War Cyclopedia - P
Pacifism. In the broader sense, is nearly synonymous with Internationalism, and signifies a movement for the abolition of war. In the narrower sense it means a protest against any war which may be waged, regardless of its causes, purposes, or probable consequences. "Gentlemen who are out and out pacifists are making one fundamental mistake . . . America does not constitute the world." (President Wilson, Des Moines, Feb. 15, 1916.) "I want peace, but I know how to get it and they do not." (Buffalo, Nov. 12, 1917. See Peace with Honor.
Pact of London. On September 5, 1914, the following treaty was signed in London: "The British, French, and Russian Governments mutually engage not to conclude peace separately during the present war. The three Governments agree that when terms of peace come to be discussed, no one of the Allies will demand terms of peace without the previous agreement of each of the other Allies." This treaty was adhered to by Japan on October 30, 1915, and by Italy on December 2, 1915. If Russia makes a separate peace with the Central Powers it will be in fiat violation of this agreement. See Bolsheviki; Russian Revolution~.
Painlevé, Paul (1863- ). Ex-Premier of France; mathematician, professor at the Sorbonne, a brilliant chemist, a learned physicist, an excellent speaker, and leader in political life. In politics he is a Republican-Socialist, 1. e.. a moderate. At the opening of the war he urged the appointment of a superior commission on inventions to continue the work of the commission on inventions of the war department, most of whose officials had taken the field. He himself is reported to have invented the gas used against the Germans at Verdun. He was taken into the cabinet as Minister of Public Instruction, October 31, 1915; was appointed to the new office of Minister of Inventions in January, 1916; Minister of War, 1917, where one of his chief acts was the appointment of Petain to the chief command. On the fall of the Ribot ministry in September, 1917, he was called to constitute a ministry from all parties (except the Unified Socialists) for the sole purpose of prosecuting the war; this lasted, however, only for a few weeks, falling in November, 1917.
Palestine. A province of the Turkish Empire, on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean, where a British Invasion began in the spring of 1917. The fall of Erzerum had ended the plan for a Turkish invasion of Egypt through this region in 1916. British forces from Egypt began operations in Syria as a part of their near eastern campaign. They advanced to within 50 miles of Jerusalem on March 28, 1917. The Russian collapse halted for a time all operations in this theater; but in November, 1917, further progress was announced, including the taking of Ascalon and Jaffa. Jerusalem was surrendered to the British on December 9. See Bag clad; Suez Canal.
Panama. A republic occupying the Isthmus of Panama; formerly a State of Colombia. Its area is 33,776 square miles, and its population is approximately 375,000. The President is TI. M. Valdez. Panama declared war upon Germany April 7, 1917, in these words: "Our indisputable duty in this tremendous hour of history is of a common ally, whose interests and existence questioned and misunderstood." A bill for the repeal of the exemption clause, but reserving American rights in the matter, was passed June 15. See "Scrap of Paper"; Treaties, Observance of.
Panama Indemnity. Proposals to indemnify Colombia for the loss of Panama in the revolution of November, 1903,, have been made In every administration since that time. Whether the United States was culpable on that occasion is an open question. But the presence of United States forces on the Isthmus with orders to maintain the free and uninterrupted transit deterred the Colombian Government from taking measures to suppress the revolt and the recognition of Panamanian independence caused a breach in our friendly relations with Colombia. A treaty to indemnify Colombia was discussed under President Taft; and one was negotiated by President Wilson, but it has not been ratified by the Senate.
Pan Germans Urge War In 1913. In 1913 the Pan-Germans made a political "drive" in Germany. Countless meetings were held, speeches made, and resolutions passed for the strengthening of "national feeling." The year 1813 was recalled when Prussia rose against Napoleon, and predictions were freely made that Germany would soon rise again, this time against those who were "hemming her in." Enthusiastic audiences were told that war was at hand; that "there was a smell of blood in the air." Gens. Keim Liebert, Wrochem, and Admiral Breusing went from one part of Germany to the other uttering such views. Not only the Pan-German organization but the Navy League, which included over a million names, the Defense Association, which had sprung up suddenly in 1912 and already had an enormous membership, and more than 20 allied organiz~~t1ons helped to excite the nation. There was no real occasion for this outburst except the diplomatic setback to Germany over Morocco in 1911, and the alarm felt over the results of the Balkan wars of 1912-13. See" Conquiest aincl Kultur"; German Army Act of 1013, Reason for.
Pan-Islamlsm. The Sultan of Turkey claims to be the Caliph or spiritual head of the Mohammedan world. The late Sultan, Abdul Hamld II (1876-1909), sought to consolidate the Islamic world by appealing to its religious zeal as a political unit to oppose the designs of European powers against Turkey. The Young Turks also coquetted with the idea, in which they were encouraged by the German Emperor, who ostentatiously posed as the friend of Mohammedans everywhere. German agents also plotted with the Mohammedan peoples of Great Britain, France, and Russia, with the object of weaning them from their loyalty. But the spectacle of Mohammedan troops from India fighting against Turks in Mesopotamia has revealed the slender bases of the Pan-Islamic movement. See Armenian Massacres; Holy War; Young Turks.
Pan-Slavism. A movement aiming to unite for common effort all peoples of the Slavic race. At first it appears to have been 'mainly a cultural movement, aiming at the revival and further development of Slavic civilization. From this stage it easily passed into a movement to deliver the Slays of the Balkans from Turkish misrule and did much to give popular sanction to the war between Russia and Turkey in 1877-78. Since then it has continued as a partly cultural, partly political movement aiming at the general development of the Slavic race in a political, economic, and cultural sense. In late years it has taken a new turn, in that it has been used by certain circles in the Russian Government to give a popular basis for attempts to unite around the leadership of Russia all the Slavic peoples, and to gain popular sanction for aggressive designs against Turkey on one band and Germany and Austria on the other. This extension brought the movement into conflict with Pan-Germanism and did much to render difficult the relations between Russia and the Teutonic powers and to bring on the present war. But the advent of the Russian Republic with less aggressive designs has probably checked this phase of the movement, leaving, however, its real basis undisturbed. See "Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes"; Slays; Ukraine.
"Panther." German war vessel sent to Agadir (Morocco) in 1911. See Morocco Question~.
Papen, Capt. Franz von. Late military attaché to the German embassy In Washington. He was dismissed by our Government on December 4, 1914, for "improper activity in military matters." In an intercepted letter to a friend in Germany he referred to our people as "those idiotic Yankees." See German Intrigue.
Paper. Increased exportation of all wood products has affected the situation of paper. The paper shortage became so acute In 1916 that the Federal Trade Commission was forced to investigate the question. The commission maintained that the production of paper was "vested with a public Interest," and on June 13, 1917, It recommended governmental control of the production of print and book paper and that the Government of Canada be asked to cooperate with the United States in a similar control. In case the Canadian Government should refuse this cooperation, the commission recommended that exportation of paper and paper materials from Canada to this country should be made only through Federal agencies. Some months earlier the Government had instituted a suit under the Sherman act against the so-called paper trust, and the recent settlement (Nov. 26, 1917) of this matter, by an agreement with the manufacturers of news print paper dominating their industry in this country and Canada, puts the paper situation on a secure basis. This agreement compels the dissolution of the trust, and provides that the Government shall fix manufacturers' maximum prices for the duration of the war and three months thereafter.
Paper Blockade. One in which a belligerent declares an enemy coast line to be blockaded, but does not station a naval force to prevent access to such coast line according to the recognized usage of visit and search. Such paper blockades were forbidden by the Declaration of Paris, 1856: "A blockade to be binding must be effective." See Blockade; Declaration of Paris.
Parole. "A formal promise or pledge given by a prisoner of war that he will not try to escape if allowed to go about at liberty. . . . In civilized warfare the breaking of parole is regarded as an infamous transgression, and an officer so offending may not expect quarter should he again fall into the hands of the enemy." (Cev4ury Dictionary.) During the present war many German officers have broken their parole both in this and other countries. The most noteworthy examples in this country are furnished by the officers of the Eitel Friedrich and Kronprinz Wilhelm. The former vessel took refuge in a United States port on March 10, 1915. The captain was directed to allow none of his officers or crew on shore and promised not to do so. One week later the executive officer, Lieut. Brauer, left the ship and returned to Germany, where he received a new command. It Is not possible to state how many other officers left In spite of the captain's promise. On April 13 the Eitel Friedrich was Interned, and Capt. Thierichens gave a written pledge for himself, his officers, and his crew. On April 5 the captain of the Kromprinz Wilhelm had given a similar written pledge. The officers of the two vessels, being on parole, were allowed great liberty. A large proportion of them, including Nolte, Hoffman, Rudebusch, Forstreuter, Biermann, Lustvelt, Kreber, Kroneck, and Koch, broke their parole and fled from the United States. It is not possible to state how many did so, as the captains at first refused to give to the United States authorities any list of their officers or crew, and when an officer disappeared either reported his absence too late for his apprehension or not at all. When it was proposed to photograph the members of the crew in order to make their escape more difficult, Count Bernstorff asked that they might "be spared the humiliation," and attempted to gloss over their breaches of faith by stating that they were "inspired by patriotic motives." When the German Imperial naval authorities at Berlin had their attention called to the violations of parole, they also condoned them by stating that the pledge given by the German captains "does not conform absolutely to the idea of word of honor." One, of our admirals fittingly characterized the position taken by the German Government as "perfectly preposterous; that the parole given in this case was regarded as most sacred and would be so regarded in other countries." See German Diplomacy; Hague and Geneva Conventiom.s, German Violations.
Pasitch, Nicholas P. Premier of Serbia, who has held office since September, 1912. He piloted Serbia successfully through the Balkan wars, and during the vicissitudes of the gallant little nation since the Austro-German-Bulgarian conquest (November, 1915) the venerable Premier has been a constant inspiration to his people.
Passports. A passport serves to establish the identity of a traveler and is given him in order to recommend him to the protection of the authorities of the district or country to which he is proceeding and to facilitate his journey. It is rigorously required in time of war and by certain countries, like Turkey, even In times of peace. It Is obtained in the United States by making application through designated officials, notaries public, or at the Passport Bureau of the Department of State. The conditions under which it is issued in time of war are most exacting and vary from time to time. An American citizen is not entitled to a passport as a matter of right. The State Department may properly decline to extend the protection of a passport to certain individuals and for certain objects. For example, an alien who has merely declared his intention to become an American citizen may well be denied a passport for use in the country of his birth. Passports are for limited periods, though they may be renewed.
By the order of July 26, 1917, issued by the Departments of State and Labor, every person leaving a foreign country for the United States, except persons starting from Canada, must, before entering the United States, present a valid passport or equivalent document, satisfactorily establishing his identity and nationality, with a signed and certified photograph of the bearer attached; and such passport must have been used by an American consul or authorized diplomatic officer of the United States, in the country from which the journey to the United States started. In the case of aliens, moreover, the passport must be accompanied by a personal history of the bearer.
Passports, German Frauds. In 1914, when thousands of Americans were hastening to leave Germany, several passports were sent by the American embassy at Berlin to the German Foreign Office for the necessary visés. One of these was sent by the German Foreign Office to the German Admiralty, and by the latter given to Carl Hans Lody, a German spy, who succeeded in entering England with it, and was afterwards apprehended, tried, and executed. Another German, Robert Rosenthal, went to one of the American consulates in Switzerland, registered as an American citizen under an assumed American name, obtained a certificate of registration, and with it proceeded to France, where be was arrested and convicted as a spy and afterwards executed. In another case a passport, which had been properly issued to an American citizen, afterwards was found in the hands of a German spy in Scotland. The notorious von Rintelen, von der Goltz, Hans Boehrn, and Anton Kupferle were also involved in attempts to defraud our State Department in this way. Immediately after the first passport frauds had been discovered the passport regulations, which had been in effect for many years, were amended and made much more strict, and there have been few cases in the past two years in which passports have been fraudulently procured from this Government. The German authorities, having discovered the difficulty in obtaining genuine American passports through fraud, began to furnish their spies with counterfeit passports. These counterfeits were good reproductions of the American passport and the differences would not be ordinarily detected. At least three German spies bearing these counterfeit passports, of which there are several manufactories, were arrested in England and two in Switzerland. See German Diplomacy; Intrigue.
Patents, Copyrights, and Trade-Marks, Status of Enemy. Patents, copyrights, etc., owned by Germans or by allies of Germany, may be used by American manufacturers during the war by special license from the President and under such conditions as he may prescribe. The applicant for such a license must furnish guaranties that he is able and intends in good faith to use his privilege; he also must pay a minimum fee of $100 and 1 per cent of a deposit of 5 per cent of the gross receipts derived from his use of the license. In the case of articles and products necessary to the health of the military and naval forces of the United States or the successful prosecution of the war the President may fix prices. Within one year after the close of the war the enemy owner of the patent, copyright, or trademark may recover payment in a district court of the United States of a reasonable royalty from the licensee. The sum thus recovered will come from the deposit above mentioned, which thus constitutes a trust fund in the Treasury of the United States for the benefit of the enemy owner. See Alien Property Custodian; Trading with the Enemy Act
"Pay as You Go" War. The financial measures voted by Congress in 1917 provide for a proportion of taxes to loans equal to that reached, by any of the European governments and In excess of anything attempted in the Civil War. But while
"pay as you go" is an excellent motto for governments, it is not always desirable to apply it too rigorously. A nation engaged in a gigantic struggle like the present should certainly not be willing to limit its efforts to what may be paid for from current revenues. Neither, on the other hand, should it force up its tax rate unduly. For so long as government does not produce the things needed by itself and society, private capital must do the work, and this it neither will nor can do if it is too fiercely "conscripted." This would be the case at any time, but it is especially so in war time, when much new and costly machinery has to be provided for the production of unusual things. We are raising about 33 per cent of war expenditures by taxes; and England and France have adopted similar policies. Germany has laid little in the way of additional war taxes, for she blithely planned a short war and heavy indemnities from France and other territory to be conquered. Now, her leaders hardly dare confess the fading of that hope by laying taxes on their own people, from whom they have demanded such sacrifices in men and money. A recent German writer, attacking the financial fool's paradise raised by the German Government, points out that if Germany were to tax in order to pay her present debt it would take everything above an income of $750 a year. See Acts of Congress; "Rich Man's War, Poor Man's Fight"; War Finance; War Loans, German; War Tar on excess Profits; War Tar' on Incomes; etc.
Peace Overtures, German, 1916. Germany, through the neutral nations, proposed peace negotiation with the Entente December 12, 1916. Dwelling upon the ruin with which Europe was threatened, the note pointed out the favorable military situation of the Central' Powers, but failed to state any definite terms of peace. Also, the note attempted to throw upon the Entente the responsibility of continuing the war. In an explanatory note to the Pope the German Government maintained that it had been forced into a war of defense, an assertion that was repeated In a supplementary statement by Austria-Hungary. In reply to these overtures, and supported by the more important Allies, Mr. Lloyd George declared that the minimum conditions of the Entente included complete restitution of all territory, full reparation for damages, and effective guarantees of security against Prussian militarism. These terms were repeated in a joint reply of the 10 Entente Miles from Paris, December 30, 1916, which, maintaining that Germany and Austria-Hungary had provoked the war, rejected the peace overtures as intended to impose a "German" peace and to sow dissensions among themselves. This reply ended all hope for peace negotiations at that time. See Disarmament; German Military Dominance; Permanent Peace.
Peace Overtures, Papal. In August, 1917, Pope Benedict XV Invited the belligerent nations to make peace upon bases which he suggested. Advocating a decrease In armament, international arbitration, and freedom of the seas, he proposed reciprocal renunciation of indemnities to cover the damages and
cost of the war. He favored restitution of occupied territory, and advanced indefinite proposals regarding other delicate territorial questions. A supplementary statement pointed out that the Pope assumed the role of peacemaker, not of judge. President Wilson summarized the Pope's proposals as follows:
"His Holiness in substance proposes that we return to the status quo ante bellum, and that then there be a general condonation, disarmament, and a concert of nations based upon an acceptance of the principle of arbitration; that by a similar concert freedom of the seas be established; and that the territorial claims of France and Italy, the perplexing problems of the Balkan States, and the restitution of Poland be left to such conciliatory adjustments as may be possible in the new temper of such a peace, due regard being paid to the aspirations of the peoples whose political fortunes and affiliations will be involved." (American reply to the Pope.)
Peace Terms, American. The President's reply to the Pope, August 27, 1917, forcibly stated the aim of the United States to free the world from the menace of Prussian militarism controlled by an arrogant and faithless autocracy. Distinguishing between the German rulers and the people, President Wilson asserted that the United States would willingly negotiate with a government subject to the popular will. The note disavowed any intention to dismember countries or to impose unfair economic conditions. "Responsible statesmen must now everywhere see, if they never saw before, that no peace can rest securely upon political or economic restrictions meant to benefit some nations and cripple or embarrass others, upon vindictive action of any sort, or any kind of revenge or deliberate injury. The American people have suffered intolerable wrongs at the hands of the Imperial German Government, but they desire no reprisal upon the German people, who have themselves suffered all things in this war, which they did not choose. They believe that peace should rest upon the rights of peoples, not the rights of Governments-the rights of peoples, great or small, weak or powerful-their equal right to freedom and security and self-government and to a participation upon fair terms in the economic opportunities of the world, the German people, of course, Included, if they will accept equality and not seek domination." (American reply to the Pope.) See Permanent Peace; "~Status quo ante bellum."
Peace Terms, German Industrialist on. A petition was
presented to the Chancellor May 20, 1915, from six of the great industrial and agricultural associations which represent powerful and widely spread interests in Germany. They urged that Belgium should be subject to Germany in "military and tariff matters, as well as in currency, banking, and post." Northern France as far as the river Somme should also be annexed for "our future position at sea," and the industrial establishments In the annexed territories be transferred to German hands. From Russia part of the Baltic Provinces and the territories to the south should be taken. The necessity of new agricultural territory, of new mining and industrial districts, especially
of the coal and iron of Belgium and northern France, were emphasized. See "Conquest and Kultur"; "No Annexations, no Indemnities."
Peace Terms, German Opinion as to. Nearly all exponents of public opinion in Germany, save the Social Democrats, advocate large additions to the German Empire as a result of the war. Most wish parts of northern France, where there is coal and iron, all of Belgium, and the conquered part of Russia, which includes rich agricultural territory and the greatest manufacturing region. There is another school, however-a comparatively small group-who fear that Germany will make lasting enemies by such a peace, and who hope that Germany's gains will be in a colonial empire. They propose that the Congo be taken from Belgium, Morocco from France, and various islands from Portugal. Both those who wish territories from Germany's neighbors and those who wish colonies agree on the importance of the route to the southeast. Germany must control the lands as far as the Persian Gulf and, if possible, Persia. "Berlin-Bombay" is the dream of one Pan-German. See "Berlin to Bagdad."
Peace Terms, German Professors on. Their views are set forth in a petition adopted on June 20, 1915, and signed by 1,341 important men In Germany, including 352 professors, 158 educators and clergymen, 145 high officials, mayors and municipal officials, 148 judges and lawyers, 252 painters, writers, and publishers. It advocated the annexation of the whole eastern part of France, from Belfort to the coast, and the transfer of the business undertakings and estates to German ownership. Belgium was to be held and the Inhabitants allowed no political influence in the Empire. The occupied part of Russia was to be. retained and the land turned over to Germany. Egypt was to be taken from England. As to indemnities, "we ought not to hesitate to impose upon France as much as possible." See "No Annexations, no Indemnities.
Peace Terms, Lincoln's View of. "The manner of continuing the effort remains to choose. On careful consideration of all the evidence accessible, it seems to me that no attempt at negotiation with the insurgent leader could result in any good. He would accept nothing short of severance of the Union, precisely what we will not and can not give. . .. Between him and us the issue is distinct, simple, and inflexible. It is an issue which can only be tried by war and decided by victory. If we yield we are beaten; if the southern people fail him he is beaten. Either way it would be the victory and defeat following war. . . . They can at any moment have peace simply by laying down their arms and submitting to the national authority. . . . The war will cease on the part of the Government whenever it shall have ceased on the part of those who began it." (Annual message of December, 1864.)
Peace Treaties. The United States has concluded about 30 peace treaties, negotiated by Secretary of State Bryan. They are modeled upon one central idea, which is embodied in the opening article of each, as follows: "The high contracting parties agree that all disputes between them, of every nature whatsoever, shall, when diplomatic methods of adjustment have failed, be referred for investigation and report to a permanent international commission to be constituted [by the contracting parties], . . . and agree not to declare war or begin hostilities during such investigation and before the report is submitted." Before the outbreak of the European war, 35 nations had accepted this plan "In principle" and 30 treaties had been signed, of which 28 had been ratified before the end of the year. The 30 nations referred to included Great Britain, France, Russia, and Italy. Germany approved the plan in principle while avoiding all definite arrangements, an attitude growing out of her general opposition to arbitration or any means of settling disputes except by private negotiations or force. See Arbitration, German Attitude; Disarmament, German Attitude.
Peace with Honor. "Not a man or woman would wish peace at the expense of the honor of the United States." "There is a price Which is too great to pay for peace. . . . One can not pay the price of self-respect . . . of duties abdicated." (President Wilson at Des Moines, Feb. 1, 1916.) "The right is more precious than peace." (Before Congress, Apr. 2, 1917.)
Permanent Peace, American Duty. "It is nothing less than this, to add their authority and their power to the authority and force of other nations to guarantee peace and justice throughout the world." (President Wilson to the Senate, Jan. 22, 1917.)
Permanent Peace, American Plan. On January 22, 1917, before the United States entered the war, President Wilson, in an address to the Senate, set forth the principles which should govern any peace with which the United States could associate itself, and be true to its noblest ideals and traditions. These principles of a peace worth guaranteeing are as follows:
(1) Equality of rights as between nations. (Not to be based on old balance of power.) (2) Recognition of the principle that Governments derive their just power from the consent of the governed. (3) The right of all great peoples to a direct outlet to the sea, by territorial readjustments or neutralizations.
(4) The freedom of the seas in practically all circumstances.
(5) The limitations of armaments on land and sea. (6) No nation to attempt to extend its policy over any other nation or people. (7) A concert of nations to guarantee peace and the rights of all nations. A world organized for peace, not for war. No entangling alliances creating a competition for power, but a concert for peace. "These," the President concluded, "are American principles, American policies. . . . They are also the principles and policies of forward-looking men and women everywhere, of every modern nation, and of every enlightened community." See Aims of the United States; Balance of Power; League to Enforce Peace.
Permanent Peace, Relation of the New World to. "No
covenant of cooperative peace that does not include the peoples
of the New World can suffice to keep the future safe against war, and yet there is only one sort of peace that the peoples of America could join in guaranteeing." It must be "a peace worth guaranteeing, a peace that will win the approval of man kind, not merely a peace that will serve the several interests and immediate ends of the nations engaged." (President Wilson to the Senate, Jan. 22, 1917.) -
Permanent Peace, Sanction of. "Mere agreements may not make peace secure. . . . If the peace presently to be made is to endure, it must be made secure by the organized major force of mankind. The terms of the immediate peace agreed upon will determine whether it is a peace for which such a guaranty can be secured. The question upon which the whole future peace and policy of the world depends is this: Is the present war a struggle for a just and secure peace or only a new balance of power? If it be only a struggle for a new balance of power, who will guarantee, who can guarantee, the stable equilibrium of the new arrangement? Only a tranquil Europe can be a stable Europe. There must be, not a balance of power, but a community of power; not organized rivalries, but an organized common peace." (President Wilson, to the Senate, Jan. 22, 1917.)
Persia. A monarchy in western Asia, with an area of 628,000 square miles and a population of 9,500,000. The capital is Teheran. The reigning Shah, Sultan Ahmad Shak, ascended the throne on July 16, 1909, after the abdication of his father Mohammed All. The history of Persia has been disturbed of recent years, owing to the corruption and inefficiency of the old autocratic system and the rivalry of foreign interests. A constitution was established in 1906, and since then conditions have improved somewhat', although both Great Britain and Russia have interfered to protect their nationals. By the AngloRussian convention of August 31, 1907, Persia was divided into spheres of influence between the two powers, and this fact has been dominant in recent developments. Persia is not formally involved in the war, but the Germans and Turks have intrigued desperately against the dominant powers, as a result of _ which British and Russian troops have been sent into the country. At present the Allies hold the upper hand.
Peter I (1844- ). King of Serbia since June 15, 1903. A member of the Karageorgevitch family, he ascended the throne as the result of a palace revolution, in which the rival dynasty, -the Obrenovitch, was exterminated. Owing to his feeble health In recent years, King Peter has practically abdicated, and the Crown Prince Alexander has acted as regent.
Pétain, Gen. Henri Philippe. The commander in chief of the French armies. He came to the position held and made famous by Marshal Joffre, after a brief incumbency of it by Gen. Nivelle, in the spring of 1917. Like Nivelle, who had been promoted, in a sense, over his head, he is one of the heroes of Verdun. He had seen service in Madagascar and other parts of the French colonial empire, and when the war broke out
had gone into retirement with a colonel's rank in a little village in the south of France. Joffre ordered him to Alsace and his advancement since is known to all the world. Personally he Is an eccentric man, both in appearance and habit, facts which have earlier militated against his promotion. He is long-limbed and overgrown and is given to many odd, simple, and boyish amusements. He enjoys a reputation as an unerring strategist and has pointed out many of the mistaken tactical maneuvers of the present war.
Petrograd. Formerly St. Petersburg; the capital of Russia. situated near the Baltic in the northwest corner of the State. Population (1912) 2,018,596. Founded by Peter the Great in 1703, Petrograd has always been the city of the aristocracy and bureaucracy and is said to be less Russian than any other city in Russia. It has been hinted that, in view of this fact, a removal of the capital of the republic to Moscow may be made. Petrograd became also the center of extreme radicalism in Russia, and It was there that the revolutions of March and November, 1917, started. See Botsheviki; Councils of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates; Le'nine; Russian Revolution of 1917.
Petroleum. There has been a continuous increase in the production of petroleum since the outbreak of the war. In 1916 the production reached 12,276,600,000 gallons. This will be increased in 1917. The war demands abroad have led to increasing exports of petroleum since 1914. For the fiscal year of 1914-15 the exports were 2,187,340,610 gallons, for 1915-16, 2,443,478,083 gallons, and for 1916-17, 2,697,056,112 gallons. The domestic demand has also increased rapidly, so that although the number of wells in operation at present is almost three times that of 1915 the supply of gasoline and petroleum products is scarcely adequate to fill the enormous demand.
Piave. A river of considerable size in northern Italy, on which the Italian army took its stand in November, 1917, following the retreat from the Isonzo. The Piave rises in the Carnic Alps and for half its course flows southeast between the Dolomites and the Venetian Alps, then bends in an abrupt right angle to the southeast across the plain to the Gulf of Venetia. Its volume varies with the seasons, and near the gulf it flows through marshes. It was on the lower course of the river that the Italian army made its stand, the line turning west to the valley of the Brenta at the point where the Piave makes its great bend.
Pillage. Article XLVII of The Hague Regulations reads, "Pillage Is formally forbidden," and even the German War Book declares that "it is not plundering but downright burglary if a man pilfers things out of uninhabited houses." There are many well-supported instances, however, of such "downright burglary" even by German commanders. Prof Vernon Kellogg, who spent several months at the "great headquarters" of the German army in the west in connection with work of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, writes: "Where the villagers and peasants had tried to save something that could be buried or concealed the searching out of these pitiful hiding places became a great game with the German soldiers. One ingenious Frenchman had secreted a few choice bottles of wine in a famous tomb on heights about the Meuse. But these bottles found their way to special tables at the 'great headquarters.'" Worse still was the wholesale looting of safes and strong boxes and the carting off by German officers of pictures, pianos, sewing machines, and furniture, not only from Belgium and north-era France but from Poland as well. See Belgium, Economic Destruction; Family Honor and Rights; German War Practices.
"Pill-boxes." Trench warfare has recently been modified by a system of defense resorted to by the Germans in Flanders, in which steel and concrete turrets are connected by scraps of trenches and barbed-wire entanglements and offer greater resistance to barrage fire than do the open trenches. The transportation of the materials for their construction from Dutch ports has precipitated a controversy between Holland and Great Britain. See Trench Warfare.
Pius X. Pope, 1903-1914. He died on August 20, 1914, aged 79. His death is reported to have been hastened by the outbreak of the great war. On August 19 he issued an ineffectual appeal for peace. See Benedict XV.
"Place in the Sun." A phrase used by William II on June 18, 1901, at Hamburg, in referring to Germany's acquisition of the Chinese harbor at Kiaochow and other valuable commercial concessions in China. "In spite of the fact that we have no such fleet as we should have, we have conquered for ourselves a place in the sun. It will now be my place to see to it that this place in the sun shall remain our undisputed possession, in order that the sun's rays may fall fruitfully upon our activity and trade in foreign parts." This expression a place in the sun" was speedily taken up as a slogan by the Pan-German party, which advocated a bigger navy, more colonies, and an aggressive policy of colonial expansion. "It is only by relying on our good German sword that we can hope to conquer that place In the sun which rightly belongs to us, and which no one will yield to us voluntarily . . . . Till the world comes to an end, the ultimate decision must rest with the 8word." (Extract from the Crown Prince's introduction to ~er any in Arms, issued in 1913.) The Kaiser had said in 1900: "I shall carry through to its completion the work of reorganizing my navy in order that it may stand justified at the side of my army, and that through it the German Empire may also be in a position to win outwardly the place which she has not yet attained." See "Hun"; "Kultur"; Pan-Germanism; "Mittel-Europa."
Plattsburg. The most widely known and the oldest of the officers' training camps. "The Plattsburg idea," which originated with Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood and was put into effect by him In 1915, was to provide civilian volunteers with sufficient training to enable them to become officers, after a minimum of additional training, in case a pressing need of officers should arise.
"Plattsburg" also had a considerable value as a form of preparedness propaganda. P1attsburg is in New York, on Lake Champlain, near the Canadian line. A regular army post has long been located there. See Officers' Training Camps.
"Poilu." The word used affectionately by the French people to designate their soldiers in the present war. The term comes from the French word poll, meaning hair, especially the hair or fur of animals or the hair or beard of man. Hence it is commonly supposed that the term pollu came to be applied to the French soldiers because when they were in the trenches they did not shave, as the British soldiers did. The French soldier was homme poilu, bearded man. Far from being a term of reproach, however, the term would naturally signify courage, particularly since the French phrase brave a trois poils is an idiomatic expression meaning a man of known courage.
Poincaré, Raymond (1860- ). President of France since January 17, 1913. Born at Bar-ic-Due, in French Lorraine. Lawyer (advocate at the court of Paris) and writer. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies at the age of 27, he was 30 before he made his first speech (in defense of the budget). In 1893 he became Minister of Public Instruction; 1894, of Finance; 1895, of Public Instruction; 1896, of Finance; he refused four other offers of ministries. He was elected senator, 1903, and was finally appointed Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1912, which office be held until elected President. He has written many books, among others How France Is Governed (1913). His course has been marked by moderation, so that he has been opposed by the socialists, to whom be seems a conservative. He is a man of prudence and ability, who has taken a more active part in affairs than is usual with a French President.
Poison. Article XXIII of The Hague Regulations says: "It is especially forbidden to employ poison or poisoned weapons." In February, 1915, Gen. Botha, in command of the British forces operating in German Southwest Africa, charged the German forces with having poisoned six wells at Swakopmund. In the ensuing correspondence the German authorities admitted having employed "kopper dip" in "isolated instances" to render wells "temporarily unfit for use," but explained that they had left notices in each case of what had been done; and, the German commander continued, poisoning means "secretly adding matter . . . injurious to the health of human beings." Gen. Botha's answer was that in no case were such notices found, and that poisoning had been avoided only through the precaution of a chemical analysis of the contents of the wells in question, which in each instance had revealed the presence of arsenic. See Assassination; Forbidden Weapons; Ro mania, German Treachery in.
Poland. A country formerly larger than the present German Empire, which extended in its widest frontiers over the regions south of the Baltic Sea between the Odor and the Dwina rivers. The Vistula is its principal channel of communication. For
centuries the Poles were a dominant nation over the many Slavic peoples of those parts. At an early date the Poles embraced the Catholic faith, which they still hold in distinction from the Orthodox Church of the Russians and Protestantism of Germany. Without natural barriers Poland has been exposed to the attacks of Russia on the one side and Germany on the other. The doom of Poland was sealed by its aggressive neighbors, especially Catherine II of Russia, Frederick II of Prussia, and Maria Theresa of Austria, who, instead of quarreling over the spoils, agreed to join in its dismemberment. By three successive partitions, In 1772, 1793, and 1795, the territories of Poland were thus entirely carved up, Lithuania goingo to Russia, Posen and West Prussia to Prussia, and Galicia to Austria. The Congress of Vienna in 1815 redivided Poland and assigned the greater part to Russia. Twice during the nineteenth century, in 1830 and In 1863, the Russian Poles rebelled, in the hope of securing Independence, but their efforts were unsuccessful.
Poland, Autonomy. An ideal fostered by the Poles in the nineteenth century for the recovery of a measure of their national independence. The persecution of the Poles by the Russian bureaucracy, as carried into their law, religion, and public schools, has been overmatched only by the sterner tyranny of Prussia in her Polish provinces. On the other hand, because of the heterogeneous character of the Austrian Empire, the Poles of Galicia have been permitted to retain their national customs in greater degree than elsewhere. In the Russian Duma the Polish National Democratic party has been a power in promoting the national cause against the forces of Pan-Slavism. After the outbreak of the war the idea was given a sudden and dramatic impulse by a proclamation of the Russian commander, the Grand Duke Nicholas, declaring: "Poles, the time has come when the dream of your fathers will be realized," and' promising the autonomy of Poland "under the scepter of the Russian Emperor, free in faith, in language, and self-government." The eastward advance of the German armies was followed by a joint proclamation of the two Teutonic Emperors, November 5. 1916, solemnly guaranteeing the reestablishment of the kingdom of Poland. But no effective steps for the establishment of a Polish national government were taken until September, 1917, and meanwhile there has been talk of a partition of Russian Poland to the advantage of Germany and Austria. The Provisional Government of the Russian Republic has promised independence to Poland. Like Belgium, therefore, Poland's fate, whether it is to be revived and free, or again enslaved, do-ponds on the outcome of the war. See Autonomy; Military Occupation.
Poland, Weakness. The greatest weakness of the eighteenth century "Republic of Poland" came less from external enemies than from the faulty social and political structure of the State. An aristocracy, consisting of a number of great nobles who ranked as princes and a turbulent gentry which took the place of a middle class, was unduly exalted. The serfs were reduced to the lowest position of any in Europe. The monarchy, to which not the strongest man but often the weakest man was chosen, declined. The Diet, or Parliament, which elected the King, refused to grant the revenues and armies necessary for the public defense. A peculiar privilege, known as the Ziberum veto, by which any measure could be defeated by a single objecting voice, brought the legislature, as well as the monarchy, to a ridiculous state of impotence. "The road to Warsaw" became a byword in Europe for the course of a kingdom going to destruction.
Police Power. The power of government to provide for the general welfare. The appearance of this concept in American constitutional law was an event of greatest significance. At the beginning of our national history, the great test of the validity of legislation was its operation upon private rights. With the appearance of the doctrine of the police power, the primary test became public utility; and to-day the courts will, generally speaking, sustain any legislation which is reasonably calculated to promote the general welfare, if there is no other objection to it except its effect on private rights. More recently, the doctrine of the police power has undergone another great development. Once this power was regarded as belonging exclusively to the States, but it is recognized to-day that the National Government too may, and should, exercise its powers in a way to promote all the great ends of good government. As the Supreme Court has said: "Our dual form of government has its perplexities, State and Nation having different spheres of jurisdiction, . . . but it must be kept in mind that we are one people; and the powers reserved to the States and those conferred on the Nation are adapted to be exercised, whether independently or concurrently, to promote the general welfare, material and 'moral" (227 U. S. 322). Not jealousy but cooperation, in the tasks both of war and of peace, is the maxim today of our Federal system. See Due Process of Law; War Powers.
Pork. Of our corn supply 86.3 per cent is utilized for animals for market, chiefly for swine. The year's receipts of hogs at the leading western markets to September 1, 1917, have declined 65.7 per cent from the figure for a corresponding period in 1916. Exports of hog products have decreased less rapidly, falling from 1,520,431,395 pounds in 1915 to 1,495,067,362 pounds in 1916-17. Pork products in storage July 1, 1917, were seriously shorter than those on 3uly 1, 1916, but showed a relative increase in the following month. Prices have shown the pressure of demand upon a shortened supply, the price of hogs per 100 pounds being $16.30 on July 28, 1917, as compared with an average price of $9.60 in 1916, and $8.30 in 1914. Bacon at wholesale has increased from $0.13 per pound in 1914 to $0.19. Retail prices have advanced at about the same proportion. 'The present pork situation is complicated by the enormous demand for fats which are used for munitions as well as in foods. The extravagant consumption of fats in this country must be curtailed, and as much pork as possible must be liberated for the support of the Allied armies and civilian populations abroad. See Meat Supply.
Portugal. A republic on the western coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Lisbon Is the capital. The population was 5,960,056 in 1911. On October 5, 1910, the monarchy was overthrown, and the constitution of August 21, 1911, provided for a republican government with an elective President. At the outbreak of the war Portugal proclaimed her willingness to fulfill her treaty of alliance with Great Britain and provide 10,000 troops upon request, but Great Britain made no such request. On February 23-25, 1916, Portugal requisitioned 294 German and Austrian vessels in her harbors; whereupon Germany declared war, March 8, 1916. December 7-9, 1917, President Macado and Premier Almeira, who supported the Allies, were overthrown after three days' fighting by a revolution headed by the former Portuguese ambassador to Germany, Dr. Sidonio Paes.
Potatoes. The white potato crop is estimated at 442,536,000 bushels for 1917. This is well above the five-year average of 363,000,000 bushels. A shortage of about 78,000,000 bushels in the 1916 crop caused a sharp increase in prices during 1917. There was some suspicion that this shortage was complicated by the practices of speculators. The concerted action of farmers and the patriotic effort of private individuals in war gardens have done much to cause the present satisfactory output. The increased production was widely distributed, few States remaining stationary in their yields, and only three-Kansas, Louisiana, and Oregon-producing less than in 1916. Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Wisconsin, all normally good producing areas, tripled their yields. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Alabama, and Arizona did likewise, but their potato crops are normally inconsiderable. Exports in potatoes have been forced to decline for the fiscal year from 4,017,760 in 1916 to 2,489,001 bushels in 1917. The increased price, however, has given a higher value to the decreased exports of the latter year. Sweet potatoes show a small Increase over the yield of 1916.
"Potsdam Conference." It is asserted that the German Government chose its own time to begin the war, and that on July 5, 1914, a conference of German and Austrian dignitaries at Potsdam determined to use the Serajevo murder. as a pretext to crush Serbia. This is officially denied in Berlin, but (1) a deputy referred to it openly in the Reichstag recently, (2) a Dutch journalist declares he reported it at the time, (3) the Italian ambassador at Constantinople asserts he heard it from the German ambassador there who attended the conference, and (4) the same Italian ambassador told it to an American diplomat, who recorded it in his diary, and finally, (5) Mr. Henry Morgenthau, then American ambassador to Turkey, explicitly states that the German ambassador there told him about it. Germany has nevertheless maintained that she was ignorant of the terms of the ultimatum to Serbia until too late to influence them. In the face of this, however, Zimmermann recently admitted "that we did have the ultimatum in our hands 14 hours before it was sent to the Serbian Government . . . but . . . the die had been cast." See "Der Tag"; Grey and British Policy, 1014; Nich,olcts II, Efforts to Maintain Peace; Serbia, Austrian Ultimatum; War, Responsibility for.
President, Control of Foreign Relations. The President is the sole organ of intercourse with foreign nations. He receives ambassadors and other public ministers, nominates the diplomatic representatives of this country, recognizes new States and Governments, and negotiates all treaties. But before a treaty can be "made" it must receive the consent of the Senate, "two-thirds of the Senators present concurring," while all diplomatic appointments are also subject to its veto. Moreover, the power of declaring war belongs to Congress, which also controls the purse. As Jefferson put it, "the transaction of business with foreign nations is executive altogether," but it Is nevertheless subject to very effective control. "The President by himself is nothing. The President is what the American Nation sustains." (President Wilson, to Methodist Church conference, Baltimore, Mar. 25, 1915.)
President, War Powers. The President is Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy. His powers as such are primarily those of military command and include, of course, the right to dispose the national forces where they can be used to best advantage. In the War of 1812, in the Mexican War, In the Spanish War, in the Boxer rebellion, and recently in Mexico, American troops were sent to fight on foreign soil. In the words of Chief Justice Taney, the President as Commander in Chief is "authorized to employ" the military and naval forces of the United States "in the manner he may deem most effec-. tual to harass and conquer and subdue the enemy"; or, as Justice Hughes phrased it in his recent address before the American Bar Association: "There is no doubt of the constitutional authority to employ our forces on the battlefields of Europe in the war that we are now waging for the safety of the United States and to conquer an enduring peace that the liberties of free peoples throughout the world may forever be secured from the aggressions of unscrupulous military power." See War Powers.
Press Associations. Although many of the larger newspapers maintain their own correspondents in Europe, the majority depend for their information upon one of the two great news agencies, the Associated Press and the United Press. The former is a cooperative organization of some 900 newspapers, and delivers its service only to these papers. The latter, on the contrary, sells its service to any papers desiring
it. The Associated Press supplies most of the morning newspapers; the United Press is an afternoon and Sunday news service. Each association has connections with European news agencies. Both the associations have placed their services at the disposal of the Government and furnish it with any valuable information that they may secure, whether it is published or not. Both, of course, have submitted to the voluntary censorship Imposed early in the war and have cooperated in every way.
Press Associations, Foreign. The chief European press associations, corresponding to the Associated Press and the United Press of this country, are: In Great Britain, Reuter's and the Exchange Telegraph Co.; in France, the Havas Agency; in Italy, the Stefanl Agency; In Germany, the Wolff Telegraph Bureau (semiofficial) and the Overseas News Agency (official), the latter established since the beginning of the war. Renter's controls the news services of the Far East, and the (Havas) Agency those of South America and the Levant. See Newspapers; Trading with- the Enemy Act.
Press, Foreign Language. Under the trading with the enemy act the Postmaster General administers the provisions requiring the foreign-language press to file translations of its utterances upon " the Government of the United States or of any nation engaged in the present war, its policies, international relations, the state or conduct of the war, or any matter relating thereto," unless released from this requirement by presidential license, which may be revoked at any time. See Espionage Act; Mails, Exclusion from; Trading with the Enemy Act.
Price Fixing in Australia. At the outset of the war in 1914 all the Australian States except Tasmania passed acts creating tribunals with authority to fix maximum prices in the case of "necessary commodities," or even to commandeer the same. In 1915 the war-precautions act was passed by the Federal parliament vesting the ministry of the Commonwealth with full power to meet "any emergency arising out of the war." On the basis of this general delegation of authority the ministry, early in 1916, created a Commonwealth prices adjusting board, with powers similar to those of the State boards. These measures were designed primarily to protect the consumer, but the producer's interest was not ignored. To meet an impending crisis, caused by the glutting of the Australian wheat market on account of the Interruption of transport to England, a most extensive and highly successful scheme of State marketing and distribution was put into operation by the Australian Government during the years 1915-1917, to handle two great wheat harvests, which amounted in all to nearly 10,000,000 tons. At the same time the Victoria Government took over the hay crop. Tasmania adopted similar measures in the interest of her mine owners. See Food Control; Fuel Control.
Prices. For the past 10 years prices have been steadily rising. The general upward tendency was temporarily checked in 1914 by the outbreak of the war, except in the cases of those articles for which the war gave an immediate increased demand. By the midsummer of 1915 the upward movement was resumed. Wholesale prices of the most important commodities in June, 1916, showed an Increase over those of June, 1914, of from 50 to 400 per cent. Retail prices fully kept pace with the rise in wholesale schedules. In 1917 prices have risen alarmingly. Wheat, corn, rye, and cotton have more than doubled from August 1, 1916, to August 1, 1917. The chief causes of this have been summarized as (1) increased foreign demand, (2) domestic hoarding, (3) speculation, and (4) cooperation of the sellers to push prices. Each rise in food prices has been used as an excuse for a rise in the prices of other commodities. The result is a condition of ascending prices beyond all reason which works real hardship to the masses of the people. See Coal; Food; Profiteering; Retail Prices; Wheat, etc.
Priority Act. In war time the question is constantly arising as to which of two tasks should be performed first in order to serve the public interest best; and in a country so extensive as ours the problem becomes especially urgent in connection with the use of transportation facilities. In order to meet this situation Congress passed the priority act of August 6, which authorizes the President, whenever he finds it necessary for the national defense and security, to direct that such traffic as in his judgment may be essential shall have preference in transportation. Under the authority conferred by this act, the priority administrator, Mr. Robert S. Lovett, has ordered railroads serving ports on the Great Lakes to give coal priority over other freights. The lakes are partly frozen in winter, and all chance to get coal to the Northwest by water then ends. Another order, effective November 1, 1917, forbids the use of open freight cars for hauling unnecessary freight, such as building materials for theaters, pleasure vehicles, or furniture. Further orders are making evident a discrimination as to shipments of raw materials, as well as unfinished products, in favor of essential industries, as against those which in war time are considered less essential. It should be added that even before the passage of the priority act, voluntary cooperation on the part of the great railroad companies had secured many of its benefits, and that this cooperation still continues. See Fuel Control; Railroad War Board; Transportation and Communication Committee; War ministries Board.
Priority, British Practice. The priority order of the British Munitions Ministry, March 8, 1917, divides all industrial work into three classes: (a) Work wholly required for war, munitions, or shipping contracts; (b) work required for repairs to existing industrial plants, or for the upkeep of stocks or materials likely to be needed for class (a), or for work certified as necessary for the national Interest; (c) all other work. All work undertaken under (a) or (b) is so certified by public officials. Class (a) work precedes all else; class (b) precedes all but class (a) ; and class (c), which includes all ordinary work for private subjects, may be undertaken only after classes (a) and (b) are fully attended to.
Pripet Marshes. After the fall of Warsaw in 1915, the
object Of the Germans was to divide the Russian army and drive it back into the Pripet Marshes, which cover an area of 30,000 square miles in the vicinity of Pinsk. In this the Germans failed. The Russian retreat, though disastrous, was successfully accomplished by October 1, 1915.
Prisoners of War. Article IV of The Hague Regulations
reads: "Prisoners of war are in the power of the hostile Government, but not In that of the individuals or corps who capture them. They must be humanely treated. All their personal belongings, except arms, horses, and military papers, remain their property." Article VI further provides that the "State may utilize the labor of prisoners of war . . . officers excepted," but that "their tasks shall not be excessive and shall have no connection with the operations of the war." Ambassador Gerard's reports show that British prisoners In Germany have been treated with especial brutality. At one camp he found that the prisoners were being constantly bitten by some ferocious dogs which were allowed among them, and had to threaten to shoot the beasts before he could get them removed. At other places the men complained of brutal treatment by the officers in charge. The German War Book teaches that In case of "absolute necessity," prisoners of war may be killed, and the German authorities have, as usual, fully lived up to their barbarous principles. The following is a letter which was received by Mr. Gerard from a German soldier on the west front:
To the American Government, Washington, U.S.A.: Englishmen who have surrendered are shot down in small groups. With the French one is more considerate. I ask whether men let themselves be taken prisoner in order to be disarmed and shot down afterwards? Is that chivalry in battle?
It is no longer a secret among the people; one hears everywhere that few prisoners are taken; they are shot down in small groups. They say naively: "We don't want any unnecessary mouths to feed. Where there is no one to enter complaint, there is no judge." Is there, then, no power in the world which can put an end to these murders and rescue the victims? Where Is Christianity? Where is right? Might Is right A SOLDIER AND MAN WHO Is NO BARBARIAN. Fortunately, the large number of Germans resident in the United States affords a reasonable guaranty that our soldiers will not receive such treatment. See Quarter; United States, Neutral~ Service8 to Belligerents.
Private Property. See Belgium, Economic Destruct ün; Contributions; Pillage; Requisitions.
Prize Courts. Courts dealing with property captured in time of war. No title can be secured by the captor of maritime property unless a prize court pass upon it. Prize courts may be special courts, or ordinary courts assigned to this work. At present United States district courts are invested with the power of prize courts, with appeal to the Supreme Court. The American position is that prize courts administer international law. Washington in his famous neutrality proclamation of April 22, 1793, instructed the proper officers to prosecute "all persons who shall, within the cognizance of the courts of the United States, violate the law of nations with respect to the powers at war," and Congress and the courts have repeatedly taken the position that international law is to be the basis of court action. This has also for over a century been the position of the British
Admiralty courts, being last confirmed in the case of the ZamorG, 1916. In both countries, however, the courts generally regard the regulations of their own country as embodying international law, and doubtless would regard an act of Congress or of Parliament as absolutely binding. See "Zamora."
Prize Court, International. As a remedy against the Imperfections arising from local bias on the part of national prize courts, The Hague Conference of 1907 provided for the establishment of an international prize court, to which appeals could be taken in certain instances from national prize courts. The Declaration of London was designed primarily as a code for this tribunal. The failure of important powers to ratify this convention, and the present great war, have postponed the project.
Prizes, Destruction of. International law on this point is excellently summarized in the State Department's memorandum of March 25, 1916, as follows: "If the merchantman finally surrenders, the belligerent warship may release it or take it into custody. In the case of an enemy merchantman it may be sunk, but only if it is impossible to take it into port, and provided always that the persons on board are put in a place of safety. In the case of a neutral merchantman, the right to sink it in any circumstance is doubtful." German submarine warfare early transgressed this doctrine at every important point. For capture it has invariably substituted destruction, and that regardless of the nationality of the vessel; and it discharges the captor's duty toward persons on board, its victims, by putting them into small boats many miles from land or by deliberately murdering them, sometimes with quite gratuitous brutality. See "Belgian Prince"; "Frye, William P."; "Spurlos Versenkt."
Prizes in Neutral Ports. "A prize may only be brought into a neutral port on account of unseaworthiness, stress of weather, or want of fuel or provisions. It must leave as soon as the circumstances which justified its entry are at an end. If it does not, the neutral power must order it to leave at once; should it fail to obey, the neutral power must employ the means at its disposal to release It with its officers and crew and to intern the prize crew." (Thirteenth Hague Convention, Art. XXI.) "Belgian Prince"; "Frye. William P."; "gpurlos T7ersenkt."
Profiteering. The taking of exorbitant profits in war time, the taking advantage of your neighbors' and your country's necessities that you may make yourself rich. There were such individuals at the time of the American Revolution, and George Washington wrote of them as follows: "I would to God, that one of the most atrocious of each State was hung in gibbets upon a gallows five times as high as the one prepared for Haman. No punishment, in my opinion, is too great for the man who can build his greatness upon his country's ruin."
On July 11, 1917, President Wilson issued an appeal to business men In which he said:
"Patriotism leaves profits out of the question. In these days of our supreme trial, when we are sending hundreds of thou-
sands of our young men- across the seas to serve a great cause, no true man who stays behind to work for them and sustain them by his labor will ask himself what he Is personally going to make out of that labor. No true patriot will permit himself to take toll of their heroism in money or seek to grow rich by the shedding of their blood. He will give as freely and with as unstinted self-sacrifice as they. When they are giving their lives will he not. give at least his money?
"I hear it insisted that more than a just price, more than a price that will sustain our industries, must be paid; that it is necessary to pay very liberal and unusual profits in order to 'stimulate production'; that nothing but pecuniary rewards will do-rewards paid in money, not in the mere liberation ~f the world.
"I take It for granted that those who argue thus do not stop to think what that means. Do they mean- that you must be paid, must be bribed, to make your contribution, a contribution that costs you neither a drop of blood nor a tear, when the whole world is in travail and men everywhere depend upon and call to you to bring them out of bondage and make the world a fit place to live in again amidst peace and justice? Do they mean that you will exact a price, drive a bargain with the men who are enduring the agony of this war on the battle field, in the trenches, amidst the lurking dangers of the sea, or with the bereaved women and pitiful children, before you will come forward to do your duty and give some part of your life, in easy peaceful fashion, for the things we are fighting for, the things we have pledged our fortunes, our lives, our sacred honor, to vindicate and defend-liberty and justice and fair dealing and the peace of nations?
"Of course you will not. It is Inconceivable. Your patriotism Is of the same self-denying stuff as the patriotism of the men dead or talented on the fields of France, or else It is no patriotism at all. Let us never speak, then, of profits and of patriotism in the same sentence, but face facts and meet them. Let us do sound business, but not in the midst of a mist. Many a grievous burden of taxation will be laid on this Nation, in this generation and In the next, to pay for this war. Let us see to it that for every dollar that Is taken from the people's pockets it shall be possible to obtain a dollar's worth of the sound stuffs they need." See Retail Prices; "Rich~ Man's War, Poor Man's Fight"; War Taxes.
Propaganda, German. See Bernstorff ; Dernburg, Bernhard; German Intrigue Against American Peace; German Intrigue in the United States; German Intrigue, Tools; German Peace Intrigue; German Propaganda in Italy; German Government, Moral Bankruptcy of; Igel, von, Papers of; Intrigue; Japanese-American Agreement; Rumors, Malicious and Disloyal.
Protectorate. A community under the protection, and to some extent subject to the political control, of another community. The difference between a protectorate and a colony In International law is that If the superior State becomes Involved
In war its colonies too are involved in the struggle, while its protectorates are not. See Sphere of Influence.
Prussia. A kingdom in northern Europe, which is the leading State of the German Empire. It occupies 134,610 square miles of the 208,780 comprising the Empire, and contained (in 1910) 40,165,219 of the total German population of 64,925,993. The King is William II of Germany, who succeeded to the throne on June 25, 1888. Under the existing constitutional system Prussia controls the fiscal, foreign, and military policies of the Empire. The Prussian constitution of 1850 provides for a legislature of two houses, but its powers are strictly limited, and the spirit of the government is essentially autocratic. Germany can not become liberalized until the dominion of the Prussian autocracy is broken. See Landtag; Prussianisim.
Prussian Army. "The dearest desire of every Prussian,"
said Bethmann Hollweg in the Prussian Landtag, January 10, 1914, "Is to see the King's army remain completely under the control of the King and not to become the army of Parliament." Prof. DelbrUck, of the University of Berlin, in a recent book describes the special character of the German army: "The King is their comrade and they are attached to him as to their war lord, and this Is the very foundation of our national life. The essence of our monarchy resides in its relations with the army. Whoever knows our officers must know that they would never tolerate the government of a Minister of War issuing from Parliament." See Militarism.
Prussianism. A national spirit characterized by (1) centralized government authority which organizes the whole body of the people for the purposes of (2) material ends, which are achieved by (3) aggressive and even brutal means. "We are polite only by the force of fear. Consequently-for all men must have their relaxations-whenever we meet the weak, those beneath us, the momentarily helpless, we are brutal." From Frederick the Great, whose guiding principle was to act with startling rapidity against an unprepared and unsuspecting opponent, tricked by the "hiding of plans and ambitions," through Bismarck to Treitschke and Bernhardi, unscrupulousness has been synonymous with Prussianism. Frederick said, "the world Is governed only by skill and trickery." Prussianism still glories In both, believing that they pay. "The only healthy basis of a great State is national selfishness," according to Bismarck. Treitschke Is no less emphatic: "It will always redound to the glory of Machiavelli that he has placed the State on a solid foundation, and that he has freed the State and its morality from the moral precepts taught by the Church, but especially because he has been the first to teach, 'The State is power.'" Bernhardi tells us why the civilized world iso in danger to-day: "Armed strength in its moral, intellectual, and physical aspects is the truest measure of civilization." Such are the maxims of Prussianism. See Rernhardi; German Diplomacy; German Govbrnment, Bad Faith of; Junker; Kaiserism; Nietzsche; Treitschke.
Prussian Treaties with the United States. Three treaties
of "amity and commerce," negotiated between the United States and Prussia in the years 1785, 1799, and 1828, respectively, remain partially in force to-day, and were treated as still operative by both Governments in the cases of the Frye and the Appam. The former case involved an article (XIII) which substitutes preemption for confiscation in connection with contraband and provides that where the master of a vessel shall offer to deliver over contraband goods in his charge the vessel shall be allowed to proceed. It is the contention of our Government that the sinking of the Frye violated this provision. The article (XIX) involved in the case of the Appam allow~ either of the two parties, if belligerent, to have its war vessels take their prizes into the ports of the other, if neutral. Inasmuch as the Appam was not attended by a German war vessel, our State Department ruled that this article did not apply; and the same view was taken by the Supreme Court. Another of the articles (XXIII), which is of interest to-day, guarantees the nationals of each, sojourning in the territories of the other in case of war between the two powers, the right to continue in their employments and the right to compensation if their property Is taken for war purposes. Still another article (XXIV) stipulates in detail for the considerate treatment by each nation of the prisoners of war which it may take from the forces of the other. If Germany is to claim any benefit from other provisions of these articles she will have to observe this one with some care. See Alien Enemies; "Appam"; "Frye, William~ P."
Prussian Treaties, Attempted Modification of. Ambassador Gerard demanded his passports of the German Government
on Monday, February 5. Not having received them on the afternoon of the day following, he called again at the Foreign Office, where he was confronted with Count Montgelas, head of the American department, with "a paper which was a reaffirmation of the treaty . . . of 1799, with some extraordinary clauses added to it. He asked me," Mr. Gerard records, "to read this over and either to sign it or to get authority to sign it, and said that if It was not signed it would be very difficult for Americans to leave the country, particularly the American correspondents." Mr. Gerard read the paper. Its central proposal was that in case of war between the United States and Germany the nationals of each sojourning in the territories of the other should be "under no other restrictions concerning the enjoyment of their private rights . . . than neutral residents." Considering the large number of German subjects in the United States as compared with that of American citizens in Germany, and also the unfriendly activities of many of~ the former even before war broke out between the two countries, the proposal was a grossly inequitable one, while the circumstances in which it was made constituted an outrage upon international decency- nothing more or less than an attempt at blackmail. Mr. Gerard's handling of the situation was, however, adequate. "Why do you come to me," he asked Montgelas, "with a pro-
posed treaty after we have broken diplomatic relations and ask an ambassador who is held as a prisoner to sign it? Prisoners do not sign treaties, and treaties signed by them would not be worth anything. After your threat to keep Americans here and after reading this document, even if I had authority to sign it, I would stay here until hell freezes over before I
would put my name to such a paper." See~ Diplomatic Immunity; German Diplomacy.
Przemysl. A fortified city of Galicia, which was first invested by the Russians September 16 to October 14, 1914. The siege was temporarily abandoned because of Hindenburg offensive, but was renewed In November, and was successfully concluded when the Austrian garrison surrendered on March 22, 1915. On June 3, 1915, the Austro-German army under Mackensen regained the city, which they still hold.