War Cyclopedia - T
Tanks. Heavy armored motor cars, propelled usually by "caterpillar drive" and used to break through enemy defenses, enfilade his trenches, or to cover attacks upon them. They were first used on September 15, 1916, by the British in their operations on the Somme, and were the decisive factor in General Byng's brilliant advance toward Cambrai. See Cambrai.
Tannenberg. An invasion of East Prussia by the Russians in the fall of 1914 was brought to a halt by the battle of Tannenberg, September 1, 1914. Here the Germans inflicted a severe defeat on the Russians with troops hastily withdrawn from the west front. According to German authority, 70,000 Russians were captured.
Tauscher, Hans. Agent in America of the Krupp works. He was accused on the testimony of one von der Goltz of a plot to blow up the Welland Canal in the fall of 1914. Brought to trial, he was acquitted of the charge, the jury feeling that von der Goltz, who had been released from the Tower of London in order to give his testimony, might have been influenced by promises of immunity. See German Intrigue.
Terauchi, Gen. Count (1852- ). Premier of Japan since October, 1916. He is primarily a soldier, not a politician, and has always advocated a large military establishment for Japan. The annexation of Korea in 1910 was effected during his governorship, a position which he held until he was made Premier. Toward China Count Terauchi has adopted a conciliatory policy. See Okuma.
Terrain. A word of French origin, meaning the ground, and the configuration thereof, where military operations are conducted.
Thomas, Albert. French Minister of Munitions, 1916-17. Born in Champigny, near Paris; son of a baker, who gave him every educational advantage. Expert in metallurgy; journalist; historian. After deliberation he left the Catholic Church and became a Socialist, joining the extreme party, the Unified Socialists. Successively a municipal councilor, mayor, deputy to the French Chamber. At the outbreak of the war he started as sergeant, then became a lieutenant. Consulted continually by Mlllerand, Minister of War, on the subject of munitions, he was made undersecretary for munitions. In the reorganized cabinet of December, 1916, with only five members in the war council (compare England) he was made Minister of Munitions. It is said he has never failed to keep the French supply of shells at the maximum. He stood strongly against allowing French Socialist delegates to go to the Stockholm Conference in 1917. He resigned in September, 1917, because Premier Ribot could not give a definition of the war aims of France satisfactory to the Unified Socialists. As the latter party would enter no ministry with Ribot, Thomas was not included in the Painlev~ ministry of September, 1917.
Tirpitz, Admiral Alfred von. Secretary of State for the German Admiralty (1897-1916). "Although only one of the
three heads of the navy (he was secretary of the navy) ," says Mr. Gerard (My Four Years in Germany, p. 257), "by the force of his personality, by the political position which he had created for himself, and by the backing of his friends in the Navy League, he really dominated the other two departments of the navy, the marine staff and the marine cabinet." The present German navy was built under his direction, and he inspired and directed the propagation of the German Navy League. He continued to hold office while other ministers were dismissed. A special advocate of Schrecklichkeit (frightfulness), he inaugurated the inhumane policy of sinking undefended passenger and cargo ships by submarines without warning. When that policy failed to yield the expected results he was compelled to retire. Since then he has been prominent among the Pan-Germans, who insist that Germany must greatly extend her frontiers as a result of the war. See Anglo-German Naval Rivalry; "Fright fulness"; German Navy; Submarine Warfare; War Zone, German.
Tisza, Count Stephen (1861- ). Late Hungarian Premier. The son of a famous statesman, he entered politics In 1886 and became Prime Minister in 1903. He carried through the Diet new and stringent rules of procedure, but had to resign in 1905. He returned to office in 1913, to govern with an iron hand. His home policy has been one of brutal Magyarization. In foreign affairs his hatred of Pan-Slavism led him to abet the collapse of the Balkan league in 1913, and he is generally believed to have drafted the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia in July, 1914. During the war he has been a firm supporter of the German party which has taken control of Austria. When the new King, Charles IV, came to the throne with ideas of concessions to the non-Magyar races, the continuance of Tisza in power became an impossibility, and he resigned early in 1917. See Balkan Wars; Magyarization; Pan-Slavism.
Tobacco. The tobacco crop of the United States promises to yield 1,221,186,000 pounds in 1917, as compared with 1,150,-622,000 pounds in the preceding year. Kentucky leads in the production of tobacco, but with a smaller crop than the one produced in 1916. North Carolina and Virginia hold positions next In Importance as to the volume of their crops. Exports of unmanufactured tobacco have fallen off in 1916-17. Great Britain was the heaviest importer of American tobacco in 1917, as has been the case in previous years. The amount taken by Great Britain was, however, noticeably smaller than in 1916. The value of tobacco manufactures has increased from $6,944,347 in 1915-16 to $15,552,544 in the past fiscal year. Most of the soldiers in the field derive much comfort from the use of tobacco, and Red Cross and other agencies of aid usually include a supply of tobacco in the "comfort kits" they send the soldiers.
Togo. A German territory in Africa, north of the Gulf of Guinea; surrendered to Anglo-French forces August 25, 1914.
"Tommy." "Tommy," or "Tommy Atkins," is the word commonly used to designate the British private soldier. From 1815 the specimen or model forms issued by the Government in the official army regulations were often filled in with the name of Thomas Atkins, thus: "Description, service, etc., of Thomas Atkins, private, No. 6 Troop," etc. From this practice originated the custom of referring to the private soldier as Thomas Atkins, which was naturally shortened to Tommy Atkins, and then to Tommy. The term seems not to have been popularly used till late in the century.
Torpedo. A development of great importance in naval warfare. It is associated with the names of Whitehead, an Englishman, and other inventors. The modern so-called automobile torpedo in general use is of the shape of a cigar. It carries in its nose or head a charge of 250 pounds of guncotton, which is exploded by concussion when it strikes the object aimed at. Abaft the explosive chamber is an air chamber containing the compressed air which supplies the motor power. Behind this air chamber is a balance chamber containing the steering apparatus for directing the rudders. Behind this again are the engines to revolve the shaft running to two screw propellers. Each torpedo contains two thousand six hundred separate parts and is a small submarine in itself. A single torpedo costs from $5,000 to $7,000. See Mines, Submarine; Submarine Warfare.
Torpedo Boats. Small vessels whose main offensive armament is a torpedo shot through a tube. They rely upon high speed, small size and a few light guns for defense. Their displacement varies from 50 to 800 tons. They travel t a rate running from 19 to 29 knots. See Destroyers.
Trading with the Enemy Act. This act, passed October 6, 1917, adds to the powers given the President by the espionage act. It provides for the regulation of the foreign-language press, prohibits trade with "enemies" and "allies of enemies," and authorizes the temporary taking over by the Government of any property held in the United States for or on behalf of enemies" or "allies of enemies." In the meaning of the act the following are "enemies" or "allies of enemies": (1) Any person resident within the German Empire, or within territory of its allies, or within territory occupied by its or their military forces; (2) any person not residing within the United States who is doing business within any such territory; (3) any corporation created by Germany or its allies; (4) any corporation created by any other nation than the United States and doing business within the territory above mentioned; (5) any Government, subdivision of Government, officer, or agent of the German Empire and its allies. Thus alien enemies resident within the United States do not from the fact of their nationality alone fall within the act, while an American citizen not residing in the United States might. By Executive order of October 12 the President delegated the power vested in him by the act to various boards. See Alien Property Custodian; Censorship Board; German Insurance Companies; Press, Foreign Language; War Trade Board; War Trade Council.
"Tracer" Bullets. Bullets that speed through the air Illuminated, so that they may be watched from the time they
leave tlle2 gun until they hit the target. They are of especial useful in enabling antiaircraft' gunners and aviators to find the rake of the enemy. The effect of the bullets when fired from a gun resembles a Roman-candle display.
Training Camp Activities, Commission on. To safeguard the health and morals of the armed forces of the United< States a Commission on Training Camp Activities, under the chairmanship of Raymond B. Fosdlck, has been appointed by the Secretary of War, under an act of May 18, 1917. The commission, working with the assistance of the Y. M. C. A., the Playground and Recreation Associations, and many other bodies, is organizing games and amusements at the different camps. The War Department has certain authority in the zones surrounding the camps, but the complete success of the work depends upon the cooperation of the several local communities.
Transportation and Communication Committee. A committee of the Council of National Defense. The term "committee" is a misnomer. Mr. Daniel Willard, chairman of the Advisory Commission and president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. is the committee. Under his leadership the waste and Inefficiency resulting from the decentralization of the railroad system of this country are being overcome. Railroads for the first time in their history have got together and worked out a common program for the efficient handling of freight and passengers. A special committee on national defense of the American Railway Association has been appointed to cooperate with Mr. Willard in this work. The chairman of this special committee Is Mr. Fairfax Harrison. president of the Southern Railroad. Cooperative committees on telegraphs and telephones, on electric railroad transportation, and on cars and locomotives are also associated with Mr. Willard. See Railroads' War Board.
Trans-Siberian Railway. A railroad extending across Siberia and (together with its connections In Russia) composing an all-rail line from Petrograd to Vladivostok on the Pacific Ocean. The length of the Trans-Siberian railroad proper, from the Ural Mountains to Vladivostok, is about 4,500 miles; from Petrograd to Vladivostok the distance Is 5,620 miles. The railroad was originally built in the years 1891-1902 as a single-track line, but in 1908 the Duma voted the money to double-track It in its entire length. This work, however, has not been completed. When the war broke out the Trans-Siberian railroad became of great importance to Russia as an alternate to the Archangel route by which supplies could be sent from outside for Russian war needs. But the Trans-Siberian appears to have proved unequal to the strain or else has been incompetently handled. The congestion along the route has been terrible, supplies have been delayed, and train service three days behind schedule is fairly common. The road also appears to stand in need of rolling stock and steps were taken, under skilled American guidance, to mend this deficiency. See Russia1 Mission from the United States.
Transylvania. - A province in southeastern. Hungary, Inhabited largely by Roumanians. When incorporated in Hungary in 1867 the people were guaranteed full protection Of their rights by the law of nationalities, but in practice they have been subjected to The full force of the Magyariziug policy of the Hungarian Government. The 3,000,000 Roumanians have been denied adequate representation in the Parliament at Budapest, and their schools refused any public assistance. It was primarily to relieve them of this oppression that Roumania entered the war against Austria-Hungary in August, 1916. The Roumanians were at first successful, occupying a considerable part of the province, but they were driven out by the Germans before the end of 1916. See Magyarization; Tisza.
Treason. The Constitution (Art. III, sec. 3) reads: "Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court." "Giving aid and corn-fort" to the enemies of the United States has been thus defined: "In general, any act clearly indicating a want of loyalty to the Government and sympathy with its enemies, aid which by fair construction is directly in furtherance of their hostile designs." By "overt act" is meant an act, as distinguished from the mere intention- to perform it. It includes, however, not only "acts" in the colloquial sense, but also words, spoken or written. The penalty for treason is death, or imprisonment for at least five years and a fine of at least $10,000
Treason and Disloyalty. "The United States has in existing statutes power to handle any situation likely to arise because of the ill-advised activities of disloyal agitators. In addition to the laws on treason are (1) the recent espionage act, designed, among other things, to punish spies, regulate the use of the mails, and punish those who abuse that use; (2) the selective service act, which provides punishment for those who fail or refuse to register or hinder or obstruct the enforcement of that act. It can prosecute those who willfully make or convey false reports or false statements, when the United States is at war, with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the military or naval forces of the Federal Government to promote the success of our country's enemies; also those
who willfully cause, or attempt to cause, insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty, or willfully obstruct, or prevent the execution of the laws of the United States; also those who undertake to overawe the officers of the United States in performing their duties either by direct intimidation or threats, or by injuring their persons or property; also those -who engage in seditious conspiracies to overthrow or levy war against the Government or forcibly oppose its authority." (Statement of Attorney General Gregory.)
Treaties. International contracts, usually bilateral, but sometimes, as in the case of The Hague conventions, involving many
parties. The effect of war on treaties varies with the nature of -the ~1nst1?Wnent. Some treaties, e.g., those stipulating certain
rule of warfare, become operative only upon the outbreak of war between the parties to them. More ordinarily, however, treaties between nations are regarded as suspended or abrogated when they go to war. In the United States, treaty provlsion which confer private rights are also "law of the land" -and as such are enforceable by the courts. See President, Control
of Foreign Relations; "Rebus sic stantibus."
Treaties, Observance of. At the London Conference in 1871 the Powers, including Prussia, signed the following elementary
principle of international law: "The Powers recognize that it-is an essential principle of the law of nations that none of -them can liberate itself from the engagements of a treaty, nor modify the stipulations thereof, unless with the consent of the contracting parties by means of an amicable understanding." (Opinion of Attorneys General, VI, 664.)
"When I have made a promise as a man I try to keep it, and I know of no other rule permissible to a nation. . . . Would you rather be deemed by all the nations of the world incapable of keeping your treaty obligations in order that you might have free tolls?" (President Wilson, Independence Hall, July 4,
Trebizond. The most Important city on the Turkish shore of the Black Sea, captured by the Russians under the Grand Duke NIcholas, April 18, 1916. The Russians proceeded in three main columns from Erzerum, one operating about Lake Van, a second fighting in'Persia and working toward Bagdad, while the third, supported by warships, moved along the coast of the Black Sea toward Trebizond, expelling the Turks from the coastal towns. With the fall of Trebizond the chief marl- -time base for Turko-German operations In Asia Minor was lost to the Central Powers. See Bagdad; Caucasus; Erzerum.
Treitschke, Heinrich von ~ 1834-1896). A German historian and writer, called by the Kaiser "our national historian,"
whose books have greatly Influenced modern Germany. Born in Saxony of a family probably of Slavonic origin, he turned to Prussia as the State which could best unite Germany, and in spite of his deafness became professor of history in the University of Berlin. His lectures were crowded with students- student~ destined to be the thinkers and leaders of Germany; his pronouncements on German policy in the Preussiche Jahrl4icher determined opinion. He wrote history that glorifies the - rise of Prussia; he acclaimed the union of Germany and the annexation of Alsace-Lorralne as he saw it realized through -the - Franco-Prussian War; he Insisted upon the concentration of power in the German State and on the dominant position of that -State in Europe. He was also a bitter opponent of England, losing no opportunity of ridiculing or attacking her. Treitsclike pinned his faith to the great State; Its rights were paramount.ch molded separate fragments into one great political unit, even if wars of conquest, were dust a ie. His works became - cyclopedias- of patriotism, and, being vigorously and entertainingly written, were and are widely read. Their-aphorisms have become a part of German political 'scripture, their philosophy the creed of German statesmen. They may be summarized in the quotation: "War is both justifiable and moral, and .. - the ideal of perpetual peace is not only impossible but immoral as well." Not unnaturally the military Bernbardi quotes Treltschke frequently and reverently-on the same page, indeed, with Machiavelli. See Bernhardi;; Nietzsche.
Trench Mortar. A short gun with a vertical fire used to discharge bombs into an enemy entrenchment. The Germans were well supplied with this weapon of offense at the outbreak of the war and the Allies were hard pressed for trench artillery to cope with it. The German trench mortar discharges with a "dull boom" a sausage-shaped projectile, moving so slowly at first that the body of men whom it is designed to strike can often escape its force.
Trench Warfare. The protection of troops demands stronger field entrenchments than have been necessary in previous wars; hence the so-called "trench warfare," which during the last three years has largely taken the place of former tactics. Digglng trenches and throwing up breastworks for protection on against the enemy's fire is, of course, not a new thing in warfare. A complicated network of trenches now protects the men on both sides. The spade has become one of the soldier's best weapons of defense. The chief Improvement in methods of defending entrenched troops in the increased use of machine guns, which must be put out of operation by artillery fire or by rifle fire directed against the gunners before infantry can advance directly against them. There has been also a great increase during the present war In the use of barbed wire in front of the trenches as a means of defense. Through the use of wire and machine guns -it is now possible to defend the front line positions with smaller bodies of men than were considered necessary during the earlier years of the war, thus considerably reducing the losses entailed. See Artillery; Aviation; "Pillboxes."
Trentino. A mountainous district of Austria, inhabited by Italians, projecting into Italian territory northeast of Italy.
- The city of Trent has been the Italian objective in this area, though it has but slight strategic value. On May 3!, 1915, the Italians were within 10 miles of Trent, but the campaign was not pushed with vigor. An Austrian offensive began in the Trentino on May 14, 1916. The Italians were driven 7 miles within their own frontier, but on June 18, 1916, the Austrians failed in an attempt to invade farther. See Italia Irredentism.
Trieste. The leading port of Austria, situated at the northern end of the Adriatic Sea. Its population in 1910 was
largely Italian-speaking. Trieste is of important in the present present war as one of the places desired by Italy .
Triple Alliance. An agreement by Germany, Austria, and Italy In 1882 for their mutual defense. The full and exact text of the treaties still remains secret, but the alliance gave shape to European relations for more than 30 years. In 1914 Germany claimed to be bound by the treaties to protect Austria against attack by Russia. Italy, however, denied that Austria was attacked, insisted that .& Austria was the aggressor, that her designs in the Balkans would endanger Italy's own safety, and not only declined to fight in the Triple Alliance, but, later, entered the war against her old allies.
Triple Entente. The name given to the diplomatic union of ~England, France, and Russia, formed to oppose the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria, and Italy. Except in the case of Russia and France, there was no written treaty behind it; the sole basis was a feeling of community in interests and desires. The first stage of the Triple Entente was the alliance in 1893 between Russia and France. In 1904 England, whose policy o had hitherto been friendly to Germany and somewhat hostile to France and Russia, shifted, her policy as a result of German aggressiveness and concluded an entente (understanding).
Tsiugtau. A German fortified town on Klaochow Bay, China. taken by the Japanese on November 10, 1914. See Kiaochow.
Turkey. An empire of Europe and Asia, containing a European area before the Balkan wars of 65,367 square miles. This was greatly reduced by the settlement following the Balkan wars. The Asiatic territory contains 2,179,000 square miles. No complete census has been taken of the population of Turkey, which was estimated roughly in 1912 at 14,080,900, of which 6,132,200 occupied European Turkey. The capital of the Empire is Constantinople. The Sultan, Mohammed V, is temporal and spiritual head of the monarchy, which has- been constitutional since 1908. The Grand Vizier is appointed by the Sultan and forms the cabinet. The legislative body is composed of a Senate and Chamber of Deputies. The franchise is exercised by all Ottoman subjects over 25 years of age, but the distribution of seats Is so gerrymandered as to restrict the representation of the non-Turkish races. See Armenian Massacres;
Turkish Capitulations." In 1535 France obtained a treaty from the Sultan giving French consuls and ministers the right to settle all causes arising between French subjects In Turkey without interference by the Turkish officials; and In the course of time other nations obtained a like immunity for their subjects. Our own treaty dealing with the matter dates from 1830. Early in the present war the Turkish ambassador informed the State Department that on and after October 1, 1914, the Ottoman government had determined to abrogate these conventions or "capitulations," as they have always been called. The reason given was that such arrangements restricted "the sovereignty of Turkey" and constituted "an intolerable obstacle to all progress in the Empire." Henceforth, accordingly, the relations of Turkey to the powers were to be regulated by "the general principles of international law." All the principal nations, including even Germany and Austria, at once protested against Turkey's action, the final outcome of which awaits the end of the war. See Armenian Massacres.