutions with vigor and bitterness. On the question of foreign affairs lie was approached by theKaiser in November, 1913, at which time Wiliam II enormous but unavailing pressure
upon him In the hope of persuading him to permit the eventual
violation of Belgian neutrality by Germany. It was largely because of his determination that Belgium must abide by her promise to maintain-if necessary, by force-her absolute neutrality that- the country played the heroic part known to the world in the summer of 1914. SInce then the fortitude and patience with which he has directed the efforts of the small Belgian army to win back their territory has won for Albert the admiration of the world and made him the idol of his people. See Belgium.
Alcohol in War Time. France and Italy have abolished absinthe. Russia has prohibited vodka, with the result, it Is said, that savings-bank deposits increased to twenty times what
they were In the year before the war, while pawnbrokers' loans a have fallen off one-half. England has forbidden the further use in brewlng or distilling, of either barley or corn suitable for food purposes, and the Provinces of Canada have placed ,ost of the Dominion 'under fairly effective prohlbition, both as regards distilled and fermented liquors. I this country the story is much the same. Even before the UnIted states declared war half the States ranged themselves in the "dry" column, and Congress had stopped the transportation of liquors into such States.
Since our entrance into the war Congress has prohibited,during its continuance, the manufacture of distilled liquors, has put exlsting stocks of these at the governments command, has given
the President the power to suspend the manufacture of beer and wIse, and has forbidden the sale of alcoholic beverages to men In uniform, The Civil War apparently checked - a widespread
- prohibitIon movement; this war Is operating quite differently. Aside from the - temperance - movement, the explanation Is to be found in the decreasing dependence of the government on excise taxes, In the use to-day of alcohol in the manufacture of high exploslyes, and in the need of conserving food supplies.
- Algeciras Conference . See Morocco Question.
Alien Draft. On September 12, 1917 Senator Chamberlain of Oregon, reported a resolution to the Senate proposing that .& friendly aliens in this country be made liable to- draft for military service, and all nationals of Germany and her allies to draft for noncombatant work. The conscription in the case of friendly aliens would be subject to the approval of the doplomatic representatives of the several countries whose nationals would be involved. Senator Chamberlain estImated that such a measure would call 1,275,000 men to the American colors, not countIng 81,000 enemy aliens. Aliens claiming exemption through treaty or on general grounds of international law would be allowed 90 days in which to leave the country. The bill proceeds on the principle that those who receive the protection of a government should be liable for its defense. The State Department pointed out that international difficulties might result from the passing of such a bill, but undertook to negotiate for its acceptahce by our assocIates in the war. These negotiations have now (December 1) been successful, and the measure will probably be enacted early in the approaching session. See
Alien Enemies. Residents or sojourners in a country who are citizens or subjects of a hostile State. Their legal position is accurately indictated by the assurance addressed by the President to alien enemies in the Uiilted States in his proclamation of April 6, 1917 that so long as they refrain from acts of hostility toward the United States and obeyed the laws tbey should "be undisturbed in the peaceful pursuit of their lives and occupations and be accorded the consideration due to all peaceful and law-abiding persons, except so far as reatrictions may be necessary for their own protection and for the safety of the United States." See Trading with the Enemy Act. -
Alien Enemies, Restrictions upon These are prescribed by
the President in his proclamations of April 6 and November 16, by virtue of authority conferred upon him by paragraphs 4067- 4070 of the Revised Statutes. By the earlier proclamation alien enemies are forbidden to have in their possession any firearms, ammunition, explosives, wireless apparatus or parts thereof; or to approach within one half-mile of any fort, camp, arsenal, aircraft station, naval vessel, navy yard, or munitions factory; or to write, print, or publish any attack upon the Government of the Unlted States Congress, or any person in the service of the United States, Congress, or any person in the service of the United States or upon any measure of the Government; or to ábet any hostile acts against the United States, or to give Its enemies information or aid and comfort. Alien enemies transgressing those restrictions are liable to summary arrest and to removal to any place -designated by the President. FInally, no alien enemy may either leave or enter the United States -except under restrictions to be prescribed by the President. The supplementary proclamation of November 16 forbIds alien enemies to enter or be found within" the District of Columbia or the Panama Canal Zone; or within 100 yards of any canal, wharf, pier, dry lock, warehouse, elevator, railrotd terminal, etc.,Or to be found on the waters within 2 miles of the shore line of the United- States, or on any of -the Great Lakes, except on public ferries; or to ascend in any airplane, balloon,
etc.. It also provides for the registration and issuance of registration cards to all alien enemies, with prohibition of change of abode or travel except on permission; and for monthly, weekly, or other periodical report to Federal, State, or local authorities as may be specified. -Subsequent instructions to waterfront operators provided for cooperation with the United States troops guarding docks, piers, warehouses, etc. See Atten Property Custodianl~ Passports.
Allen Groups in America, "The men who speak alien sympathies are - - . the spokesmen of small groups whom It Is high time that the Nation should call to a reckoning, . - . For us there is but one choice. We have made it. Woe be to that man or group of men that seeks to stand in our way in this day of high resolution, when every principle we bold dearest Is to be vindicated and made secure for the salvation of the nations. We are ready to plead at the bar of history, and our flag shall tvear a new luster. Once more we shall make good with our lives and fortunes the great faith to which we were born, and a neW glory shall shine in the face of our people, , . YoU can not
dedicate yourself to America unless you become in every respect . Americans. You can not become Americans ifyou think of yourselves in groups. America does not think in groups. (President Wilson, May 10. 1915
Allen Property Custodian. An officlal created by the trading with the enemy act, with power to require, at his discretion, any property held within the United States for or on behalf of-an "enemy" or "ally of enemy," to be transferred to him, and to hold the same as trustee till the end of the war. The primary purpose of the measure is to prevent the property of the enemy from beIng used in the service of the enemy and to safeguard well-disposed enemy aliens from having their property thus abused. It also puts it in the power of the Government to reqisition easily such property when it may require the same forthe prosecution of the war, or even to confiscate it should Germany confiscate the property of Americans held in Germany.The provisions in this act apply to patents, debts, and ready money and the latter Is expected -to be Invested in Liberty Bonds. It should be added that German subjects and the subjects of her allies, resident in the United States, do not from
the mere fact of their nationality fall within the operation of the act. Mr. A. Mitchell Palmer is See Domicile; Trading with the Enemey-
Allies. France, Russia, anti Great Britain, .bound together not by formal alliance but by informal understanding, or entente, received the name Allies or Entente Allies early in the war, -and
the term Allies has continued in use since then. In its popular use, however, the word embraces all the enemies of the Central powers More narrowly it Includes only the signers of the pact of London, September 5, 1917, in which the Allies pledged themselves against making a separate peace. Italy and Japan later joined this alliance. The United States has made no alliance with any of its associates and Is not bound by any agreements, nor has It any aim but to "make the world safe for democracy." See War, Dates of Declaration of.
Alsace-Lorraine. Alsace-Lorralne is roughly the territory bounded by the Rhine on the east, the Vosges Mountains on the west, Luxemburg on the north, and Switzerland on the south. The soil is fertile and Lorraine is rich in excellent iron ore. The total area is 5,604 square miles and the population in 1910 was 1.874,014. Both Alsace and Lorraine originally lay within the Holy Roman Empire, but the former was acquired by France in Louis XIV's time, and the latter during the reign of Louis XV. After the Franco-Prussian War Germany took the prov
as a part of the price of peace, despite thd protest of the inhabitants. They were at once erected into an imperial territory (Reichsland), directly subject to the German Emperor and the Federal Council The so-called constitutIon of 1911 dId not improve the strained relations between the provinces and the Government, which throughout has been unable to reconcile a large portion of the Inhabitants or to prevent them from showing their attachment to France on every occasion. Germanization of the population has been only partially successful despite the bringing in of German settlers and the adoplion of such restrictive measures as that of limiting the instruction in the French language in the public schools to one hour a week. At least one German scholar, Prof. Otfried Nippold formerly of the University of Berlin and now of Berne, confesses Germany's failure In the following words: "When one looks back into the history of Europe during the last- 40 years, It seems Inconceivable that anyone can he unwilling to admit that the annexation of AlsaceLorraine was a political mistake," and "that the Germans have shown themselves incompetent In their government of the people of Alsace-Lorraine" See Zaecrn Affair. -
Ambassalors and Ministers of the United States to Powers- at War with Germany. Belgium, Brand Whitlock; Brazil, Edwin V. Morgan ; China. Paul S. Relnsch; Cuba,William E. Gonzales; France, William G. Sharp; Great Britain,Walter H. Page; Greece, Garrett Droppers; Guatemala, William
H.Leavell; Italy, Thomas Nelson Page; Japan, Roland S.Morris; Panama, William S. Price; Portugal, Thomas H. Birch; Roumania, Charles S. Vopicka; Russia, David B. Francis;Serbia, H. Percival Dodge (special agent) ; Siam, George P Ingersoll.
Ambassadors and Ministers in Washington of Powers at War with Germany. Belgium, IL E. dc Canter do Mareblenne;-Brazil, Senhor Domlclo da Gazna; China, Dr. V. K. WellIngton Koo; Cuba, Dr. Carlos dc Cespedes; France, M. Sules Susserand;Great Britain, Sir Cecil Spring-RIce; Greece, M. A. Vouros(charge'); Guatemala, Senor Don Joaquin Mendez; Italy, Count Macchl di Cellere; Japan, Mr. Aimaro Sato; Panama, Soner Don Belisario; Portugal, Viscount d'Alte; Russia, Prof. Boris Bakhmeteff;Serbia, Mr. Lioubowir Michallovitch; Siam, Phya Prabha Karavongse.
Ambulance Companies. These wll be used lo supplement -and assist organizations of the Regular Army engaged in the transportation of sick and wounded to base hospitals, and from bas~ pitals In the home country. The personnel may he used to man ambulance trains, hospital trains, hospital ships, and other agencies for sick transport by land.and water, or for the establishment of emergency hospitals. Each company conslsts of 5 officers and 86 men, and such other personnel as may be approved by the Sexcretary of War. Persons who enroll in a Red Crocs ambulance company agree to serve in the Medical Departmept of the Army. For further information see Red Cross Circular 146. -
America, Creed of. "These, therefore, are the things we stand for, whether In war or In peace: (1) That all natins are equally interested In the peace of the world and in the political stability of free peoples and equally responsible for their maintenance; (2) that the essentIal principle of peace is the actual equality of nations In all matters of right or prlvillege; (3) that governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed, and that no other powers should be supported by the common thought, purpose, or power of the family of nations; (4) that the seas should be equally free and .~ safe for the use of all peoples, under rules set up by common agreement and consent, and that, so far as practical should be accessible to all upon equal terms; (5) that national armaments should be limIted to the necessitIes of national and order and domestic' safety; (6) that the community of Interest and of power upon which peace must henceforth depend imposes upon each- nation the duty of seeing to It that all Influences proceeding from its own citizens meant to encourage or assist revolution In other states should be sternly and effectually suppressed and prevented." (Presideat Wilson, second inaugural, Mar. 5, 1017.) See Aim of United States; Permanent Peace; War Aim-s of the United States.
"America First." "I look forward to the necessity in every political agitation in the years … immediately at hand of calling upon every man to declare himself, where he stands. ~ Is it America first, or is it not? . I would not he afraid upon the test of 'America first' to.take a census of all the foreign-born citizens of the United States." (President Wilson, to the D. A. B., Washington, Nov. 11, 1915.)
America Threatened. "The Emperor was standing". says - James W. Gerard, writing for an interview on October 22 1915," so naturally I stood also; and according to the habit he stood very close to me and -talked very earnestly. - - . He showed,however, great bitterness agaInst the United States and repeatedly said, 'America had better Look out after this war; and 'I shall stand no nonsense from America after the war… I was so fearful in reporting the dangerous part
of this Interview, on account of the many spies not only my own embassy but also in the State Department, that I sent but a very few words in a roundabout way by courier direct to the President. ." (My Four Years in Germany, 1917, pp. 251- 253.) See "Der Tag, "-When?
American Alliance of Labor and Democracy. A patriotic organization of labor leaders that held a meeting in Minneapolis, September 1917. to Mr. Samuel Gompers, its president, President Wilson wrote: "The cause you and your fellow patriots uphold is one with the cause we are defending with arms. While our soldiers and sailors are doing their manful work to hold back reaction in its most brutal and aggressive form, we must oppose at home the organized and IndivIdual efforts of those dangerous elements who hide disloyalty behInd a screen of specious and evasive phrases. I have read with real prIde the names of the men and women who are to take part in the Minneapolis Conforence. Not one but has a record of devoted service to fundamental democracy; not one but has fought the long, hard fight for equal justice, braving every bItterne~ss, that the humblest life might know a larger measure of happiness?' The annual convention at the Federation of Labor, in November, 1917, indorsed the movement by a vote of 21,579 to 402. See Battle line of Democracy; Labor and War; Labor Committee.
American Ambulance Corps. Shortly after the outbreak of the war there was organized inconnection with the Amerlcan hospital at Neuiily, near Paris, a fleet of motor ambulances for the transport of wounded from the front. Depending entirely on voluntary contrIbutions, the scheme appealed strongly to Americans, who contributed generously, and the first "section" soon expanded into a corps which was given a definite place in the French army. The ambulances are manned chiefly by American college men, who agree to serve not less than six months. The drivers have repeatedly distinguished themselves and have received the highest decorations of the French service. When United States entered the war the members of the corps were availible for the fighting services and have displayed the Stars and Stripes on the western front. See Lafayette Escadrille
American Ambulance Hospital- A hospital organized at the outbreak of the war In Europe by the American colony in Paris.and housed In a college building at Neuilly, near Paris. It was, In July, 1917, turned over to the Medical Corps of the United States Army as Military Hopital No. 1.
American Federation of Labor. The American Federation of Labor, formed In 1881, is a federation, or union, in the common Interests of -labor, composed of 109 natIonal and international unions, each of which maintains its Own lndividual existence, while giving up certain powers to the common head. The-Knights of Labor, who had sought to merge all the separate unions Into one national organization, gave way before theo federation movement In the years 1885-1890. Only a few important national unions~ such, as the four railroad brotherhoods, and the national window-glass workers are not affiliated with the federation. The paid-up membership of the federation is now approximately 2.070,000. Its headquarters In Washington. D. C., Its president is Samuel Gompers, its secretary Frank Morrison, and its official organ the American Federationist. By a vote of 21,579-to 402 the Federation, in its annual convention in Novemeber 1917, endorsed the course of its officials in placing the needs of the Nation before all other considerations in questions- Involving the workingmans part in avigorous prosecution of the war war against Germany' See American Alliance of Labor and Democracy; Labor and the war; Labor Committee
Americanism.-"Americanism consists in utterly believing in the principles of America and putting them first as above anything that may come into competItIon with them." (PresIdent
Wilson, at West Point, June18, 1916)
American Peace Society. This society was founded in 1828 by William Ladd and Incorporated various organizations going back to 1815; it was reorganized In 1911. The program of the society calls for tie organization of the nations of the world WIth a court and an international legislature. The decrees of this tribunal are to supplant armed force in the settlement of international disputes. The headquarters of the society are in the Colorado Building, Washington, D. C. See League to Enforce Peace; permanent Peace.
"Acona," Austrian Pledge. An Italian steamship from Genoa with Americana on board; was shelled and torpedoed by an Austro-Hungarian submarine in November, 1915, before the
crew and passenges had been put in a place of safety or even given sufficient time to leave the vessal After two protests by Secretary Lansing, the Austro-Hungarian Government acknowledged "hostile private ships, in as far as they do not offer resistance, may not be destroyed without the ppersons on board having been In safety," and agreed to indemnify the American sufferers, See "Sussexr" PIedge~
Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Japan entered the way- because of a treaty with Great Britain, concluded in 1902. The original alliance preceded the Russo-Japanese war and made possible the exclusion of other powers from that conflIct. It was a defensive-alliance protecting the existing situation In Korea and Manchuria and stipulating that In case either of the contracting powers should be involved in war wIth any single power -the other -should maintain benevolent neitrality, and If attacked by two powers, the other should come to its aid. In 1905 tho alliance was further extended to provide for the defense of British Interests in India and Afghanistan as well. while England agreed to give Japan -a free hand in Korea. In 1911 it was again modified by the agreement that Great Britain should not be bound to aid Japan against any power with whom she had a treaty of arbitratIon-thus excluding the United States as a possible enemy. The alliance has been extended to 1921.
Anthrax. See Roumania, German Treachery in
Anti-aircraft Guns. These are of various types, rangtng from a light machine gun up to batteries of 8-inch, and in London, it is believed, of 6-inch guns, for defense against Zeppelins and other German aircraft. Shrapnel Is the rñost- effective ammunition. Bursting, it throws its bullets in all directions. When these reach the petrol tanks or other vital parts of the machine.It falls and Is destroyed burning in Its descent.German anti-aircraft guns on the western front have brought downAllied machines flying at a height of 10,000 or 12,000 feet. Allied artillery of this kind Is equally effective Often machines escape with the wings riddled with shrapnel but without the tank being punctured or the propelling or steering gear disabled. Balloons are more vulnerable in that they present a larger surface to be aimed at. Observation balloons are attacked by fire bombs dropped from aeroplanes overhead or by rockets and incendiary bullets. See Aviation; Zepplins
Anti-Annexationlsts in Germany. Although a large part of those who write arid speak and control newspapers in Germany favor the annexation of alien territories, there are those in Germany who are strongly opposed to such annexatIons, probably most of the Social-Democrats, despised by the junkers, condernned again and again by the Kaiser, and allowed no part In the Government; they really represent nearly half the people of Germany. These persons do not -wish a "Greater Germany" at the expense of their neighbors, but they get little hearing. Outside of the Social-Democrats, few Important people-and no Important newspapers save tile Berlin Tagebatt-have ventured to oppose annexations. While the petitions of the six great Industrial and agricultural associations and the petitions of the Intellectuals, which have urged enormous additions of territory, have been given wide circulation, the petitions to the contrary have been suppressed and the organizations behind them discouraged. See entries under, Peace Terms, German; Delbruck--Dernburg Petition; Liebkneecht on German War Policy.
Anti-submarine Devices. See Submarines.
Antwerp. Antwerp is a Belgian city on the Scheldt River, and It one of the strongest fortifications in Europe. After the fall of Brussels the entire Belgian defense centered about Antwerp. On September 28, 1914, the Germans opened fire upon the outer forts. On October 5 the Belgaan Army began to withdraw from the city, and the Germans occupled it on October 9, 1914. The Pan-Germans have long coveted Antwerp. One of them says: " Somebody coined the phrase 'Berlin-Bagdad.' Why shall we not say 'Antwerp-Bagdad'? I consider it utterly impossible that we should ever hand back Antwerp to
the mad ministers of King Albert." See Berlin to Bagdad; "Dra
ng nach Osten"; Pan-German
Anzac. A composite word used to designate the colonial troops engaged in the Gallipoli campaign. It us made by taking
"Appam." The Appam, a British merchant vessel, ~vas captured by the German cruiser Möwe on January 15, 1916, and was brought by a German crew into Newport News, Va. The German Government claimed that under certain provisions of the tro~ of 1799 between Prussia and the United States, carried over into the treaty of 1828, the vessel might remain as Long as it pleased Lu American waters. Secretary Lansing held that Inasmuch as the provisions in question were contrary to general principles of International law, they must be strictly construed, and that they did not give a German prize the right to enter American ports unattended by the capturing vessel. The same view was adopted by Judge WaddelL, of the United States District Court, and, on appeal, by the Supreme Court (Mar. 6, 1917). See Prussian Treaties with the United States
Arabia. With ~French and British aid the Arabs in Mecca and the region thereabouts declared their independence of Turkey in 1916, and in November, 1916, asked the United States to recognize Arabia as a free nation. The Arabs are a freedom-loving people, intensely opposed to the Turkish rule. Their importance is due to their strategic position with reference to Suez, Bagdad, and the Persian Gulf.
"Arabic." A White Star liner, torpedoed by a German submarine on August 19, 1915, while on a voyage to New York. The attack, which occurred near the scene of the Lusitania tragedy, was without warning, and the vessel sank within 10 minutes, with resultant loss of 54 lives, including 3 Americans. The German Government at first asserted that the Arabic had attempted to ram the submarine but later waived this contention. While the case was in discussion between the two Governments, Count von Bernstorff, on September 1, gave a pledge for his Government that "liners will not be sunk by our [Germanl submarines without warning and without safety of the lives of noncombatants, provided that the liners do not try to escape or offer resistance." This pledge was given in ostensible answer to the third Lusitania note and without reference to the Arabic sinking, which, however, was adjusted under it. In a second note, dated October 5, the German ambassador notified the State Department that his Government "regretted and disavowed" the sinking of the Arabic, which "was undertaken against the instructions issued to the commander," and was "preparpred to pay an indemnity for the American lives lost. See Sussex Ultimatium, Ancona Pledge , Frye William P."
Arbitration. The first Hague Convention of 1907 says:
"ART. XXXVII. International arbitration has for its object the settlement of differences between States by judges of their own choice and on the basis of respect for law. Recourse to arbitration implies an engagement to submit in good faith to the award.
"ART. XXXVIII. In questions of a legal nature, and especially in the interpretation or application of International conventlons, arbitration Is recognized by the contracting powers as the most effective, and at the same time the most equitable, means of settling disputes which diplomacy has failed to settle."
The United States has been party to scores of arbitrations in the past century, the most notable being the one by which the "Alabama claims" controversy was settled with Great Britain. See Hague Tribunal; Peace Treaties.
Arbitration, German Attitude. "Arbitration treaties must be peculiarly detrimental to an aspiring people which has not yet reached Its-political and national zenith and is bent on expanding its power in order to play its part honorably in the civilized world. Every arbitration court must originate In a certain political status; it must regard this as legally constituted and must treat any alterations, however necessar~ to which the whole of the contracting parties do not agree as an encroachment. In this way every progressive change is arrested and a legal position created which may easily conflict with the actual turn of affairs and may check the expansion of the young and vigorous state in favor of one which is sinking In the scale of civilization." (F. von Bernhardi, Germany and the Ne~rt War, 1912, p. 32.) Andrew D. White, late ambassador to Gei many, says in his Autobiography (1905, II, p. 265), May 24, 1899: "Meeting Count Miinster [chairman of the German delegation I who, after M. de Staal, is very generally considered the most important personage here, we discussed the subject of arbitration. To my great regret, I found' him entirely opposed to it, or, at least, entirely opposed to any well-developed I plan. He did not say that lie would oppose a moderate plan
for voluntary arbitration, but he insisted that arbitration must be Injurious to Germany; that Germany is prcpared for war as no other country is or can be; that she can mobilize her army in 10 days; and that neither France, Russia, nor any other power can do this. Arbitration, he said', would simply give
rival powers time to put themselves in readiness, and would _ therefore be a great disadvantage to Germany." Mr. Henry
White, reporting to the State Department In 1899 upon the Hague Convention, said: "I had learned from a high imperial official before I left Berlin that the Emperor considered arbitration as derogatory to his sovereignty, and I was also ~vell aware, from his conversation, that he was by no means in love with the conference idea." Though this attitude was later modified I in appearance, it was so in appearance only, with the result that
Germany remains the one considerable power with which the United States has never succee(led in getting an arbitration treaty. See Disarmament, German Attitude; German Military Autocracy; Peace Overtures; War, German View.
Argentine Republic. Federal republic of southern South America. Its capital is Buenos Aires. The area is 1,153,417 square miles, and the population In 1915 was 7,973,257. President Hip6lito Irlgoyen was elected October 12, 1916, and is the first Radical to fill that office. Argentina has preserved its neutrality despite the excitement created when the German ambassador ~vas caught advising that Argentine vessels be let alone or sunk without leaving a trace. See "Spurlos Versenkt."
Armed Merchantmen, Legal Status. "The enemy merchant ship has the right of defense against belligerent attack, and this right it can exercise against visit, for this indeed is the first act
of capture. The attacked merchant ship can, Indeed, itself 2 seize the overpowered warship as a prize." (Dr. Hans Wehberg, a German authority on international law, quoted In American Journal of International Law, Oct. 1916, p. 871.) As a corollary of this right, an enemy merchant ship may, of course, aria for purely defensive purposes, without prejudice to its status as a merchant vessel either In neutral harbors or 'on the high seas. This is the position which our Government took at the outset of the war. Early In 1916, however, it approached bQth belligerents with the proposition that enemy merchantmen should forego their defensive right on condition that belligerent submarines should In all cases exercise visit and search preliminary to capture. This effort at compromise failing, our Government returned to its original stand on the estal)lished principles of law. The test of defensive armament is the use to which it is put, not its size. See McLenmorc Resolution; Resistance, Right of.
Armed Neutrality adopted toward Germany. On February 26, 1917, President Wilson wvent before Congress and asked authority "to supply our merchant ships with defensive arms, should that become necessary, and with the means of using them, and to employ any other instrumentalities or methods that may be necessary and adequate to protect our ships and our people in their legitimate and peaceful pursuits on the seas." A bill introduced to meet this request passed the House, but failed In the Senate on account of the termination of the session on March 4. EIght days later the Secretary of State Informed the embassies and legations in Washington that in view of the rene~val by Germany of unrestricted submarine warfare the United States had determined to place on all American merchant vessels sailing through the barred areas an armed guard for the protection of the vessels and the lives of the persons on board. No encounter appears to have occurred between an armed American merchant vessel and a German submarine previous to the declaration of a state of war between the United States and Germany. See McLemore Resolution; United States, Neutrality, 1914-17; War Zones.
Armenian Massacres. The name given to the organized attempts made by the Turks on at least three occasions to extirpate Armenians living in Asia Minor. The first series of massacres occurred in 1895-96, and appears to have had time aid of the Turkish Government. Again in 1909 outbreaks occurred at Adana, in Syria, and its vicinity, having at least the connivance of the Turkish Government. The third, and probably the worst, outbreak occurred in 1915, after Turkey entered the war as Germany's ally. Thousands of the Armenian population of Asia Minor were either killed on the spot or else deported Into the most inhospitable spots in the Ottoman Empire, _ there to die of starvation, exposure, and exhaustion. The _ total number of those who have lost their lives is not exactly known, but is large enough to brand such procedure as one of the -most shamelessly brutal race massacres of all time. That religious differences or economic disturbances-the Armenians -are the small capitalists of Asia Minor-are not responsible is -proved by the fact that in normal times Armenian and Turk ~vork -together without grave friction. It would appear that the desire to eliminate an alien race and to destroy any possible allies _-for a Russian advance in Asia Minor are at the bottom of the affair; that it is the Government and not the average Turk who is responsible. Germany could have stopped the massacres by a word, but she withheld that word. For German testimony -to Turkish atrocities in Armenia an(l responsil)ility of the German Government therefor, see the book by a former German a army officer and war correspondent, Dr. Harry Stiirmer, Two Years in Constantinople (trans., 1917).
Army. The Army of the United States consists (Dec. 1, 1917) of 1,360,000 men, excluding various small supplementary bodies. Of these time Regular Army includes 360,000, the former National Guard about 500,000, and the National Army about 500,000. Further forces will be drawn by volunteering, or by selection from the list of 9,659,382 men between ages 21o and 30, inclusive, who registered on June 5, 1917, under the act of May 18, 1917. The whole force is now in the service of the United States, and may be used at home or abroad. See National Army; National Guard; Regular Army.
Army Corps. The largest complete tactical and administrative unit in an army, which is composed of two or more corps. _ The corps is the appropriate command of a lieutenant general. In the United States service an army corps is formed by combining two or more divisions, under orders given by the President when he deems such a formation necessary. Such a corps may consist of corps headquarters, 6 complete divisions, and specml corps troops, including 1 pioneer regiment of Infantry, 2 regiments of cavalry, 1 antiaircraft machine-gun battalion, 1 antiaircraft Artillery battalion, 1 trench mortar battalion, 1 field battalion, Signal Corps, 1 telegraph battalion, 1 nero wing, 1 regiment of Engineers, 1 pontoon train, 1 corps Artillery park, 1 remount depot, 1 veterinary hospital, 1 bakery company, 1 supply train, 1 troop transport train. In addition, 1 Artillery brigade, 1 sanitary train, and 1 corps Engineer park may be formed from detachments from the divisional organizations. Its approximate strength is 185,000 officers and men. See Division.
Army Organization. There are three principal fighting arms of the service-Infantry, Field Artillery, and Cavalry. The -Infantry is organized In regiments of ten companies, brigades of two regiments each, and divisions of two brigades each. The divisions of the Regular Army are numbered 1-25; those of the National Guard, 26-75; and those of the National Army, 76-. The fighting forces are served by the Staff, whose principal divisions are Quartermaster Corps, Ordnance, Medical Corps, Signal Corps, Engineer Corps. The General Staff, controlling and directing the whole establishment, under the President and the Secretary of War, has a War College and an Intelligence Bureau.
Army Service Schools. At Fort Leavenworth, Kans., a group of advanced schools for the Instruction of selected officers in the problems of line, staff. signal, engineer, field and med Teal service.
Army War College. A school in Washington to which selected officers (captains and above) are sent to study the higher problems of war, and to work upon detailed plans of national defense. It was first organized in 1901, af&er the Spanish War, and our present military system Is largely based upon its leadership. See General Staff.
Arras. An important city of northern France, the key to the German military positions from Cambrai to the sea. It was used in the German retreat to the "Hindenburg line." In the spring of 1917 the British prepared for an offensive north of Arras instead of planning to continue the battle of the Somme mis the Germans had expected. The objectives of this offensive were Vimy Ridge, which controls the plains of Douai to the east, and the city of Lens, the great coal center of northern France. The Canadians captured Vimy Ridge on April 9, in a series of attacks up time valley of time Scarpe, and in June the British lines almost completely surrounded Lens. See "Hindenburg Line"; Somme.
Articles of War. The rules enacted by Congress providing for the system of military discipline and punishment in the Army, corresponding to the annual mutiny act in Great Britain. The latest form of the Articles of War will be found In the Army appropriation act of 1916.
Artillery. This war differs from previous wars chiefly in the enormous increase in the use of arti1lery~ a fact due partly to the immense manufacturing resources of the countries at ~var, which enable them to produce great numbers of
guns and great quantities of ammunition. It is due also to the new methods of directing gunfire from airplanes. It is evident that a gun can not be accurately aimed at an object the exact location of which is unknown. The airplane, however, is able to bring back or to signal back this information sometimes by wireless, so that the artillery may now be used with great effect. The size of the guns and the force of the explosive shells fired from them have also been largely Increased. Field Artillery is the Artillery which accompanies the Army In the field, as distinguished from the Coast Artillery, which is permanently mounted in emplacements in the coast forts. Field Artillery is divided into Light, Horse, Heavy, and Mountain Artillery. The Light Artillery is armed with 3-inch guns, and the majority of 22 the men are not mounted, while the Horse Artillery usually accompanies Cavalry and the entire personnel is mounted. The Heavy Artillery is armed with guns above 3-inch caliber, including 6-Inch guns and howitzers. Mountain Artillery is carried usually on pack mules, and is for use in difficult and mountainous country. See Battery; Battalion; Brigade; Regiment.
Asquith, Herbert Henry (1852- ) - British statesman, Home Secretary in Gladstone's last ministry, Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1905, and Prime Minister in 1908. His attitude toward foreign affairs was characterized by the Liberal imperialism of Lord Rosebery; in domestic politics, while out of sympathy with the extreme Radicals, he advecated social reform, home rule for Ireland, time democratization of the electoral system, and especially restrictions upon the legislatim veto of the House of Lords. The Parliament act of 1911, by which the I-louse of Lords lost its power to stop legislation passed by the Commons, will give Mr. Asquith a place in history. The opening of war with Germany proved that his efforts for better relations with that nation had been wasted'. In 1915 he estabished a coalition cabinet. But the Dardanelles failure and the Mesopotamian fiasco put his Government on the defensive. The opposition of certain powerful newspapers, the unwillingness of Mr. Lloyd George to support him further, and the widespread feeling that his Government was not sufficiently energetic forced his resignation on December 5, 1916. See Coal-tion Cabinet.
Assassination. Even that rather grim publication, the German War Book, condemns recourse to assassination as a method of warfare. To the same effect is the following provision frorn~ Article XXIII of the Hague Regulations: "It is especially forbidden . . . to kill or wound treacherously individuals belong-, ing to the hostile nation or army." However, in the political testament of the -late military governor of Belgium, which was recently made public by Gen. von .Bissing's friend, Herr Thincmeister, a member of the Relchstag, there is a direct hint that Albert of Belgium ought to be dethroned and done away with. "Machiavelli," the document then proceeds, "says that when one xvants to annex a State it is advisable to get rid of its sovereign even by murdering him." This citation of Machiavelli, who wrote 400 years ago, illustrates a type of current German military morality. The testament is given in ewtenso in the Times (London) History of the War, pt. 156, p. 478. Its authenticity is supported by a letter of von Bissing to Dr. Stresemann, a member of the Reichstag, Jan. 14, 1917. See Forbidden Methods of Warfare.
Atrocities. The first months of the war witnessed the inauguration by Germany of a policy of terror in the invaded districts of Belgium and France, evidently premeditated and designed to facilitate the control of conquered territory. Villages and towns were burned, wounded soldiers massacred, noncombatants shot or maimed, women outraged, and children tortured by the soldiery. Allegations of similar practices on the part of the Russians in East Prussia were made by the Germans. The truth of time stories told of German atrocities in France was attested by a French official report, issued in the spring of 1915. On 1~fay 12, 1915, a British commission headed by Lord Bryce publislmed a report on Belgian atrocities, which convinced those hitherto incredulous that the stories of German cruelty were correct. Studies made by Prof. Reiss, of the University of Lansanne, in October and November, 1914, and Issued In a later report, show that the Austrian armies in Serbia were guilty of the same atrocities which characterized German behavior in Belgium. Another Bryce report ~ives accurate details of the n1assac~'es of Armenians at the hands of the Turks, until July, 1916. See Family Rights and Honor; "Frightfulness"; German War Practices; War, German Ruthlessness.
Australia. A federal commonwealth, of six States, lying in the south Pacific. Area, 2,974,581 square miles. Population, 4,951,073 (1915). The capital is at present Sydney, in New South Wales, but a new federal city is under construction. Australia is a self-governin,., dominion of the British Crown, and like Canada promptly threw in its hot with the mother country. Australian troops won undying fame at Gahhipoli and in Fraiice, and Australian naval forces captured several German colonies in the Pacific. In spite of much agitation, Australia has not adopted conscription. See Price Fixing in Australia.
Austrla-Hungary. Austria-Hungary Is a dual monarchy comprising the Austrian Empire, which includes the ancient kingdom of Bohemia, the Hungarian kingdom, and the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its area is 261,241 square miles, supporting, in 1916, a population of 52,500,000. The capital of Austria is Vienna, that of Hungary Budapest. The Emperor-King is assisted in his direction of the common affairs of the two monarchies by three ministries (Foreign Affairs, Finance, and War) and an Imperial Court of Audit. The joint ministries are subject to "lnterpetation" by and are somewhat responsible to the "Delegations," which are elected by the respective parliaments of Austria and Hungary. These delegations sit separately, though they perform identical functiona They convene alternately in the two capitals; and In case of disagreement hold a joint session, in which, without debate, the question is determined by a vote. The present ruler, who was the Archduke Charles Francis Joseph, succeeded Francis Joseph I on November 22, 1916, as Charles I of Austria and IV of Hungary. The constitutional arrangements of Austria are so contrived as to permit the Germans, who are greatly in the minority, to dominate the Czechs, Poles, Ruthenes, Slovenes, and Dalmatians, who are all Slays, and the Italians as well; while in Hungary the Croa- tians, Slovaks, and Roumanians, as well as the Magyar lower classes, are at the mercy of the Magynr aristocracy. AustriqHungary declared war on Serbia July 28, 1914; on Russia, August 6, 1914; on Montenegro, August 9, 1914; and on Belgium, August 28, 1914. See Francis Joseph; Magyarizaion;
Austria-Hungary, President Recommends War. In his annual message, December 4, 1917, President Wilson said:
"One very embarrassing obstacle that stands in ~ur way is that we are - at war with Germany, but not ~vith her allies. I therefore very earnestly recommend that the Congress immediately declare the United States in a state of war with Austria-Hungary. Does it seem strange to you that this should be the conclusion of the argument I have just addressed to you? It is not. It is in fact the inevitable logic of what I have said. Austria-Hungary is for the time being not her own mistress, but simply the vassal of the German Government. We must face the facts as tlmey are and act upon them witlmout sentiment In tbi8 stern business. The Government of Austria-Hungary is not acting upon its own initiative or in response to the wishes and feelings of its own peoples, but- as the instrument of another nation. We must meet its force with our own and regard the Central Powers as but one. The war can be successfully conducted in no other way. The same logic would lead also to a declaration of war against Turkey and Bulgaria. They also are the tools of Germany. But they are mere tools and do not yet stand 1n the direct path of our necessary action. We shall go wlmerever the necessities of this war carry us, but it seems to me that we should go only where immediate and practical considerations lead us and not heed any others." (See War, Declaration against Austria-Hungary.)
Austrian Ultimatum to Serbia. See Serbia, Austrian Ultimatum.
Austria and Serbia, 1913. It was suspected by many that
the Austrian note of 1914 was the result of a long-contemplated policy of aggression in the Balkan peninsula. Bosnia and Herzegovina had been annexed in 1908 and now Serbia was to follow. This suspicion was changed to certainty by the disclosure with which Signor Giolitti, formerly prime minister of Italy, startled the Chamber of Deputies in December, 1914. As early as August 9, 1913, Austria communicated to Germany and Italy her intention of acting against Serbia, and asked for time cooperation of her partners in the Triple Alliance. Italy replied that as the alliance was purely defensive and the action contemplated was plainly aggressive, she could not give the policy her support. She further expressed the hope that Germany would dissuade Austria from so dangerous a venture. See Serbia, Austrian Ultimatum; Triple Alliance.
Autocracy. Autocracy is a government by a supreiue ruler accountable to no earthly power. It is of the essence of this form of government that the lives, liberties, and, indeed, all interests of "common" men should be at the virtual disposal of another will without opportunity of effective appeal. The monarch enjoys a monopoly, of rights-he is above the law. On the other hand, the people enjoy but a single right-the right to obey. Accordingly, from the democratic standpoint, there is little difference between autocracy and usurpation-usurpation of the rights inherent in human nature. Speaking at Konigsberg In 1910, William II said: "Looking upon myself as the instrument of time Lord, regardless of the views and time opinions of the lmour, I go on my way." At another time he used the following words: "There is but one master in this country; it is I, and I will tolerate no other." He has also been very fond of quoting the old Roman adage, making it read: "Time will of the king is the hmighmest law." See Kaiserism;William, II.
Autonomy. Self-government for local -matters, attended by subordination in foreign relations. The idea, which is well illustrated by the position of Australia and Canada, the great self-governing Commonwealths of the British Empire, may prove to be useful in finally defiuitmg the position of such countries as Poland, in relation to Russia, and of Bohemia, in relation -to Austria-Hungary.
Aviation. A vast new arm of military service which has undergone a most remarkable development during the present xvar. The combined British and French air squadrons, it was recently stated, have been increased since the war began from 1,700 to more than 20,000 machines, with a personnel of 200,000 men. England did not possess more than 200 qualified aviators at the outbreak of hostilities. Aircraft in use itmclude airplanes, the German Zeppelins, other dirigibles, and the observation kite balloons-. The Allies at the beginning were surprised to see sausage-shaped bags anchored be hind the German lines at altitudes reaching up to 5,000 feet. These were in position to report upon troop movements of time enemy and to guide the artillery. But the main line of development has been in the manufacture and use of airplanes. These are monoplanes, biplanes, and trlplanes. They are of various types, sizes, and makes, designed for all kinds of uses. Principally they are for reconnoissance, for direction of artillery fire, for scouting and chasing, and for bombardment. The reconnoissance machines often carry cameras, and from them detailed photograplms of ground to be attacked are made and returned to headquarters. They afterwards direct the fire of the guns. The scout plane precedes and feels the way for other planes. The chaser is to pursue the enemy and to protect aerial movements. The planes for bombardment of enemy positions or troop masses carry bombs. All war planes are armed, the principal reliance being upon machine guns, with which to wound armd precipitate enemy machines to the earth. Airplanes carry from 1 to 12 men, and will doubtless soon exceed tlmis. Some of the chasers are built to fly at the rate of 150 miles an hour. One has recently risen to a height of 15.000 feet in seven and one-half minutes. In any recent battle on the west front, as at Messines Ridge, there have been first, near the ea4h~. -. squadron of fighting planes, armed with guns for attacking troops in the trenches, transports, etc.; at a height of 3,000 to 5,000 feet a division of machines for dropping bombs into the enemy lines; and above, at a height of 15,000 or 20,000 feet, fast one-man machines for engaging planes sent out by the enemy to attack the bombers from overhead. The aircraft organization of an army Is not improperly called Its "winged cavalry." Without airplanes artillery under present systems
of warfare is practically helpless. See Liberty Motor.