War Cyclopedia - I
Igel, von, Papers of. In April, 1916, secret-service men raided the "advertising office" of Wolf von Igel In New York. He claimed to be on German territory, because of a connection with the Gorman embassy, and defied the officers to shoot him, saying war would result. They did not shoot, but they seized his papers-damning evidences of a direct chain between the German embassy and plotters who would bomb munitions ships, who would upset Ireland; checks that showed embassy payments to Teuton helpers, such as foreign-language newspaper editors; documents that convicted the Teutons of fomenting the Sir Roger Casement Irish rebellion; along with offers from Americans to do dastardly work, such as blasting munitions plants. From the von Igel papers, in the possession of the Government for a year and a half, can be pieced together a story stranger and more startling than fiction, showing that Germany through her embassy in America was concerned with: Destruction of lives and property in merchant vessels on the high seas; violation of the laws of the United States; Irish revolutionary plots against Great Britain; fomenting Ill feeling against the United States in Mexico; subornation of American writers and lecturers; financing of propaganda;~ maintenance of a spy system under the guise of a commercial investigation bureau; subsidizing a bureau to stir up labor troubles in munitions plants; the bomb industry and other related activities. See Intrigue.
Immigration. The first wave of immigration was mainly English, along the Atlantic seaboard 1607 to 1640 The second, chiefly Irish and Scotch with some Germans, settled in the "back -country" of New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Carolinas, from about 1720 to the American Revolution, and has been estimated at 500,000 in number. "These," says Lecky, the English historian, "ultimately bore the chief, part In the War of Independence." The present wave began about 1820, when 8,000 arrived, chiefly from northern Europe; 28,000 came in 1880 and 84,000 in 1840. The potato famine in Ireland In 1846, the German revolution in 1848, and the discovery of gold in California Increased the numbers; and 370,000 arrived In 1850 and 425,000 in 1854, mostly Irish and Germans, with some English. The Civil War and the panic o~ 1873 caused a reduction, but with good times the number reached 800,000 In 1882, while the 1,000,000 mark was reached in 1905, 1906, 1907, 1910, 1913, and 1914. The European war reduced it to 325,000 in 1915. The southern countries of Europe are now the chief sources of immigration. There are at present 13,000,000 foreign born in the country and 18,000,000 more with parents born abroad, one-third of the whole country. The city with the largest percentage of foreign born is Fall River, Mass., with 42.7 per cent; Lowell, Mass., is second, with 40.9 per cent; New York, third, with 40.8, or 1,944,357; Boston fourth, Paterson, N. J., fifth, Chicago sixth, and Bridgeport (Conn4. seventh.
Imperialism, The New. Formerly imperialism was a movement aimed at the acquisition of colonial possessions by a State. Of late years it has taken a different development and now appears to aim at the acquisition by the capitalists of one State of the rights to loan money, build and operate railroads, work mines, and conduct any natural or trade monopoly of a profitable nature within the limits of another State. The authorizations to conduct these monopolies are granted by the Government of the second State and are styled "concessions." This Government is supposed to retain its full sovereignty; actually It Is more or less under the tutelage of the powers whose nationals hold the concessions. In case these concessions are threatened by Internal outbreak, governmental action on the part of the State granting the concession, or interference by ether powers, the power whose nationals hold them may intervene for their protection. The new imperialism is especially provocative of war, because in~ the scramble for concessions many are granted overlapping or coinciding with each other, thus giving rise to dispute between their holders and involving the governments whose nationals make up these groups. See Morocco; Bagdad; Backward Nations.
Income of the Government. The total income of the United States Government from all sources for the four fiscal years 1912-1916, inclusive, was as follows:
Year ending June 30-
1912 $691, 778, 465
1913 724, 111, 230
1914 734, 673, 167
1915 697, 910, 828
1918 664, 552
The receipts from customs in 1916 were $218,185,845, $100,-000000 less than in 1912; from internal revenue, $512,702,029, nearly $200,000,000 more than In 1912. See War Tczcztea.
Income Tax. An internal revenue tax levied upon net incomes of persons or corporations. This form of tax was used during the Civil War, but was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1894. A corporation income tax was included in the Payne-Aldrich tariff of 1909, and an amendment to the Constitution authorizing a tax on private incomes was ratified in 1913. In 1913 a tax on private incomes was passed by Congress, and this has since been increased as a war measure. The highest rate on large incomes levied by any European country is the English, with a maximum rate of 43 per cent, as compared with 67 per cent, the maximum rate in the United States. On the other hand, the English income tax bears heavier upon the lower part of income scale in the tax lists, e.g. Incomes of $3,000, $5,000, $10,000, and $15,000 pay in England 14 per cent, 16 per cent, 20 per cent, and 25 per cent, respectively, and in the United States the corresponding incomes pay two-thirds of 1 per cent, 1~ per cent, 3~ per cent, arid about 5 per cent. English Incomes bear, of course, no State income taxes such as are levied here in addition to the Federal tax. See "Rich Man's War, Poor Man's Fight"; War Tax on Excess Profits; etc.
India. An empire In southern Asia, belonging to the British Crown. Area, 1,802,629 square miles. Population, 315,156,396 (1911). The King-Emperor is George V, who proclaimed his accession at a durbar held at Delhi, the capital, in December, 1.911. The people are of many races, speak a variety of languages, and adhere to half a dozen religions. British rule, which binds the whole together, extends over 61 per cent of the territory and 78 per cent of the population; the rest is divided among more than 700 native princes, who are allowed a fairly complete autonomy in domestic affairs. The government is administered by a Viceroy, assisted by various councils and responsible to the Secretary of State for India In England. In the present war India and her native princes have contributed money and troops to the common cause, and with few exceptions have played their part with loyalty and enthusiasm. Indian soldiers have fought gallantly in France, Mesopotamia, and Africa.
Industrial Workers of the World. The I. W. W., a radical labor organization formed in 1904, has Its headquarters In Chicago under William D. Haywood as general secretary-treasurer and Joseph J. Ettor as assistant secretary and general organizer. There were 15,000 members in 1915, mainly in the West. Its platform denounces the trade-unions for pitting one set of workers against another, and calls for the union of all workers into. one common organization and the abolition of capitalism and of the wage system. Its weapons are the strike, arson, and sabotage, which last term involves the impairment ofindustry through destruction of machinery, "mistakes," slackening the pace of workers, etc. Its representatives have conducted bitter strikes in Lawrence, Mass., Paterson, N. J., and in various places in the West. On September 5, 1917, its headquarters and various branches were raided by the Government and many documents seized as evidence of a conspiracy to lessen the output of
supplies needed for the war.- The organization claims to have adopted the best features of socialism, anarchism, and syndicalism. (See Atlantic Mont hlu, November, 1917.) A Detroit branch, the Workers' International Industrial Union, does not advocate violence. See ~Sabotage.
Infantry. Soldiers trained and organized to fight on foot. It is the most important of the three arms, and constitutes the bulk of our own and the military forces of other countries. The national defense act of 1916 provided for 64 regiments of Infantry in the Regular Army of the United States. Since that act was passed the act of May 18, 1917, authorized the President to increase the personnel of the Army, but the number of regiments in the Regular Establishment can not be changed. An Infantry regiment, according to the new Tables of Organization, has a strength of 103 officers and 3,652 enlisted men. See Battalion; Brigade; Company; Division; Regiment.
Inland Waters Transportation Committee. A subordinate agency of the Council of National Defense established June 8, 1917. Gen. W. M. Black, Chief of Engineers, United States Army, is chairman of the committee. Lieut. Col. C. Keller, Corps of Engineers, United States Army, is its secretary. The committee makes use of the local offices of the Engineer Corps and cooperates with State officials in its work of considering how waterways may be coordinated with other transportation systems from the standpoint of national defense. The policy of the committee is to develop existing water systems rather than to attempt to cut into new channels. Attention has been concentrated upon the Mississippi River system and the Atlantic system.
Insurance. See War Risk Insurance; German Insurance Companies.
Internalized Supreme War Council. In order to secure greater unity of operation on the western front, England, France, and Italy drew up in November, 1917, an agreement, in which the United States promptly concurred, to establish a permanent council for the purpose of watching over, and in part directing, the general conduct of the war. The agreement was made under the pressure of conditions brought about by the invasion of Italy and the defection of the Lenine government In Russia, and provided for a council to meet normally at Versailles at least once in each month. The council was to be composed of the Prime 1~Iinister and a member of the cabinet of each of the powers engaged on the western front. The first meeting was held in the. latter part of November. America was represented by Uol.. F~. M. House and Gen. Tasker H. Bliss. In addition to its political representatives, each power delegates an army officer of high rank to act as technical adviser. These military representatives comprise a sort of Allied general staff. Unlike the supreme council, the military staff is to be active all the time. The officers appointed by the several powers are Gene. Foch for France, Wilson for England, Cadorna for Italy, and Bliss for the United States. Provision
has also been made for an Allied naval staff, on which the representative of the United States is Admiral Benson. At the time that the war council was holding its first meeting there was convened in Paris an interallled conference of all the nations that are in the war against Germany to consider political and economic questions The war council assures a great improvement in centralization of power and coordination of operation.
Intern. To detain and render harmless. When the military forces of a belligerent enter the territory of a neutral State, it is the latter's duty to Intern them for the remaining period of the war. The same rule applies- to belligerent naval forces after they have remained in neutral waters beyond a limited period. The German auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich was interned t Newport News, Va., in March, 1915, and the Kronprinc Wilhelm at Norfolk the following month. The German and Austrian merchantmen which remained in our harbors from the beginning of the war till they were taken over by the Govern- _ meat were not, strictly speaking, interned. They were free to --leave port at any time with commercial cargoes. Subjects or citizens of an enemy State residing within the limits of its jurisdiction may be interned by any Government, and this practice has been widely followed by all belligerents in the present war. See Parole; Prizes in Neutral Ports; War Vessels Bet ligerent.
International Law. The body of rules accepted or observed -by independent States in their relations with one another. When a new State enters the family of nations It consents to be bound by the then existing rules of international law, the fundamental assumption of which is the equality of States. If Germany is victorious in the present war, international law would seem likely to undergo a fundamental transformation. _ From being the rule of conduct of equals it would become, In part at least, a direction from a superior to inferiors; the family of nations would have become a hierarchy of nations, with Germany at the apex. See German Diplomacy; Hague and Geneva f7 Co ventions; German Violations; Hegemony; Recogn4tion.
International Law, Sanction of. The law to which we are subject in our everyday relations may rely for its enforcement, when other means fail, upon the policeman. But no such superior power exists over the members of the family of nations to back up international law. It must therefore rely for Its enforcement exclusively either upon the accord between its man-dates and the interests of States, or upon the pressure which. can be brought to bear upon opposing States by the opinion of other States, upon the readiness of individual States to redress their wrongs under it by means of force. Yet this situation of international law does not necessarily furnish reason for despair of its future. Even municipal law is not enforceable unless it has back of ft public opinion. Again, municipal law has itself been an outgrowth from self-help. Yet again, in recent years notable steps have been taken toward the creation of international agencies for enforcing the law of nations, such as The Hague Tribunal and the International Prize Court, while the proposed League to Enforce Peace would go even further. Finally, however, the present coalition against Germany, comprising 17 nations and incorporating three-quarters of the population of! the globe, is to be regarded as an effort to bring to bar the German Government, the greatest criminal that the family of nations has produced. See United States, Isolation.
International Peace, Duty of the People of the United States. Their duty "Is nothing less than this: To add their authority and their power to the authority and force of other nations to guarantee peace and justice throughout the world." (President Wilson before the Senate, Jan. 22, 1917.) See America, Creed.
International Unions. Since 1850 a considerable number of such organizations have been formed. The most important are the Universal Telegraphic Union, founded in 1865; the Universal Postal Union, which was - created nine years later; the European Union of Railway Freight Transportation, which was formed in 1890; the Union for the Protection of Industrial Property (patents, trade-marks, etc.)-, which dates from 1883; and The Hague Union of 1886 for the Protection of Works of Art and Literature.
Intervention. An- interference by a nation in the affairs of another without the Intention of waging war. It is commonly defended as a police measure by the intervening power, but is often followed by war, and may always be regarded by the second power as an act of war. One of the greatest needs In international law is a court to whose inquiries and orders any nation must respond, thus compelling a proper consideration of the sort of grievance that produces interventions.
Intrigue. By Intrigue and spies, in time of peace as well as war, Germany has habitually tried to secure secretly the alms she could not attain openly. This system was described by President Wilson in his letter to the Provisional Government of Russia (May 26, 1917) as follows: "Government after Government- has, by their [the German ruling classes'] influence, without open conquest of its territory, been Linked together in a net of Intrigue directed against nothing less than the peace and liberty of the world. The meshes of that intrigue must be broken, but can not be broken unless wrongs already done are undone; and adequate measures must be taken to prevent it from ever again being rewoven or repaired." See Bernstorff, Intrigues of; Dumba; German Intrigue; IgeZ, von, Papers of; ~Liebknecht on German War PoUov; Papen; Propaganda, German; Rumors, Malicious and Disloyal; Sabotage; Spies; "Spurlos Versenkt"; Zimmerman Note.
Intrigue and Peace. "The test, therefore, of every plan of peace is this: Is it based upon the faith of all the peoples involved or merely upon the word of an ambitious and intriguing Government, on the one hand, and of a group of free peoples, on the other? This Is a test which goes to the root of the matter, and'lt the test which must be applied." (American reply tothe peace overtures of the Pope.) See Aim of the United States; Why are We at War?
Irish Convention. In 1917, by act of Parliament, the relations of Ireland to the British Empire were submitted to a convention sitting in Dublin and including representatives of every shade of Irish opinion from the Sinn Fein to the Ulster Unionists. The Government has pledged itself to follow the recommendatIons of the Irish upon their own local affairs. The president of the convention (which was still in session in november, 1917) was Sir Horace Plunkett, well known in both 1 Ireland and America as an active worker for Irish economic and agricultural development.
Irish Home Rule. The government of Ireland has never satisfied either the Irish or the English. In protest against It, as well as against the conditions of life from which the Irish have suffered, there have been repeated political, educational, and revolutionary movements. The modern history of the problem begins about 1880, with Charles Stewart Parnell, as spokes-man for the Irish, demanding reform of land tenure and, finally, home rule. William E. Gladstone was the first great British statesman to accept the idea of home rule, but no measure to accomplish it was passed until 1914, and this law, suspended for the duration of the war, Is likely to be superseded by the work of the present Irish convention. The fundamental difficulty in adjusting a basis for home rule is the existence of two groups In Ireland which have been mutually distrustful: (1) The Irish, who are mostly Catholic, and generally live in the country; and (2) the Protestant Ulstermen, who are mostly of British blood, live in northern Ireland, own property, and direct the city life and manufactures.
Irish Parties. Among the many phases of opinion in Ireland, four groups stand out: (1) The Ulster Unionists in northern Ireland, who demand close connections with England, and who fear the control of Ireland by the Irish; (2) the Irish National-lets, who comprise the bulk of the population, and have long maintained a compact group of representatives in Parliament, desiring home rule but supporting the present war under the leadership of John Redmond; (3) a middle and apparently growing group, drawing away from both of these, and desiring
a friendly accommodation of differences; and (4) the Sinn Fein, who are extreme nationalists, demanding immediate independence even at the cost of revolution or German victory. Sinn Fein.
Iron and Steel. Modern warfare is largely a matter of engineering and manufacture, with iron and steel at the foundation of every - enterprise, for guns-railroads, machinery bridges the amount of iron mined in 1916 and the first
months of 1917 is the highest on record. It Is estimated that exportation for 1917 will reach a valuation of $1,100,000,000, as against $251,000,000 in the opening year of the war. An investigation into the iron and steel Industries by the Federal Trade Commission with a view to fixing the prices the Govern-
ment must pay (according to the agreement of July 12) was completed August 20, 1917. It recommended a continuous investigation into the cost of steel during the war, and the ascertaining of the actual cost of each Government order. The Government has no legal authority to fix iron and steel prices for the general trade. See Priority
Isolation, Policy of. See United States, Isolation.
Isonzo. A river on the frontier between Italy and Austria. A few miles southeast of it, in Austria, is Trieste, the natural objective for Italian operations in this theater. The crossing of the Isonzo by Italians began on May 27, 1915. On June 11 they occupied Gradisca, 6 miles southwest of Gorizia, and in July began the struggle for the Carso Plateau on the coast road to Trieste. Gorizia was not captured until August 9, 1916. The great Italian offensive of August, 1917, on all fronts advanced the Italian gains on the Isonzo area, and led to a renewed Austria-German counter drive in October. At this writing (November, 1917), this counter drive has swept away the Italian gains of the past two years. See Carso Plateau.
Italia Irredenta. The term means unredeemed Italy. After 1861, when the present Kingdom of Italy was established, the Papal States, Venetia, the district around Trieste, and the district around Treat, were still-although inhabited mainly or in part by Italians-not parts of the Kingdom. Venetia and the Papal States were annexed in 1866 and 1870. This process of winning Italy from foreign control came to be called redeeming Italy, and after 1870 the term "Italla irredenta" was applied to Trleste and the Trentino, these being territories still "unredeemed." Popular secret societies, whose object was to advocate the winning back of unredeemed Italy, were formed shortly after the congress of Berlin (1878), from which the Italian representative returned with "clean" but empty bands. Advocates of this policy were called irredentists, and the policy itself was known as irredentism. Irredentism declined after Italy joined Austria and Germany in the Triple Alliance (1882), but has steadily gained in force since 1908, when Austria, backed by Germany, annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina without consulting Italy, and contrary to her interests and in violation of the treaty of Berlin (1878).
Italy. Italy is a constitutional and parliamentary monarchy. Its area of 110,688 square miles supported a population in 1915 -of 36,120,118. Rome is the capital. The reigning King, Victor Emmanuel III, came to the throne on July 29, 1900. The Queen is Elena, a princess of Montenegro. On May 23, 1915, Italy declared war against Austria, and on August 20, 1915, -against Turkey; a declaration of war was issued against Bulgaria on October 19, 1915, and against Germany on August 27, 1916. The Salandra ministry, which was in office at the outbreak- of the European war, gave place on June 19, 1916, to a new ministry under Signor Boselll, and this in turn has recently (November, 1917) yielded place to one under Signor Orlando, See Triple Alliance.