World War 1 According History Information

Gift Shop



How the British Blockade Works

Chivalrous England

War Cyclopedia - C

Cabinet, United States. On December 1, 1917, the Cabinet was as follows: Secretary of State, Robert Lansing; Secretary of the Treasury, William Gibbs McAdoo; Secretary of War, Newton Diehl Baker; Attorney General, Thomas Watt Gregory; Secretary of the Navy, Josephus Daniels; Secretary of the Interior, Franklin Knight Lane; Secretary of Agriculture, David Franklin Houston; Secretary of Commerce, William Cox Red-field; Secretary of Labor, William Bauchop Wilson.

Cabinet System. A system of government which originated in England, the essential feature of which is the union of the supreme direction In both legislation and administration in a ministry taken from the legislature. Other features of the system as it existed before the war in Great Britain are the following: (1) the members of the cabinet, all of whom are ministers and usually heads of departments-though not all ministers are members of the cabinet-are members of the party which controls a majority in the House of Commons; (2) the solidarity of the cabinet is realized through the Prime Minister, who selects his colleagues and mediates between them and the monarch; (3) If the cabinet is outvoted in the House on an important measure, it must either resign at once or-ask the King to dissolve Parliament and calla new election, a request which is always granted. The smooth working of the cabinet system in England Is secured by the unquestioned right of Parliament to control the Crown, the equally unquestioned predominance of the House of Commons over the House of Lords, and the two-party system. In France a modified form of the system operates on a basis of equal respondsibility to both chambers. See Coalition Cabinet; War Cabinet.

" Cadets." The Constitutional Democratic party of Russia; so called from the initial letters of the party name. See Lvov; Milyukov; Russian Revolution of 1917.

Cadorna, Gen. Luigi Count. Commander in chief of the Italian armies until he was replaced in November, 1917, by Gen. Diaz. A native of the extreme northern part of Italy, the borderland of Lake Maggiore, between Lombardy and Piedmont, he is a son of the Gen. Count Cadorna who entered Rome with the Italian troops in 1870 and gave the city as a capital to Victor Emmanuel.

Cambrai. A town of 21,791 inhabitants (1906) in northern France, 37 miles south and a little east of Lille. Old fortifications had been leveled before the outbreak of the present war, but the city possesses great military importance as the converging point of four railways and numerous highways. The Germans made it a great distributing center for the armies along the Hindenburg line and also along the Aisne. It was a link in the great chain of supply stations-Laon, St. Quentin, Cambrai, Douai, Lille-in front of which the Germans took their stand after the retreat from the Maine. It was the objective of the drive begun by Gen. Byng on November 20, 1917. By the use of several hundred "tanks" the wire entanglements and outposts along a front of 32 miles were demolished without artillery preparation and an advance of 5 or 6 miles scored, one of the greatest victories on the western front, bringing Cambrai and its railroads under fire of the British guns. Subsequent counter attacks by the Germans have reduced the British gains by approximately a quarter. See Byng, Gen.; "Hindenburg Line."

Camouflage. The French word for a military art that has assumed new importance in the present war as a result of the effort to conceal fortifications, ships, guns, trenches, etc., from the observation of hostile aircraft. It consists in painting objects of war so that they may blend readily into the landscape and thus be lost to view or in concealing them by screens or false work, or even In "faking" fortifications or "Quaker" guns. A special contingent of camouflage is being organized by the War Department, and a private society of artists, the American Camouflage, has an office at 215 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York City. See Smoke screen.

Canada, Dominion of. A self-governing British colony occupying, with- the exception of Alaska, the northern half of North America. Area, 3,729,665 square miles; population (1911), 7,206,643. Its government is federal in form, closely modeled on that of Great Britain. The executive is nominally a Governor General, appointed by the Crown; actually, a cabinet responsible to the Dominion Parliament. The present Premier is Sir Robert Borden. The legislature consists of two chambers, the Senate of 87 members appointed for life by the Governor General-that is the cabinet-and a House of Commons of 221 members, elected by manhood suffrage. The Senate is limited In power, can not originate a money bill. In 1914 Canada voluntarily accepted her responsibilities as a member of the British Empire, and by September 1, 1916, had 334,969 men under arms, of whom 210,394 had already been sent to Europe, where they have made a particularly good record. Canada subsequently passed a universal-service act. See British Imperial Federation.

Canada, War Election. A general election was held in Canada on December 17, with a special war~ franchise, Including (1) All citizens over 21, except conscientious objectors to military service, persons born In an enemy country who have been naturalized within 15 years, and persons speaking the mother tongue of any enemy country if naturalized within 15 years; (2) all soldiers in the Canadian forces; (3) all Canadians serving in the British forces; (4) wives, widows, mothers, and sisters over 21 of soldiers serving overseas; and (5) nurses and other women officially connected with the over-seas forces. The Borden Government, which bad enacted universal service and actively supported the war, was victorious.

Canned Fish. In 1917 there were 335 canneries reported for fish, the greatest number being in Alaska, which has 67, in Washington, which has 65, and in Maine, which has 60. Estimates are not available for the general output. The salmon pack is estimated at 9,500,000 cases. Prices of canned salmon rose sharply. Salmon that sold on the Pacific coast at the end of the year's pack in 1916 for $1.75 per dozen cans and was quoted on the coast at $2.60 wholesale, under control of the - Food Administration was reduced to $2.35. Cheaper grades of salmon have risen even higher, as the grade which sold at 90 cents per dozen on the coast in 1916 Is now selling for from $1.65 to $1.75 per dozen.

Canned Vegetables. In 1916-17 there were reported 502 factories for canning corn, 309 for peas, and 1,903 for tomatoes. The output of canned sweet corn for 1917 is estimated at 10,802,000 cases, of peas at nearly 10,000,000 cases, and of tomatoes 12,500,000 cases. The figures for all are materially higher than the output in 1916. The canners have contracted to sell the wholesalers this year's pack in No. 2 cans, standard grade, as follows (per dozen cans) : peas, $1.10; corn, $0.90; tomatoes, $1.10. This is a wholesale price of from 7~ to 9~ cents per can. There is, according to the Food Administration, "no excuse for the extortionate prices being asked in some markets." Exports of canned vegetables have increased steadily throughout the war, reaching a value of $4,765,136 In 1917, as compared with $2,529,694 In 1916, and $1,898,840 In 1915.

Cantonments. These are camps, usually with wooden buildings, constructed for the use of the National Guard and the National Army while their various units are being prepared for service abroad. Most of them are in the South, where the winter climate is mild enough to permit some of the men to live under canvas. In the North, barracks and other buildings have been constructed with such amazing speed that though begun only in June they were being occupied in September. Suitable sites first were to be secured. The ground was leveled, water supply and drainage systems were Installed roads and railways were built, lavatories, baths, kitchens, bakeries, refrigerating plants, laundries, hospitals, mess and lodging halls have been made ready by thousands upon thousands of engineers and mechanics gathered together in the neighborhood of the camps. Each cantonment has become a city complete within Itself. That in Maryland, Camp Meade, is properly called "the second largest city" In the State. See Officers' Training Camps.

Cantonments, List. The cantonments are located at Place. Name. Designation.

Alexandria La Camp Beauregard National Guard.
American lake Wash Camp LSW1S National Army.
Annapolis junction, Md Camp Meade Do.
Anniston, Ala Camp McClellan National Guard.
Atlanta, Ga Camp Gordon National Army
Augusta, Ga Camp Hancock National Guard.
Ayer, Mass Camp Devens National Army.v
Battle Creek, Mich -tamp Custer Do.
Charlotte, N. C Camp Greene National Guard.
Chillicothe, Ohio Camp Sherman National Army.
Columbia S. C Camp Jackson Do.
Deming, n. Mex Camp Cody National Guard.
Des Moines, Iowa Camp Dodge National Army.
Fort Riley Kans Camp Funstou Do.
Fort Sill,okla Camp Doniphan National Guard.
Fort Worth Tex Camp Bowie Do.
Greenville,s.c. - Camp Sevier Do.
Hattiesburg, Miss Camp Shelby Do.
Houston Tax Camp Logan Do.
Linda Vista, Cal Camp Kearny Do.
Little Rock Ark Camp Pike National Army.
Louisville, Camp Zachary Taylor Do.
Macon, Ga Camp Wheeler Do.
Mineola, Long Island, N. Y *Camp Mills National Guard.
Montgomery, Ala Camp~Sheridan Do.
Palo Alto Cal Camp Fremont Do.
Petersburg, Va Camp Lee National Army.
Rockford 7111 Camp Grant Do.
San Antonio, Tax Camp Travis Do.
Spartanburg, S. C Camp Wadsworth National Guard.
Waco, Tax Camp MacArthur Do.
Wrightstown, N. J Camp Dlx National Army.
Yaphank, Long Island, N. Y Camp Upton Do.

* Abandoned for winter use, December, 1917.

Cantonments, Classification of Recruits In. A personnel organization has been established in each of the 16 National Army cantonments. The previous occupation, education, and preference for service of every man are recorded on individual cards, which are then filed and analyzed at the divisional personnel office in each cantonment. An analysis as to the entire 687,000 men of the first increment can readily be made from these records. The function of an army is to fight, and most of the men, irrespective of previous occupations, will be in the Infantry and artillery. Nevertheless, the specialization of mod- era war requires large numbers of skilled men adapted for technical units and special branches of the service. In this work the War Department is having the assistance of a body of civilian experts organized under the name "Committee on Classification of Personnel in the Army" and Including a number of professional employment managers loaned to the Government by large industrial and business concerns. See Selective Service, Second Draft.

Capture and Adjudication. Belligerent war vessels have the right to capture on the high seas or in enemy waters all enemy merchant vessels, and all neutral merchant vessels which are suspected of carrying contraband, of intending to break through the blockade of an enemy port or ports, or of being employed in the enemy's service. But the mere act of capture does not determine the question of the ownership of the prize, or, in case it is a neutral vessel its participation in Illegal acts. These matters are, In the normal course of affairs, left to be adjudicated by a belligerent prize court. German submarine warfare has entirely set aside this important safeguard of neutral rights. See Prize Courts; Prizes, Destruction of.

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The endowment was established by Andrew Carnegie on December 14, 1910, with a fund of $10,000,000. The income Is administered by a board of directors for "hastening the abolition of international war." Recognizing that the cause of the United States is the cause of peace, the endowment has placed all its resources at the service of the Government. The headquarters of the endowment are at 2 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C.

Caroline Islands. A widely scattered archipelago In the Pacific, east of the Philippines and north of New Guinea. Taken from Germany by Japan in October, 1914; the last of the German possessions in the South Seas.

Carso Plateau. A large plateau of mountainous formation near the head of the Adriatic and on the coast road from the Isonzo to Trieste. The Italians began a new offensive in this region late in May, 1917. Its initial success promised to clear the entire front from Tolmino to the sea. The Russian failure permitted the withdrawal of Austrian troops for the reinforcement of their armies on the Carso, and the Italian operations were strongly opposed. A renewed Austro-German drive began in this region in October, 1917, and at this writing has pressed the Italians back to the Piave River. See Isonzo; Gorizia.

Casualties, Low Death Rate from. 'See War, Low Death Rate.

Caucasus. The mountainous district east of the Black Sea, dividing Russia from Asia Minor. In December, 1914, Enver Pasha attempted an Invasion of Transcaucasia in order to divert the Russians from their Invasion of Germany and Austria. On January 3-4, 1915, this effort was completely defeated with great loss. Later in 1915 the Russians began a successful advance under the Grand Duke Nicholas In this, theater, with objectives in Persia and Armenia. This attained considerable success, but was checked as a result of Allied reverses on other fronts and by the revolution which broke out In Russia In March, 1917. See Enver Pasha; Erzerum.

Cavalry. Soldiers organized and armed with the rifle, pistol, and saber, mounted on horses, and trained to fight either on foot or on horseback. An arm of the military service of great importance in past wars, but of less value when battles take on the form of struggles for the possession of trenches, forts, and other fixed position, in no war has so little use been made of no cavalry as in the present one barring its earlier stages. The troop is the smallest admInistrativ~un1t of the Cavalry; four troops form a squadron, and three squadrons, with headquarters, supply and machine-gun troops, form a regiment. Captains command troops; majors, squadrons; and a colonel, the regiment.

Cavell, Edith, Execution of. This occurred at 2 a. m. of October 13, 1915, in pursuance of sentence passed by the German military court at Brussels, the charge against her being that she had assisted English and Belgian young men, who had come under her care as nurse, to cross the frontier into Holland. Miss Cavell had spent her whole life in alleviating the sufferings of others; the death penalty had not before this been inflicted for the offense with which she was charged. In view of both of these facts, Mr. Whitlock, American minister to Belgium, and his first secretary, Mr. Hugh Gibson, did all that they could from the beginning to prevent the horror of her execution. Baron von der Lancken was at this time civil governor of Belgium, and it was to him that the Americans addressed their pleas. Mr. Gibson has recently retold the story from his diary kept at the time. At 8.30 of the evening preceding the execution he learned that Miss Cavell was to be shot during the night. Though he could scarcely credit the report in view of von der Lancken's repeated assurances that he should be kept informed of all developments, he at once set out with the Spanish minister for the governor's headquarters. "When we got to the Political Department," Mr. Gibson writes, "we found that Baron von der Lancken and all the members of his staff had gone out to spend the evening at one of the disreputable little theaters which have sprung up here for the entertainment of the Germans. He came in about 10.30, followed shortly by Count Harrach and Baron von Falkenhausen, members of his staff. I briefly explained the situation as we understood it and presented the note from the minister transmitting the appeal for clemency. Lancken read the note aloud in our presence, showing no feeling aside from cynical annoyance at something- probably our having discovered the intentions of the German authorities At first von der Lancken denied that the sentence deleated out In the course of the night. Then he ad~m1tted It, and the intercessors for Miss Cavell set to work upon him. They reminded him of the burning of Lou vane and the sinking of the Lusitania and told him that "this murder will rank with those two affairs and stir all civilized countries with horror and disgust," whereupon Count Harrach Interrupted with the remark that his only regret was that they did not have "three or four old English women to shoot." Mr. Gibson asked von der Lancken to telephone the Kaiser, but the request was refused. Then he recounted the many services which the American legation had rendered the Germans, but all without avail. "We did not stop," Mr. Gibson continues, "until midnight, when it was only too clear that there was no hope." He concludes: "The day brought forth another loathsome fact in connection with the case. It seems the sentence on Miss Cavell was not pronounced in open court. Her executioners, apparently in the hope of concealing their intentions from us, went into her cell and there, behind locked doors, pronounced sentence upon her. It Is all a piece with the other things they have done." (Hugh Gibson, A Journal from Our Legation in Belgium, 1917.) The German Government now has the effrontery to put upon the same basis the execution of Miss Cavell and the recent execution by France of Mata-Hari, dancer, prostitute, and professional spy. See Fryatt; War, German Ruth2essness.

Censorship Board. An administrative board created under the trading with the enemy act, consisting of representatives of the Secretaries of War and Navy, the Postmaster General, the War Trade Board, and the chairman of the Committee on Public Information. It controls, under this act, communication by mail, cable, radio, or vessel between the United States and foreign countries. See Mails, E elusion from.

Central Powers. The name commonly applied to the group of countries fighting in alliance with Germany, and including Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. They control and dominate central Europe from the North Sea to Constantinople, and their influence penetrates Asia to the edge of Mesopotamia. They aim to control also the shores of the Persian Gulf. See "Berlin to Bag clad"; Entente Allies; "MittelEuropa"; Pan-Germanism; Triple Alliance.

Cettinje. The capital of Montenegro, which fell before the Austrian Armies November 13, 1915.

Charles I (1887- ). The Archduke Charles Francis Joseph became Charles I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, upon the death of his great-uncle, Emperor Francis Joseph, on November 21, 1916. He is the eldest son of the late Emperor's nephew, Otto, the younger brother of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, murdered at Serajevo on June 28, 1914. Charles I married, in 1911, Princess Zita, of the Bourbon House of Parma, and has two sons. He received a democratic education in the public schools of Vienna which shocked sticklers at etiquette of the Viennese Court'which has secured him much popularity with his subjects. It also appears to have impressed upon his mind the importance of constitutional government and democratic reforms for Austria. His first public utterance as Emperor made a very favorable impression in the constitutional countries of Europe by his apparent sincerity and by his expressed determination to observe the forms of constitutional rule. He was much less under the influence of Berlin and William II than was his predecessor, Francis Joseph, in recent years, but during the war Austria had already fallen so completely under the military control of Germany and is so helpless without continued German assistance that It is difficult for the new Emperor-King to follow an independent policy. It is believed that he favored peace in the early part of 1915, before Italy entered the war, and it appears at present (November, 1917) that he is much more anxious for peace and ready to make concessions than his German ally.

Chauvinism. Originally a French term (chauvinisme), derived from Nicolas Chauvin, a soldier in the army of Napoleon, who was ridiculed by his comrades for his demonstrative and unreasoning patriotism. After the fall of Napoleon the term chauvinimne was applied in ridicule to the old soldiers who still professed an idolatrous admiration for the Emperor. In Coigniard's play, La cocarde tricolore (1831), one of the characters, Chauvin, exaggerated the character of the original Chauvin; and from this time the term chauvinisme came to be commonly applied to anyone exhibiting a blind and unreasoning patriotism or an excessive enthusiasm for national ascendancy. The English equivalent of the word is "jingoism." But the French term chauviniame has been anglicized into "chauvinism," and it now has a somewhat broader meaning than "jingoism." It Is sometimes applied to one who exhibits an unreasoning loyalty to any cause or any leader. "I am an American, but I do not believe that any of us loves a blustering nationality . . . with a chip on its shoulder . . . with its elbows out and its swagger on." (President Wilson, at West Point, June 13, 1916.) See Pru8siu~ni5nL.

Chemical Industries. The war has produced a marked effect upon the chemical industries of the United States. Reliance upon foreign countries (especially Germany) has been rendered difficult, and extensive experimentation was begun in all lines in 1914, which resulted, as early as 1916, in distinct progress. Many of the large munitions factories are maintaining extensive plants for the manufacture of chemicals which they intend to develop into permanent industries after the war. No figures are available as to the present production of chemicals. The capital represented at the New York Exposition of Chemical Industries in 1916 was said to amount to $2,750,000,000, and investments have been increased during 1917. In no case have imports In chemicals equaled the figures before the war. Statistics, however, are of little value in regard to this class of goods, as constant development produces new commodities and changing conditions render comparisons impossible. The United States has developed so rapidly that it is not only able to supply the home market along some l1ne~ but it has also been able to export. The value of chemical exports has increased from $46,380,986 in 1914-15, to $124,478,474 In 1915-16, and $187,846,351 In 1916-17. See War Chemistry.

Chemin des Dames. A road along a crest of hills overlooking the valley of the Aillette River in northern France. Here the Germans retained a foothold after the battle of the Aisne. The French offensive north of Rheims in the summer of 1917 included attacks on the town of Craonne and the Chemin des Dames. The French success at the Chemin des Dames in June furnished some of the most desperate fighting of the .war. German counter attacks against the ridge in July outrivaled their attacks at Verdun. They failed to dislodge the French from their advantage, and at the present moment (November, 1917) the Germans are retiring all along this sector. See Aisne.

Chief of the General Staff. The principal officer of the General Staff, designated by the President from the major generals in the Army. The present Chief of the General Staff is Maj. Gen. Tasker H. Bliss, who will retire under the age limit on December 31, 1917. His assistant is Maj. Gen. John Biddle. See Genera~ Staff.

Child Welfare. A department of the Woman's Committee of _ the Council of National defense, of which Miss Julia Lathrop is national chairman, ft Is directly connected with the Children's Bureau of the United States Department of Labor. The aim of this department Is to safeguard the character and the education of the youth of the United States during the war by helping to make the Federal child-labor law effective; by I aiding teachers and superintendents of schools in the care and welfare of children; by visiting, through its State organizations school authorities and labor officials and cooperating with them in an effort to keep children under 14 in schools, decently clothed, and well nourished.

Chile. A South American republic with an area of 292 419 square miles. The estimated population In 1914 was 3 596 o41 Santiago, the capital, is its largest city. The President Is Juan Luis Sanfuentes, who was elected in 1915. Chile is neutral In the European war, and German commercial interests there are large.

China. China assumed a republican government on February 12, 1912, with the overthrow of the infant Emperor, Pu-Yi, the last of the Manchu dynasty. The area of the Republic is 4,278,143 square miles and the population was estimated by a household census in 1910 at 329,017,750. Pekin is the capital. Yuan Shih Kai acted as Provisional President, assisted by a council of state, until the new constitution was proclaimed on May 1, 1914, when he became first President. Later he at-tempted to convert the Republic into an empire, but failed. His death, in June, 1916, brought the Vice President LI Yuan-hung into the Presidency. On March 14, 1917, after a cabinet crisis over the foreign situation, China severed~ diplomatic relations with Germany, and on August 14, 1917, declared war against the Central Powers. See Japanese-American Agreement.

Chinese Republic, Achievements. "Since 1911 ... China has developed the huge educative organization of a daily press. She has freed herself from the incalculable deadweight of opium. In the political sphere in every province she has trained local assemblies, and she has drawn off the best of their members into two sessions of a national Parliament, the later of which, convened last November, has met almost continuously down to the present crisis. . ... China had planned, and bad almost ready for promulgation this summer, the fundamental law of her new constitution. .. . . In the world of finance for three successive years she paid off every foreign obligation out of her own resources. . . . She has had almost five years' tussle with the. banking worlds powers, and . . . the discount of her bonds has hardly ever greater than that of Japan's, and has usually been less. Twice she has decisively overcome an attempt of her own conservatives to restore a monarchy. . . . This is the record of the Chinese Republic." (The Nation, Sept. 20, 1917.)

Citizenship. Citizenship, partial or complete, is an essential condition of the right to vote and hold office; entitles its holder to the protection of the Government abroad; and subjects him to the duty of mi1it~*y service. By the fourteenth amendment "all persons born or naturalized In the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." See Declaration of Intention; Dual Citizenship; Naturalization.

Civilian Relief. "Battle-field relief will be effected through Red Cross agencies operating under the supervision of the War Department, but civilian relief will present a field of increasing opportunity in which the Red Cross organization is especially adapted to serve, and I am hopeful that our people will realize that there is probably no other agency with which they can associate themselves which can respond so effectively and universally to allay suffering and relieve distress. (President Wilson.)" See Red Cross.

Civilian Tasks. "These, then, are things we must do and do well besides fighting-the things without which mere fighting would be fruitless; we must supply a1~undant food for ourselves, our armies, and our seamen, not only, but also for a large part of the nations with whom we have common cause, in whose support and by whose side we shall be fighting. We must supply ships by the hundreds out of our shipyards to carry to the other side of the sea, submarines or no submarines, ~that will every day be needed there, and abundant materials out of our fields and our mines and our factories with which not only to cloak and equip our own forces on land and sea, but also to clothe and support our people for whom the gallant fellows under arms can no longer work; to help clothe and equip the armies with which we are cooperating in Europe and to keep the looms and manufactories there in raw materials; coal to keep the fires going into ships at sea and in the the sea; steel out of which to make arms and ammunition both here and there; rails for worn-out railways back of the fighting fronts- locomotives and rolling stock to take the places of those every day going to pieces; mules, horses, cattle, for labor and for military service; everything with which the people in England, France, Italy, and Russia have normally supplied themselves, but can not now afford the men, the materials, or the machinery to make." (President Wilson, proclamation of Apr. 16, 1917.) See National Service Handbook; Service Reserve. Civil Rights. The rights of life, liberty, and property, as distinguished from the political rights of citizenship, such as voting. They are protected by the (constitutiön from undue or arbitrary limitation by governmental power. See Freedom of Press; War' Powers.

Clémenceau, Georges (1841- ). A French statesman of strong personality. For several years he was a resident of America as a school-teacher In Connecticut, but returned to France in 1869. He entered political life after the war of 1870-71. He has in the past written on American affairs for the French press. Owing to his great power as a debater, he has always been one of the most influential members of the Chamber of Deputies. He has probably made and unmade more ministries than any other Frenchman of recent history. He was the editor of L'Home Libre, an influential French newspaper, which for a time he styled L'Homme Enchain~ because of censorship difficulties. He became Prime Minister on November 17, 1917, with a program calling for a vigorous prosecution of the war, a rigid suppression of treasonable intrigue, and a more liberal policy as to political censorship of the press.

Claims Commissions. In time of war, and sometimes in peace, one nation or its citizens receive injuries at the hands of another. Some such Injuries are acknowledged to be permissible, others to be unlawful, and others still are held by one nation to be lawful and by the other not. In the latter case the injustice must be endured, or avenged by war, or settled by treaty. If it is settled by treaty, the compensation may be agreed upon in the document. More often the treaty provides a commission to determine the legality of the action complained of, or the amount of compensation, or both. The appointment and procedure of such commissions are arranged by treaty. The United States has been a party to many such agreements and has received and paid large sums as the result of their decisions. Should the attempt to establish an international court at The Hague succeed, such special commissions would no longer be necessary.

Coal and Iron as Cause of War. Germany now holds all the important coal fields in Europe outside of England. She had valuable deposits in Silesia and Westphalia; she gained more in Alsace-Lorraine by the war of 1870. Her advance-upon Paris in 1914 Included the capture, In the first three weeks of The war, of the principal coal fields in Belgium and northern France. In iron also Germany gained by her western invasions. By the addition of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany, France was dealt a severe economic blow. It has been the desire of the German chauvinists to complete her downfall, to profit yet more greatly at her expense, by further annexations, especially the basin of Brley on the Lorraine frontier. France since 1870 has been producing hardly two-thirds of the coal needed by her industries. Germany has had more than she could use. She lacked only iron and further gateways to the sea, which she set out to secure on her march to the west in August, 1914. "The security of the German Empire in a future war," declare the German Industrial Associations in an official manifesto, "requires, therefore, imperatively the ownership of all mines of Iron ore, including the fortresses of Longwy and Verdun which are necessary to defend the ..... . . [Otherwise] the German furnaces of Luxemburg would be paralyzed in a few hours." See , Mittel-Europa"; Pan-German4sm.

Coal, How to Save. An excellent guide for householders in saving coal is issued by the Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. Write for pamphlet No. 97, "Saving Fuel in Heating a House." See Coal Supply; Fuel Control..

Coalition Cabinet, British. In May, 1915, the British Liberal ministry, under Mr. Asquith, in power at the outbreak of the war, resigned, and a coalition cabinet of all parties was formed, under Mr. Asquith. A liberal majority was retained, but such eminent Conservatives as Lord Lansdowne, Lord Curzon, Lord Selborne, Mr. Balfour, Mr. Bonar Law, Mr. Chamberlain, and others received posts, as did several members of the Labor party. With certain changes, this ministry lasted till December 5, 1916, whoa Mr. Asquith resigned, carrying with him practically all the Ub~S1s except Mr. Lloyd George, who became the new Prime Minister. The fundamental concept of 1~r. Asquith's policy was to demonstrate the unity of the nation in the Government. See Asquith; Lloyd George; War Cabinet.

Coal Production Committee. A committee of the Council of National Defense organized April 21, 1917, under the chairmanship of Mr. F. S. Peabody, president of the Peabody Coal Co., of Chicago, and having in its membership both prominent coal operators and leaders of the United Mine Workers of America. It cooperates through its State and local committees with the State councils of defense and other State agencies in furnishing when requested information and assistance. In addition to State agencies the committee cooperates with the United States Fuel Administration, the Bureau of Mines and Geological Survey of the Department of the Interior, and the Committee on Transportation of the Council of National Defense. See Fuel Admin. istrator. Coal Supply. The coal output of the United States for 1916 was 597,500,000 net tons, which was an increase over that of 1915. The demand for coal during 1916 in industry, transportation, exportation, and private consumption increased so rapidly that an apparent shortage resulted at the beginning of 1917, due largely to the Inability of the railroads to deliver orders. Speculation, together with this shortage in transportation, produced a material increase In coal prices throughout 1917. The Federal Trade Commission found that the total anthracite shipments to September 1, 1917, had been 51,405,341 tons, as compared with 44,368,340 tons for a corresponding period in 1916. Exportations of anthracite for the year ending in June, 1917, were 4,641,138 tons, an increase of more than 700,000 tons over -the exports of 1916. Exports of bituminous were 19,628,048 tons. -Consumption by the railroads, In production of coke, and for munitions and other manufacturing plants, according to figures given out November 15,1917, by the Fuel Administrator, Increased -consumption by at least 10O,OO0~O0& tons, while the production of bituminous and anthracite together was increased only by 50,-000,000 tons- The result was an estimated shortage of 50,000,000 tons In the coal supply for 1917, to be made good by further Increase of production and by greater economy in use. See Fuel Control.

Coast Artillery. The Coast Artillery is for defensive use. Nearly all of the guns as yet are fixed in forts, though it is desired to make some of them mob~ for removal at need to unfortified harbors and unprotected beaches. The modern scheme for defense of our coast begins with the report of the Endicott board in 1886. There are three principal districts, the North Atlantic running from Maine to Sandy Hook, N. J., the South Atlantic from the Delaware River to Texas, the Pacific coast from San Diego up to Puget Sound. There are forts also in the Philippines, in Hawaii, and at Panama. Under the national defense act of June 3, 1916, for the reorganization of the Army this branch of the service calls for about 30,000 men. See Artillery.

Combatants. The Hague Regulations respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land provide: "ARTICLE I. The laws, rights, and duties of war apply not only to armies but also to militia and volunteer corps fulfilling the following conditions: (1) to be commanded by a person responsible for his subordinates; (2) to have a fixed distinctive emblem recognizable at a distance; (3) to carry arms openly; and (4) to conduct their operations in accordance with the laws and customs of war. In countries where militia or volunteer -corps constitute the army, or form part of it, they are included under the denomination 'army.'" This provision was ratified by Germany, but she has failed to observe it; e. g., she has refused to recognize the members of the Garde Civique of Brussels as legitimate combatants.

Commandeer. See Eminent Domain.

Commercial Economy Board. A subordinate agency of the Council of National Defense established March 24, 1917. The work of the Commercial Economy Board Is to secure economy In the use of men and materials in commercial business to aid in carrying on the war. In this connection it is conducting a campaign-. to reduce deliveries of department stores (to one per day) and to cut down the abuse of the returned-goods privilege. A. W. Shaw, chairman of the board, says: "Women especialy have responded willingly to the request to use more forethought in ordering, to avoid asking expensive special deliveries, and otherwise accommodate themselves to the changes. The most Important result from an economic standpoint has been the saving in productive effort."

Committee on Public Information. The committee was established by executive order of the President April 14, 1917, and consists of the Secretaries of State, War, and Navy, with Mr. George Creel as civilian chairman. It furnishes an official -channel for information concerning the purposes and conduct of the war and cooperates with the newspapers both in publishing I information about army and naval matters that should be suppressing those facts which would aid the enemy. The committee now conducts (1) a division of news which supervises and- distributes news "re- -leases" from the civil and military departments; (2) a daily Official Bulletin; (3) a division of civic and educational cooperation which prepares and circulates the Red, White, and Blue and the War Information pamphlets ; ~4) Four Minute Men who speak in moving-picture theaters; (5) public speaking in which the more extensive speaking campaigns are coordinated; (6) syndicate features; (7) a division of films; (8) a division of pictures; (9) a division of foreign language papers; (10) a division of distribution; (11) woman's war work; (12) division of reference; (13) art; (14) advertising; (15) foreign educational work; and (16) business management. The committee aids and encourages all agencies engaged in the patriotic support of the national cause. See Conquest and Kultur; Four Minute Men; German War Practices; Official Bulletin; Red, White, and Blue Series; War Information Series .

Community Canning. Cooperative public kitchens for community canning were urged by the woman's committee as a follow-up suggestion to the instructions of the Department of -Agriculture and the Food Administration regarding the preservation of perishable foods. These canning centers were in schools, churches, private homes, or in buildings temporarily erected for the purpose on a public commons or on college or public school grounds. Committees were placed in charge of the canning centers to whom surplus foods were sent by -gardeners, housekeepers, and market houses. The canned products in most cases were held for winter use, and will probably be sold at a minimum price or distributed through an existing philanthropic agency. See Canned Vegetables.

Community Fines and Penalties. Article L of The Hague Regulations: "No general penalty, pecuniary or otherwise, shall be inflicted upon the population on account of the acts of individuals for which they can not be regarded as jointly and severally responsible." The purpose of this article was to rule out definitively a common practice of the German military authorities in the Franco-Prussian war. The article was violated by German commanders In the present war. Thus, on September 19, 1914, the German commander in chief in Belgium, Gen. von Bulow, assessed a fine of 500,000 francs upon the 1,500 - inhabitants of the war-ruined village of Sissone because somebody had strewn glass at intervals along a road near the place for the distance of 1 kilometer. In the event that the fine was not paid, not only Sissone but the village of Marchais and the neighboring property of the Prince of Monaco were all to be destroyed. A more terrifying instance of Gen. von Bulow in practice in this respect is furnished by the following extract from a proclamation of his which was posted up In Liege on August 22, 1914: The inhabitants of -the town of Andenne, after having protested their peaceful intentions, treacherously surprised our troops. It is with my full consent that the general in command has had the whole place burned, and that about a hundred people have been shot." What was done at Andenne was repeated at a score of other places. See Family Rights and Honor; German War Practices.

Company. The smallest administrative unit in the Infantry, Engineers, Signal Corps, and C~1st Artillery. The Quartermaster - Corps and Medical Corps also have special units designated as companies, such as truck companies, field hospital companies, etc. A company is the proper command of a captain, and its strength in the different arms of the service varies from 250 in an Infantry rifle company to 75 in the Signal Corps. In the Infantry and Coast Artillery 4 companies, with battalion headquarters, make a battalion; in the Engineers, Signal Corps, Quartermaster Corps, and Medical Department, companies are organized into battalions when necessary, such number of companies being used as will most efficiently combine for the special work for which the troops are intended. See Battalion; Regiment.

Concert of Europe. The term long applied to the European powers acting as a unit. It has remained more of an ideal than a reality. In 1815 a concert. of Europe was established after the congress of Vienna, but It was a concert of princes and not of peoples and broke up through the desire of the peoples of Europe to settle their own problems In their own way. In late years the ideal of the concert of Europe seems to be gaining in force. It appears to have been the end toward which Sir Edward Grey (now Viscount Grey) was working between 1905 and 1914, and it was adopted and transformed into a world concert by President Wilson in his speech of January 22, 1917. An attempt to formulate such a concert-perhaps in its modern form of the League to Enforce Peace-will probably be made at the close of the present war. In the past, the concert of Europe has been founded on the assumption by the six great powers of a right to adjust all question of European interest. The future success of the idea demands the inclusion of all nations on a basis of equality. See Permanent Peace.

Congress. The legislative branch of the United States National Government. It consists of a House of Representatives, now composed of 435 Members, apportioned among the States on the basis of population, and elected by districts for terms of two years; and a Senate of 2 Members from each State, now elected at large by popular vote for terms of six years, one-third of the Members being elected every second year. The House of Representatives elects its own Speaker; the Vice President is ex-officio the presiding officer of the Senate. Congress does not, likeo the British Parliament, have unlimited authority; but it has power to make laws on subjects enumerated in broad terms In the Constitution. - See Acts of Congress.

Congress, Implied Powers of. The enumeration of Congress's powers in Article I, section 8, of the Constitution, concludes with what has been called o' the sweeping clause": "Congress shall have the power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing power and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or officer there of." Interpreting this clause in the famous case of McCulloch v. Maryland, Chief Justice Marshall said: "This provision is made in a Constitution intended to endure for ages to come, and consequently to be adapted to the various crises of human affairs. . . . Let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the Constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and spirit of the Constitution, are constitutional." (4 Wheaton, 413, 420.) This interpretation has never been overruled. See Due Process of Law; Police Power; President; War Powers.

Congress of Berlin. Met under the presidency of Bismarck at Berlin in 1878 too settle questions which had arisen out of the Russian defeat of the Turks in the war of 1877-78. It had been the desire of Russia to erect a strong Slav State, Bulgaria, out of land taken from Turkey, leaving the latter little in Europe except Constantinople. But England opposed this plan from the fear of Russian control at Constantinople, and Austria, desiring Balkan land for herself and fearing a strong Russia, added her protest. Bismarck mediated between these two parties in such a way that Russian plans for Bulgaria were checkmated, while Austria secured a loose control of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Much of the land intended for Bulgaria was given back to Turkey, whose misgovernment there was destined to cause trouble in the future. Russia felt that Bismarck and Germany had left her in the lurch, and this contributed to break up the old Russo-German friendship and later led to the FrancoRussian alliance. See Balkan Wars; "Corridor"; Triple Entente.

"Conquest and Kultur" title of a pamphlet issued and distributed free by the Committee on Public Information, the nature of which is Indicated by the subtitle, "Aims of the Germans in their own words." In 16 sections it gives the German views and plans on the following topics: The Mission of Germany, World Power or Downfall, The Worship of Power, War as a Part of the Divine Order, War as the Sole Arbiter, Economic Necessity of Expansion, Germany the Ruler of Middle Europe, 13~xpansion to the Southeast, Subordination of France, Colonial Expansion, The Lost Teutonic Tribes, the Conquered, The Pan-German Party, Pan. Germanism and America, Pretexts for War, The Coming War, The Program of Annexations. A map In colors shows the PanGerman plan in Europe and Asia.

Conscription See Draft; Selective Service.

Constantine I (1868- ). Abdicated King of the Hellenes, 1913-1917. He married Sophia, sister of the German Emperor, and, partly because~ of her Influence, attempted to manipulate Greek policy (luring the war In the interest of Germany. On June 11, 1917, he was forced to abdicate by the protecting powers, Great Britain, France, and Russia, who justified their action on three facts: (1) Greece had been created a kingdom In 1830 through their intervention; (2) they had placed the present dynasty on the throne in 1863; (3) they had guaranteed a constitutional government. King Constantine had failed in his duty as a constitutional sovereign; he had twice dismissed M. Venezuelans as premier, although that statesman possessed the confidence of Parliament; he had Ignored the treaty of alliance with Serbia, which pledged Greece to support Serbia with all her military forces. In June, 1916, he allowed the Bulgarians, the hereditary enemies of Greece but the allies of Germany, to seize Fort Rupel and the port of Kavalla; in December he countenanced an ambush of French marines in Athens. After the Russian revolution, the protecting powers ordered the withdrawal of King Constantine and the crown prince. The new King, Alexander, second son of Constantine, invited M. Venlzelos to resume office and consented to the reassembling of the Parliament, Illegally dissolved in 1915. See ,Saloniki; Venizelos.

Constantinople. The strategic key to the commerce of Europe and Asia, the capital of Turkey, and, everything considered, the city with the but location in the world. Its population, 1,200,000 is about half Mohammedan; the other half Includes large numbers of races and religions-Europeans, Armenians, Catholics, Jews, Greek Christians, etc. When the disruption of Turkey began In the nineteenth'~ century Russia hoped to win Constantinople, for the bulk of her exports pass through the straits that It commands, and to transform the Black Sea into a Russian naval lake. But after the rise of the German Empire German diplomats perceived the importance of controlling Constantinople both In order to cut Russian communications with the Mediterranean and also to insure to Germany a clear road into Asia Minor, which would be of inestimable value from the economic point of view and which would threaten British domination in Egypt and India. In 1899 German capitalists began the Bagdad railway, which was to link Hamburg with the Persian Gulf, and developed an understanding with Turkey, reorganizing the Turkish army and exercising strict supervision over her political affairs. Her grip on Constantinople, thus secured, has tightened during the war, and so long as it lasts German predominance In the Near East is assured. In March, 1915, Great Britain and France gave their consent to a Russian possession of Constantinople at the conclusion of the war, but the Provisional Government of the Russian Republic has renounced this ambition. Many publicists favor an internationalization of the city. See "Berlin, to Bagdad"; "Corridor"; Turkey.

Constitution. The Constitution of the United States consisted, in its original form, of 7 articles, to which have since been added 17 articles of amendment. The first 3 articles deal, respectively, with the powers and organization of Congress, the presidency, and the national judiciary. Article V prescribes the _ various methods by which the Constitution may be amended. Article VI states the important principle of the supremacy of the _ National Government within its field over conflicting State powers. Of the amendments the first 10 ~re restrictive of the National Government, while the 14thii~nposes important limitations on State power. Of the two recently adopted amendments, the 16th authorizes an income tax and the 17th provides for the popular election of Senators. In contrast to the British constitution, our Constitution is written and Is not amendable by ordinary legislative processes. See items under Congress.

Continuous Transport, Doctrine of. A variant of the doctrine of continuous voyage, which is applicable in certain cases of contraband carriage. By it a belligerent is allowed to capture on the high seas or in enemy waters articles absolutely contraband which are in process of shipment by neutral traders to the enemy, even though such articles are bound immediately for a neutral port and in order to reach the enemy country would have to pass on the last stage of the journey through neutral territory.

Continuous Voyage, Doctrine of. A principle of maritime -, law developed by British prize courts during the Napoleonic _ wars and further extended by the United States courts during the Civil War. By the British-American practice a vessel intending a breach of blockade becomes liable to capture immediately upon leaving home waters whatever its immediate destination. During the Civil War British blockade runners sought to avoid some of the risks of capture by consigning their cargoes _ to British West Indian ports, notably Nassau, and then transporting them to blockaded ports of the South, the expectation being that the goods in question and the vessels carrying them would not be subject to capture on the first lap of the voyage. This expectation, however, was promptly defeated by the declaration of the American prize courts that In such cases the intermediate destinations was not the real destination, and that the voyage from British ports to southern ports was to be denied a continuous one. Recently the British embargo upon neutral trade with Germany has been founded upon an extension of these rules. Contraband. Goods of warlike use, neutral trade in which, with the enemy, may be intercepted by the belligerent either on the high seas or In enemy's waters and suitably It Is, or at least used to be, of two sorts-(1) absolute contraband, which comprises, generally speaking, articles of predominantly warlike use, such as munitions; and (2) conditional contraband, which includes articles of double use, like foodstuffs. The carriage of the former to the enemy country is attended by the risk of confiscation both of cargo and vessel; that of the latter, only when It is shown to be destined for the enemy forces or Government. The practical difficulty of distinguishing between the civil population of the great belligerents in the present war and their armed forces has rendered the distinction between the two kinds of contraband very precarious; and the science of chemistry has worked to the same end. ~I2hus raw cotton, which the Declaration of London listed in 1909 with articles never contraband, to-day furnishes the basis of the highest explosives, and has in consequence been declared absolutely contraband by Great Britain and France. See Declaration of London; Embargo, British; Freedom of the Seas.

Contributions. Article XLIX of The Hague Regulations says: "If, besides . . . taxes . . . the occupant levies other money contributions in the occupied territory, this shall only be for the needs of the army or of the administration of such territory." In December, 1870, a per capita assessment was levied by the Prussians upon the occupied portions of France in order to break the spirit of resistance of the people; and to-day in Belgium contributions have been assessed in violation of the above rule. During the first month of the war 710,000,000 francs of contributions had been assessed against Belgian and northern French towns. By Gen. von Bissing's order of December 10, 1914, a contribution of 480,000,000 francs was levied upon the nine occupied provinces of Belgium, to be paid in 12 monthly installments, and in November, 1915, the time during which this tribute was to run, was extended Indefinitely. Thus the annual tax burden of the Belgian people baa been nearly doubled, for of course the regular taxes are still collected-even from exiles, where this is possible. Furthermore, private bank deposits have been looted. In September, 1916, the Belgian Government formally protested at Washington against an enforced loan then being levied upon Belgian banks for 1,000,000,000 francs. The German White Book, entitled The Belgian People's War, contains an elaborate defense of German spoliations in Belgium which inferentially admits the principal charges. See Belgium; Pillage; German War Practices; Requisitions .

Convoy. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries certain of the continental nations sought to establish the doctrine that neutral merchantmen under the convoy of public vessels of their own nationality should be exempt from belligerent search, the commander of the convoy giving his word that the vessels in his charge were not engaged in forbidden trade. Great Britain has always resisted the doctrine and American opinion has been divided. The Declaration of London accepted it; but as that is not law, the question again rests on Its former footing. The German Imperial Government, in Its answer to our Government's protest against the German war-zone decree, recommended a convoy for American vessels entering the zone without contraband aboard, but naturally the suggestion was not accepted. See Declaration of London; Declaration of Paris; Freedom of the Seas; War Zones.

Copenhagen. The capital and chief port of Denmark, and a center for neutral trade with ~Germany. Population (1911), 559,398. It is one of the leading ports of the Baltic, but its commerce, like that of other neutral ports, has suffered severely as a result of the war. In 1913 there entered the port 12,021 steamships and 9,572 sailing vessels, but in 1916 this number had fallen to 8,604 steamships and 6,441 sailing vessels. the trade of the port is likely to be still further affected as a result of the entry of the United States into the war.

Copper. Copper has special importance because of Its use in munitions, and among the earliest measures of the war was the securing of a special price upon it for Government purchases. The greater part of the world's copper is produced in the United States. The output in 1916 broke all previous records, reaching 1,941,900.586 pounds, which was an increase of 307,696,138 pounds over the output of 1915 and of nearly 400,000,000 pounds over that of 1914. The figures for 1917 will show a marked increase over the high production of 1916. Exportation in all forms has increased enormously in the last year. The war demand did not appear sufficiently early in 1914 to affect exportation and, in fact, the exports were lower than in the preceding year. Exports were also low in 1915. For the fiscal year 1915-16 there were 711,342,146 pounds of copper (pigs, ingots, bars, etc.) exported, and in 1916-17 this figure Jumped to 1,021,501,398 pounds.

"Copperheads," Lincoln on. "Must I shoot a simpleminded boy who deserts, while I must not touch a hair of a wily agitator who induces him to desert?" President Lincoln asked. It will be remembered that lie also ordered Vallandigham, the leader of the Copperheads, to be sent South, instead of being shot. See Lincoln, Second Inaugural; Peace Terms, Lincoln's View of; War Powers, Lincoln on.

Corfu. An island in the Adriatic off the coast of Greece where the Serbian army was reorganized in 1915-16. The territory has been Venetian, British, and (since 1864) Greek. Its area Is 275 square miles and its population 99,571. Since 1915 it has been used by the allied forces as a station.

Corn. The corn crop of the United States for 1917 is estimated, on December 11, at 3,159,494,000 bushels, the acreage under corn being 119,755,000. The canners contracted for the yield of 221,238 acres, which is an increase over their demand in 1916. The general consumption of corn for 1917 has already greatly exceeded the average, being largely stimulated by governmental efforts to release wheat for exportation. The average price of corn per bushel for 1910 was 79 cents. The price has risen rapidly and continuously during 1917, having reached $1.75 on September 1. Corn exports for the fiscal year 1916-17 were 64,720,742 bushels, an overwhelmingly large proportion of this being sent to Great Britain and Canada. Illinois promises to lead the corn States with a yield of 420,189,000. Iowa is next with 417,346,000 bushels, and is followed by Missouri with 232,255,000, and Nebraska with 227,802,000.

"Corridor." A term much used by German writers to justify the taking for economic or political purposes of territory to which the conquering State has neither historical title nor claim. In November, 1912, during the Balkan Wars, Serbian troops marched across Albania to the Adriatic, in order to secure for their country a "window" on the sea. At one time Russia was suspected of desiring a strip of western Persia, which would give her access to the Persian Gulf. At present the Germans regard Serbia, ~which they have conquered, as their "corridor" to Constantinople, while their allies, the Bulgarians, proclaim that they must secure the northeastern corner of Serbia, or the valley of the Morava, as a link with Hungary. "Room; they must make room. The western and southern Slays-or we! Since we are the stronger, the choice will not be difficult. We must quit our modest waiting at the door." (Tannenberg, in Gross-Deutschland, 1911.) The demand advanced by the Pan-Germans for the retention of Be1~iuin rests on the theory that Germany can thereby obtain easier access to the Atlantic and a better chance to threaten British supremacy in the Channel. See "Berlin to Bagdad "; Pan-Germanism; "Place in the Sun. "

Cost of the War. The true cost of a war is the sum total of human energy past and present which is expended while it is being waged. By "past human energy" is meant especially the productive capital of the country, like ships, machinery, railroads, etc. When a nation has only sufficient energy to do the immediate fighting demanded by a war, and to produce the munitions, food, and clothing required by society during its continuance, depletion results. Moreover, the present war has been destructive directly of certain kinds of productive capital- ships, for instance. What, then, is the moral of these facts? It is economy and serviceable effort. A group of people can only be doing a certain number of things at the same time. Let those, then, be the right things, the things that tell. For that side will emerge victorious from the war which also emerges strongest and with its productive wealth least depleted. See "Bu8iness as Usual "; Economy; Luxury in War Time; "Pay a8 You Go" War; "Rich Man's War, Poor Man's Fights."

Cotton Supply. Cotton has become contraband because of its use in the manufacture of explosives. It is estimated. (December) that the American cotton crops 10,949,000 bales (of 478 pounds) in 1917. This is below the figures for 1916, when the yield was 11,363,915 bales, and Is distinctly below the average, which is 14,200,000 bales. The price of cotton for 1917 broke all records, reaching an average of 19.6 cents per pound. The price has risen during 1917, standing at 27.7 cents per pound on December 1. The world's consumption of cotton, which reached 21,011,000 bales in 1916, has been Increased by the extension of the war. The United States exported during the year ending June, 1917, 5,947,165 bales of raw cotton, the heaviest consumers being Great Britain, which took 2,793,388 bales, and France, which took 1,023,127 bales. Italy, Japan, and Spain have also purchased heavily.

Council of National Defense. In August, 1916, Congress established a Council of National Defense "for the coordination of industries and resources for the national security and welfare." The council proper consists of the six Secretaries of War, Navy, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor. The act also provided for an Advisory Commission to be nominated by the council and appointed by the President and for such subordinate bodies as the council saw fit to organize "for Its assistance in special investigations." The members of the Advisory Commission are:

Daniel Willard, chairman, Transportation and Communication; Howard E. Coffin, Munitions and Manufacturing (including standardization) and Industrial Relations; Julius Rosenwald, Supplies (including clothing), etc.; Bernard M. Baruch, Raw Materials, Minerals, and Metals; Dr. Hohlls Godfrey, Engineering and Education; Samuel Gompers, Labor, including conservation of health and welfare of workers; Dr. Franklin Martin, Medicine and Surgery, including general sanitation.

The Advisory Commission played an important role in mobilizing the industrial and professional energies of the country. Much of its work has now been absorbed by the War Industries Board or transferred to the Council of National Defense. For the subordinate agencies of the Council of National Defense, see Board of Inventions; Coal Production Committee; Commercial Economy Board; Engineering and Education Committee; Gas and Electric Service Committee; highways Transport Committee; Inland Waters Transportation Committee; Labor Committee; Medical Section; National Research Council; Shipping Committee; State Cooperation Section; Statistics Divison; Transportation and Co u ication Committee; War Industries Board;

Councils of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates. Such councils existed in several places in Russia in 1905 and were remembered when the present revolution came. The Petrograd Council was organized even before the Provisional Government was formed and asserted itself because workmen and the garrison of Petrograd bore the brunt of the few days of fighting during the first ~weeks of the revolution. The council's program for reorganizing the army was in large measure responsible for the breakdown of military discipline. The Petrograd Council was soon supplemented by delegates from other councils, and this enlarged council launched the campaign for the publication of treaties, and for a general peace at the earliest possible moment, thus forcing the resignation of Professor Milyukov, the Foreign Minister. Then an All Russian Congress of Councils of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates held a joint session to discuss vast and radical economic reforms. The proposals of this Congress, on the whole reasonable as a program for the future, greatly hampered the Provisional Government occupied with organizing the country for the prosecution of the war in the present. The Galician disasters showed the great danger of such a course, -'~~which was threatening to destroy the fruits of the revolution. The Congress adjourned In July, leaving a permanent executive committee, to which the Socialist ministers of the coalition cabinet were held responsible. The executive committee supported the Kerensky government until the Kornilov affair, when, under the influence of the Bolsheviki, it began to take a more radical line again. But the provisional council, which emerged from the democratic congress held the last days of September, tended to supersede the executive committees. The newly elected municipal governments were tending to replace the Councils of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates when the Bolshevik uprising of November, 1917, occurred. See Bolshevism; Kerensky; Lenine; Maximalists; Russian Revolution.

Courts-martial. Courts consisting of commissioned military or naval officers summoned to try offenses against the Articles of War, such as desertion, mutiny, etc. The jurisdiction of such courts may, in the United States, always be inquired into by civil courts, and a person held under their rules discharged if jurisdiction is wanting (137 U. S., 147). See Articles of War.

Croatia. A province of Hungary, to which is joined Slavonia. Area, 16,421 square miles; population, 2,602,544; capital, Agram or Zagreb. The people are Slav and hate their Magyar master~, for the autonomy granted In 1868 has received scant respect from the Hungarian Government. The local constitution was suppressed in 1912, nor have the 40 Croatian deputies who sit In the Budapest Parliament been able to ameliorate the lot of their people. Apparently the Croats would consider incorporation in a Greater Serbia. See Magyarization; Kingdom of the Serbs, Croatia, and Slovenes .

Cronholm, Mexican Adventures of. In a letter dated March 8, 1916, ~which has been made public by the State Department, the German minister to Mexico, Herr von Eckhart, wrote the German chancellor, asking him to reward Herr Folke Cronholm, the Swedish charge d'affaires in Mexico City, for his serviceability in Germany's behalf. "He is," the letter ran, "the only diplomat through whom information from the hostile camp can be obtained. Moreover, he acts as intermediary for official Intercourse between the legation and your excellency." Herr von Eckhart recommended, however, that Herr Cronholm's reward, which was to be some sort of decoration, be kept secret till the close of the war in order to avoid suspicion. See Mexico, German Intrigues in; Intrigue; "Spurlos Versenkt."

Cruiser. In general, a cruiser is a protected naval vessel which steams at a high rate of speed. She has sufficient space for stores and fuel to go great distances without having to visit port to take on supplies. There are battle cruisers, armored cruisers, and light cruisers, varying in the amount of ~ armor on their sides, the armament which they carry, their displacement, and their traveling speed.

Cuba. A republic in the West Indies on the island of the same name, with its capital at Havana. 'the area of the republic is 44,215 square miles, and an estimate made in 1914 gives the population as 2,471,531. The president is Gen. Mario Garcia Menocal. On April 7, 1917, Cuba entered the war against the Central Allies as a " duty to the United States on " an occasion like the present, in which the United States is defending tile principles of human liberty, of international justice and of honor, and the security of free and independent nations, which see their rights and most vital interests threatened," and as a measure of protection against the insurrection in Cuba inspired by German agents. She at once took over four large German steamers which were lying in her harbors, and on August 21, 1917, transferred them to the United States, declining all compensation. See Brazil; Guatemala; Panama.

Cuba, "Platt Amendment." The relations between the United States and Cuba are defined in an amendment to the Army act of 1901, offered by Senator 0. H. Platt, of Connecticut. This provided for the withdrawal of the American forces from Cuba so soon as a government was established in that island under a constitution stipulating (1) that Cuba was never to enter into any treaty tending to impair her independence or affording any foreign power lodgment within her territory; (2) that the public debt should be limited according to the ordinary revenue; and (3) that the United States should have the right to intervene "for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty." On June 12, 1901, the convention sitting at Havana embodied these provisions in the constitution then in process of being drawn up. In September, 1906, a reoccupation of the island took place In accordance with the third of the above ~ provisions, and continued till January, 1909. See Sphere of Influence; United States' Caribbean Interests; Virgin Islands.

"Cushing." An American steamer which was bombarded by a German aeroplane on April 28, 1915, while On its way to Rotterdam. No lives were lost, and the vessel was not sunk. In answer to our Government's protest the German Government stated that it was far from "the intention of ordering ~ attacks by submarines or flyers on neutral vessels in the zone which have not been guilty of any hostile act." It accordingly pleaded "mistake," due to lack of distinctive markings on the _ vessel, and recognized its pecuniary liability for the damage done.

Cuxhaven. The fortified port of Hamburg, situated at the mouth of the Elbe, directly opposite the west end of the Kiel Canal, and used in the present war as a German naval base. See Kid Canal.

Cyprus. An island in the eastern Mediterranean. Area, 3,584 square miles; population, 209,286. Formerly a possession of the Turks, it was acquired in 1878 by England, who felt it would be of service in defense of the Suez Canal and the road to India. These considerations have lost their strength since the British occupation of Egypt, and at the same time a movement has set in among the population, three-quarters of whom are Greek, for union with Greece. See Suez Canal. Czernin, Count V. zu Chudenitz (1857- ). Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs. He comes of an old Bohemian Czech family, entered the diplomatic service, and at the outbreak of war was Austrian minister to Roumania. When his attempts to prevent Roumania from entering the war proved futile, he returned to Austria and in December, 1916, was made Minister of Foreign Affairs and president of the Joint Council of Ministers. Of late his efforts have been directed to bringing about a peace based on no annexations and no indemnities, working in alliance with the Center party in Germany and its leader, Mathias Erzberger. He Is also the advocate of better treatment for the Slavic nationalities within the Empire. His projects have aroused the fear and hostility of the Pan-Germans, who claim that he is interfering with the scheme of Middle Europe. See Erzberger; "Mittel-Europa"; Pan - Germanism.