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"Falaba." A British steamer which was sunk by a German submarine on March 25, 1915, with resultant loss of 111 lives, some of them women, and one, Leon C. Thresher, the first American citizen to lose his life in consequence of German submarine warfare. The case was aggravated by the fact that the sinking occurred after the vessel had come to a full stop and the passengers and crew had had but 10 minutes to take to their boats. In justification the German Government alleged that the Falaba had at first attempted flight and had continued sending up rockets for aid after stopping. In answer, our government stated the rule that only "forcible resistance or continued efforts to escape" could legitimately forfeit the lives of those aboard a merchantman. The discussion of the case soon became merged with that of the Lusitania sinking.

Falkenhayn, Gen. Erich von (1861- ). German Minister of War at the opening of hostilities; on the resignation of von Moltke he was made chief of the General Staff. After the failure of the Verdun offensive and the successful beginning of the Anglo-French offensive on the Somme, he was deprived of this office and was placed In command of an army to cooperate with von Mackensen's Danube army In the Roumanian campaign of the autumn of 1910. Later he commanded German and Turkish forces in Asia. Von Falkenhayn has been regarded as belonging to the party of the Crown Prince, the extreme military party of the court.

Falkland Islands. A British colony composed of a group of Islands in the south Atlantic. Here the German fleet under von Spee was broken up by a British fleet December 8, 1914; the Dresden, which escaped, was destroyed on March 22, 1915.

Family Honor and Rights of Life and Property. Article XLVI of The Hague Regulations provides: "Family honor and rights, the lives of persons and private property, as well as religious convictions and practice, must be respected. Private property can not be confiscated." The evidence is overwhelming that the German soldiery, in the opening days of the war, outraged the elementary human rights recognized in this article, and that they were often encouraged to do so by their commanders, as part and parcel of the policy of "frightfulness." The following are~ extracts from the diaries of German soldiers of this period . "The inhabitants fled through the village. It was h e. Blood was plastered on all the houses, and as for the faces of the dead, they were hideous. They were all buried at once, to the number of 60. Among them were many old men and women, and one woman about to be delivered. . . . There were three children who had huddled close to one another and had died together." "We got into the property of a well-to-do inhabitant, by a breach effected In the rear, and we occupied the house. . . . There was the body of the owner on the floor. Inside our men destroyed everything, like vandals. . ... Outside, in the country, the sight of the villagers who had been shot defies all description. The volley had almost decapitated some of them." "There, as the Belgians had fired on German soldiers, we at once pillaged the goods station. . . . The safe was gutted and [its contents] divided among the men. All securities were torn up." (Bëdier, German Atrocities, pp. 7, 11, 21.) See Atrocities; "Frightfulness"; German War Practices; Noncombatants; War, German Ruthlessness.

Farm Loans. See Agricultural Credit.

Favoritism (alleged) to the Allies." The markets of this country are open upon equal terms to all the world, to every nation, belligerent or neutral. . . . If any American citizens feel that this administration is acting in a way injurious to the cause of [Germany and Austria-Hungary] . . . this feeling results from the fact that on the high seas the German and Austro-Hungarian power is thus far inferior to the British. It is the business of a belligerent operating on the high seas, not the duty of a neutral, to prevent contraband from reaching an enemy." (W. J. Bryan, Secretary of State, to Senator W. J. Stone, Jan. 20, 1915.) See Munitions Trade.

Federal Reserve Act. The Federal Reserve act, 1913, substituted for the national banking system a new banking structure which Provides (1) an elastic bank-note issue and (2) a combination of banking resources, thereby preventing the panics Inevitable under the defective provisions of the old law. It divides the country into 12 districts. In each district there is a Federal reserve bank whose capital is furnished by the "member banks," comprising all the national banks (and some of the State banks.) within the district. The primary function '~f the Federal reserve banks is to hold the reserves of the member banks and to Issue Federal reserve notes. Any member bank may deposit its commercial paper-notes and bills discounted for customers-and receive in exchange reserve notes. The essence of the system Is the consolidation of the country's banking resources In such a way that credit and currency will be available wherever and whenever needed. Under the successful operation of the act the Federal reserve banks are coming to hold the bulk of the country's gold in 12 centers, where it is utilized as a reserve for the Nation's credit and a bulwark against any crisis which the war may bring.

Federal Trade Commission. A commission of five members, appointed by the President for a term of seven years. It was created by Congress in 1914 to Increase the Government's supervision and control over corporations. Its powers extend to all corporations engaged in interstate commerce except banks and common carriers. Its special functions are to prevent unfair methods of competition and the formation of monopolies, to recommend the form of readjustment of business violating antitrust laws, to supervise compliance by corporations with court decrees, and in general to aid the Government in enforcing the Sherman Act, the Clayton Act, and other statutes governing corporations. The commission has wide powers to take testimony~ examine books, prescribe reports, and investigate the organization and operation of corporations and to compel corporations to desist from illegal practices, such as price discriminations, exclusive contracts, and illegal combinations. The war has given the powers of the commission added importance, since its investigations of the prices and costs of production of steel, coal, oil, and other necessities are fundamental In the determination of the prices which the Government will pay for munitions and supplies.

Ferdinand I (1861- ). Czar of Bulgaria. He was the younger son of the Prince of Saxe-Coburg, and in 1887 was elected by the Bulgarians to be their prince. During the next years his policy was aimed at two things- (1) to promote the well-being of Bulgaria, and (2) to create an army strong enough to make Bulgaria the leading State in the Balkans. In both of these aims he was highly successful; in 1912 Bulgaria was a prosperous State, and in the first Balkan war the Bulgarian army proved its worth. Acting under Austrian Inspiration he led his country into the second Balkan war (1913), in which Bulgaria suffered heavy losses, and in the attempt to recover these losses he brought Bulgaria into the present war on the side of the Central Powers in October, 1915. Wily, clever, and unscrupulous-he Is known as the "Balkan Fox "-he seems a little too clever, and the good of his policy before 1912 seems to have beeno almost undone by his subse4tleljt mistakes. See Balkan Wars.

Ferdinand I (1865- ). King of Roumania; succeeded his uncle Charles I on October 11, 1914. A member of the Catholic branch of the German Hohenzollerns. Unlike his predecessor, who aimed to keep on good terms with the Central Powers, Ferdinand I favored closer relations with Russia. Finland. A Grand Duchy belonging to the Russian Empire with a population of 3,231,995 (1913). It was obtained from Sweden In 1809 and granted a constitution which vested the grand ducal sovereignty in the Czar of Russia but preserved the autonomy of the state. Since 1899 the Russian Government- 1. e., the old Imperial Government-has sought to break down Finnish autonomy, and much friction has resulted, for the Finns are not a Slavic people and have developed a strong national feeling. Since the Russian revolution the Diet has proclaimed the independence of Finland, but the Russian Provisional Government insists that the question must be reserved for the decision of a constituent assembly representing all parts of Russia,

First Papers. See Declaration of Intention.

Fishing Craft, Immunity of. The Eleventh Hague Convention (concerning certain restrictions with regard to the exercise of the right of capture in naval war) provides in its third article as follows: "Vessels used exclusively for fishing along the coast or small boats employed In local trade are exempt from capture, as well as their appliances, rigging, tackle, and cargo." Germany has observed this regulation by sinking such vessels instead of capturing them. Norwegian, Dutch, and English fishermen have been slaughtered without mercy while engaged In their peaceful occupation.

Flag Day Address. President Wilson reviewed the causes forcing the United States Into the war in a speech on Flag Day, June 14, 1917. This speech, as well as his war message of April 2, 1917, has been published with notes and explanations by the Committee on Public Information, and may be obtained free from the committee at 10 Jackson Place, Washington, D.C.

Foch, Gen. Ferdinand (1851- ). Joint hero, with Joffre, of the battle of the Maine. Foch commanded' the French center and started the Germans on their retreat by a daring and impetuous attack. After the Maine he was In general command of the French and British armies that fought the battle of Ypres and saved the Channel ports. He was recently made the French military representative on the Supreme War Council of the Allies. Gen. Joffre styled him "the greatest strategist in France."

Food Administration, Woman's. A department of the woman's committee of the Council of National Defense which Works In cooperation with the United States Food Administration and serves as a channel through which Instructions and suggestions are transmitted from the United States Food Administration to the State divisions of the woman s committee.

Food and Fuel Control Act. Passed August 10, 1917. As applied to food control only, the law prohibits, with respect to necessaries, wasting, destroying, hoarding, limiting of production, restricting of supply or distribution, manipulating of supply, monopolizing, and exacting of excessive prices; requires 1iceńse~ of traders and dealers; permits the Government to seize hoarded supplies; and authorizes the President to requisition supplies for the Army and Navy; to buy and sell wheat, flour, meal, and beans; to requisition and operate any packing house or factory; to prevent injurious speculation and regulate the exchanges; and to purchase foods, fertilizers, and farm implements and sell them to producers. The President was authorized to choose such persons as he sees fit to carry out the purpose of the law. The object of the law is not to beat down food prices to an uneconomic level, but to protect both producer and consumer, the producer against speculation, manipulation, and unfair middlemen's contracts that would deprive him of a fair return, the consumer against artificial scarcity, speculative corners, monopoly prices, and the exactions of extortionate dealers. With this in view, the act guarantees to the producer of wheat a minimum pri'2e of $2 per bushel for the 1918 crop. See 1Vheat; Meat. As regards fuel control, the act authorizes the President, if in his discretion it is necessary for an efficient prosecution of the war, to fix the price of coal and coke, and to establish rules for the regulation of their production, distribution, and storage. If, in the opinion of the President, any producer or dealer fails to conform to such prices or regulations, he is authorized to requisition the plant, business, and appurtenances of the producer or dealer, and to operate them during the period of the war. See Fuel, Control.

Food Control Act, Enforcement. The act was immediately put into effect by U. C. Hoover as Food Administrator, and far reaching benefits have resulted. The effort to increase -food economy has taken the form of a systematic campaign to enlist every housewife in the movement to stop waste In the home, to prepare foods economically, and to adopt simpler and more wholesome daily menus. Wide publicity has been given the movement, Government literature on food use has been widely distributed, and the cooperation of influential organizations of women has been secured. Dealing in futures on the grain exchanges has been suspended through voluntary regulation and grain elevators and flour mills have been brought under the control of the Government and transactions by irregular dealers have been forbidden. A committee of 12 representatives of the public and the producers, headed by 'H. A. Garfield, has Bet the price of the 1917 crop of wheat at $2.20 per bushel. These measures have been aided by the President's taking over the absolute control of all exports of food, thereby preventing the export of food to neutral countries for eventual enemy consumption. In August the Food Administration Grain Corporation, with its $50,000,000 of stock owned by the Government, was organized to buy and sell wheat and rye, and the Government is in a position to take over the entire grain crop of 1917. Finally, under the President's proclamation of October' 8, about 20 important and inclusive classes of foods have been: brought under Federal control and virtually the whole machinery~ of their manufacture and distribution made answerable to Federal pressure. All food brokers, commission men, wholesalers, jobbers, warehousemen, importers, and grain-elevator men not: previously licensed are required to take out licenses, In most, cases without reference to the size of their business. Manufacturers of these foods must be licensed, and only those meat, packers, canners, millers, egg packers, ginners, etc., who do a. very small business are exempt. All retailers whose gross sales of food exceed $100,000 yearly are licensed. In practical operation the plan will affect smaller retailers also, for it Is explicitly provided by Mr. Hoover that no licensee shall "knowingly sell, any food commodity to any person who shall, after this regulation goes Into effect, violate the provisions" of the food control act. "The benefits the public has reaped from national control~ over wheat and sugar," says the Nation, "are patent"; and It continues: "With licensing, voluntary agreement, and cooperation given immensely broader scope, we may hope for substantial reductions in some foods and for full protection against any reflection in extortionate prices of a shortage in others." See: Price Fixing in Australia.

Food Control, Constitutionality. Even in time of peace businesses "affected with a public interest" are subject to regulation as to the prices they may exact for their services. Nor is there any hard and fast line separating such businesses from' all others. Said the Supreme Court recently, in reviewing its own decisions on this point: "They demonstrate that a business, by circumstances and' its nature, may rise from private to be a public concern, and be subject, in consequence, to governmental regulations" (233 U. S., 389, 411). And as Justice Hughes has put it: "The extraordinary circumstances of war: may bring particular businesses and enterprises clearly into the' category of those which are affected with a public interest and which demand immediate and thoroughgoing public regulation." Such regulations must, of course, be reasonable; that is, they must be reasonably calculated to promote the carrying on of the war. In short they must be "necessary and proper" in the broad sense which the Supreme Court has given to that term. See Civil, Rights; Congress, Implied Powers of; Due Process of Law.

Food Economy Campaigns. The Food Administrator directed his Federal food commissioners in the States to begin on October 28, 1917, a second campaign for the enrollment of women for food conservation through the pledge-card system. This new campaign was to supplement the earlier campaign for the enrollment of women, which was undertaken by the State councils of defense, working. primarily through State divisions of the woman's committee of the Council of National Defense, and which was terminated on September 5. The first campaign was as successful as the circumstances allowed, but a large number of women were not touched thereby. The energetic prosecution of the campaigns and the cooperation of hotels and restaurants In making practically universal k "meatless" and a "wheat less day each week will go far to effect the saving of food necessary to win the war. Enlistment in these campaigns and steady observance of the directions of those in command of the conservation and mobilization of the Nation's food supply are absolutely vital to the winning of the war. It is still true that, as in Napoleon's day, "armies travel on their stomach," only to-day war has made the army coextensive with the nation. Italy can not fight, France can not fight, England can not fight, America can not fight, unless the nation behind the army is fed and kept up to working pitch. Our normal quantity of exports will not keep our associates on the battle line until our armies come. We must send more. This can only be done by saving from consumption. The man who buys because he has money and wastes because he can afford to is helping the enemy. Everyone must save by reducing our excessive wasteful consumption as a Nation. Otherwise the war may be lost before we have fought a battle. Enlist in the food campaign and then obey orders like a good' soldier. "Sacrifice and service must come from every class, every profession, every party, every race, every creed, every section. This is not a banker's war or a farmer's war or a manufacturer's war or a laboring man's war-it is a war for every straight-out American whether our flag be his by birth or by adoption. We are to-day a Nation in arms and we must fight and farm, mine and manufacture, conserve food and fuel, save and spend to the one common purpose." (President Wilson to Northwestern loyalty meeting, Nov. 17, 1917.)

Food Economy Will Aid France. The tremendous significance of the food-conservation campaign in America Is emphasized by the following statement of the United States Food Administration (Nov. 19, 1917) : "Using the production of 1913 as a basis, the 1917 wheat crop of France is short 53.3 per cent, or 176,000,000 bushels; the potato crop is short 33.1 per cent, or 165,000,000 bushels; the sugar-beet crop is short 67.9 per cent, or 148,000,000 bushels; the number of cattle has declined 16.5 per cent, or 2,435,000 head; the number of sheep has declined 36.6 per cent, or 5,535,000 head; the number of hogs has been lessened 40.2 per cent, or 2,825,000 head."

Food Production and Home Economics. A department of the Woman's Committee of the Council of National Defense which cooperates directly with the United States Department of Agriculture and through Its State divisions with the State agricultural colleges. The cooperation is chiefly by means of the agricultural and home-economics service, the director of which is located at the State agricultural college. The work is closely connected with food production, conservation, and canning, and home demonstration clubs.

Forbidden Methods of Warfare, German View. Article XXII of The Hague Regulations reads: "The right of belligerents to adopt means of injuring the enemy is not unlimited." To this the German War Book answers: "What is permissible includes every means of war, without which the object of the war can not be obtained. . . . All means which modern Invention affords, including the most dangerous and most massive means of destruction, may be utilized." Furthermore, "bribery of enemies' subjects, acceptance of offers of treachery, utilization of discontented elements in the population, support of pretenders and the like are permissible; indeed, international law Is in no way opposed to the exploitation of the crimes of third parties." (Morgan's translation, p. 85.) Clearly, Germany's crimes In the present war do not lack on the side of cold, deliberate intent. See "Frightfulness"; "Kriegs-Rai'son"; "Notwendigkeit"; War, German Ruthlessness.

Forbidden Weapons. Article XXIII of The Hague Regulations contains the following provision: "It is especially forbidden . . . to employ arms, projectiles, or material calculated to cause unnecessary suffering." Nevertheless Germany early In the present war introduced poison gas and liquid flame projectors. See Gas Warfare; Roumania, German Treachery in.

Forced Labor. See Belgium, Deportation's; Military Information; Military's Operations; Requisitions.

Foreign Exchange. This is the rate at which sums of owed in one country may be paid in another. It is determined by the relative nominal value of the standard coins' of the countries and by the special conditions locally affecting them, such as balance of trade, inflation, redemption. The rates of foreign exchange in September, 1917, were as follows:

Foreign Language Press. See Press.

Foreign Legion. A very-known name in the military history of France. The French army, which established' Maximilian on a throne In Mexico, had its Foreign Legion. The legion has seen much service in Morocco, and some of its peculiar methods are the result of this. In the present war it is a body of men drawn from every quarter of the globe, who, in love of military glory and with sympathy for the Ideals which the Allies are holding before them, have volunteered their services to France. These "soldiers of fortune," from our mountains and plains, from the Canadian northwest, from the Australian bush, from Africa, the South American States, and every corner of Europe, have performed the most daring feats on the battle front, in Flanders and France, since the beginning of the war. Their deeds and achievements will form material for song and story for generations to come. See Lafayette Escadrille.

"Four Minute" Men. A nation-wide organization of volunteer speakers who make brief addresses in motion-picture theaters under Government authority. There are now (November, 1917) over 15,000 "Four minute Men," and-the organization Is growing rapidly. They speak on subjects assigned from week' to week by headquarters, which is at 10 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. In a letter dated November 9, 1917, President Wilson said: "May I not express my very real interest in the vigorous and Intelligent ~work your organization is doing in connection with the Committee on Public Information? It is surely a matter worthy of sincere appreciation that a body of thoughtful citizens, with the hearty cooperation of the managers of moving-picture theaters, are engaged in the presentation and discussion of the purposes and measures of these critical days. Men and nations are at their worst or at their best in any great struggle. The spoken word may light the fires of passion and unreason or it may inspire to highest action and noblest sacrifice a nation of freemen. Upon you Four-Minute Men, who are charged with a special duty and enjoy a special privilege in the command of your audiences, will rest in a considerable degree the task of arousing and informing the great body of our people so that when the record of these days is complete we shall read page for page with the deeds of army and navy the story of the unity, the spirit of sacrifice, the unceasing labors, the high courage of the men and women at home who held unbroken the -inner lines. My best wishes and continuing Interest are with you in your work as part of the reserve officers corps in a nation thrice armed because through your efforts It knows better -the justice of Its cause*and the vein.- of -what -it defends." See Committee on Political Information.

France. The present French Republic was proclaimed on September 4, 1870. A century earlier, however, France espouse~ the cause of democracy. She was the friend and ally' of N~ -United States in the struggle for independence, and in her own great revolution abolished what was Left of feudalism and gave Europe that charter of free government-the Declaration of the Rights of Man. The first French Republic was established in 1792, but it was unable to maintain itself against the reactionary forces of the age. After the overthrow of Napoleon, however, progress toward complete control of the Government has been fairly consistent. France stands to-day one of the most democratic nations of the world, fighting under great disadvantages for her existence. At the very beginning of the war the Germans seized the territory of northeastern France, in which are located not only about 90 per cent of her coal and iron, but also her most productive industries. France has an area of 207,129 square miles, with a population in 1911 of 39,607,509. The capital, Paris, had 2,888,110. The Government consists of A Senate and Chamber of Deputies, elected by the people, and a President chosen for seven years by the houses sitting jointly. K. Polncare has been President since 1913. As a partner of Russia In the dual alliance, which later expanded into the Triple Entente, she became involved in the great war at the very beginning. To her reply that she would stand by her agreements Germany responded by a declaration of war on August 3. 1914.

Francis Joseph (1830-1916). The late Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. He came to the throne on December 2, 1848, when the polyglot lands of the Hapsburg monarchy were on the point of dissolution: His task during his entire reign was essentially dynastic, the ho1diu4~4ogether of his dominions. Under his rule the Austrian Province in Italy, except Trentino and Trieste, were lost to the new Kingdom of Italy (1859-1866) and Austrian influence in Germany was by Prussia in the war of 1866. But in his task of holding together the Austrian dominions proper he secured a relative success. Hungary was pacified by the agreement of 1867, which granted autonomy in local matters and an equal share in the government of the monarchy. The other races were played off against each other, and a kind of unstable equilibrium preserved. Opinions differ as to the native ability of Francis Joseph, but It would at least appear that long study of men had given him great fitness in dealing with the peculiar problems of Austria-Hungary. But viewed largely, the reign was disastrous. His alliance with Germany In 1879, extended in 1882 Into the Triple Alliance, while restoring somewhat the prestige of Austria, brought her more and more under the influence of Berlin. With German approval, Francis Joseph sought to extend his influence In the Balkans, and allowed himself to become the instrument of German aggression in 1914. But on his death, after two years of war, Austria had fallen largely under German control and become the subordinate partner in the German scheme for the domination of central Europe. His private life was a pilgrimage of sorrow. His wife was murdered by an anarchist, his son perished in an obscure affair, and lastly his nephew and heir was~ murdered at Serajevo in 1914. See Austria-Hungary; Serajevo.

Franco-German Rivalry. The cause of the rivalry between France and Germany may be summed up under two heads: (1)the causes arising out of the war of 1870-71, the irritation by the stupid misgovernment of Alsace Lorraine by the desire to recover these lost provinces; (2) the clash of the French colonial expansion in Africa, which although at first aided by -Germany In a desire to distract French attention from AlsaceLorraine, was in later years opposed and hampered by Germany in a desire to secure, if possible, part of this territory for Itself. The manifesto of the German professors (June, 1915) demands that "for the sake of our own existence we must ruthlessly weaken her [France] both politically and economically, and must improve our military and strategically position with regard to her. For this purpose in our opinion it is necessary radically to improve our whole western front from Belfort to the coast. Part of the north French Channel coast we must acquire, if possible, in order to be strategically sager as regards England and to secure better access to the ocean." The commercial and trade expansion of Germany does not seem to have aroused hostility in France, although there was a growing feeling that some measures should be taken against the permeation of France by German commercial agents, who, according to~ German law, could be naturalized in France and still keep their German citizenship. See Alsace-Lorraine; Belgium~ Economic Destruction; Morocco.

Francs Tireurs. Bodies of French irregulars, or guerrillas, who, during the Franco-Prussian War, acted independently of military command and were distinguished as regards dress only by a blue blouse, a badge, and sometimes a cap. The Prussians refused to consider them legitimate combatants, laying down the impossible and absurd requirements, first, that every prisoner of war should prove himself a French soldier by showing that he had been borne in the lists of a military corps and had been called out by an order emanating from legal authority and addressed to him personally; and, secondly, that such prisoner should have worn an emblem or distinctive mark clearly distinguishable at rifle distance. For the status of francs Tireurs to-day, see Combatants; Levies en Masse; Fryatt.

Freedom of the Press. The first amendment to the Constitution forbids Congress to make any law "abridging the freedom of speech or of the press." Laws directly regulative of the press may take either of two forms: They may establish a censorship in advance of publications or they may penalize certain kinds of publications. Congress may establish a censorship of the press in war time if circumstances render such a measure "necessary and proper." For Congress has the power to pass all laws that are "necessary and proper to prosecute successfully a war which it has declared; and the subjection of the press to the powers given Congress by the Constitution can hardly be said to abridge the freedom, there recognized, Also,, of gross may penalize publications which are calculated sedition, to obstruct the carrying out of the laws, er. te "give aid and comfort to the enemy" (which Is treason). Freedom of -the press in war time rests, therefore, largely with the discretion of Congress. The considerations which should weigh with It in exercising this discretion are, moreover, fairly clear. Ours is a "government by discussion." Yet discussion has for Its objective a decision, and when the majority has registered Its decision in accordance with the forms prescribed by the Constitution and the laws it has a right to act thereon. As Elihu Root said recently in Chicago: "A democracy which can not accept its own decisions, made in accordance with its own laws, but must keep on endlessly discussing the question already decided, has failed in the fundamental requirements of self-government; and if the decision is to make war, the failure to exhibit capacity for self-government by action will inevitably result In the loss of the right of self-government." In meeting the problems raised by war, government has frequently to take rather stringent measures. But it seems extremely unlikely, to say the least, that any widespread conviction of the American people could long be denied effective expression. Certainly this has never happened so far. See Mails, Exclusion from.

Freedom of the Seas. The doctrine of "freedom of the seas" was first propounded by Grotlus in his Mare Liberum, which took for its text the sentence from the Roman Institutes, "The air, running water, the sea-are common to all." Selden answered' with his Mare Clausum, which defended the pretensions of England over the waters surrounding the British Isles. The issue between Grotius and Selden may be regarded as settled by the present doctrine regarding the marine league, 1. e., that the jurisdiction of a State extends three miles beyond the coast line, and no farther. The next stage in the development of this concept took place in the eighteenth century, when continental antagonism to British sea power produced the doctrine that "free ships make free goods." This doctrine was backed by the armed neutralities of 1780 and 1800, and was finally incorporated, In great part, Into international law by the Declaration of Paris, 1856, which also abolished privateerlng. Meantime a third meaning had come to be fastened to "freedom of the seas," the idea that private property should be immune from capture on the high seas in war time unless It was contraband was intended for a blockaded port. Of this notion the United States has always been the peculiar champion, the last time being at the second Hague conference, where our views were backed by Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy, and opposed by Great Britain, France, Russia, and Japan. But see the following articles; also Declaration of London; Marine League; Navalism.

Freedom of the Seas, American. "So far as practicable every great people should be assured a direct outlet to the great highways of the seas. Where this can not be done by the cession of territory, It can no doubt be done by the neutralization of direct rights of way under the general guarantee which will assure the peace of itself. . . . And the paths of the sea must alike in law and in fact be free. The freedom of the seas is the sine qua non of peace, equality, and cooperation. . - . It Is a problem closely connected with the limitation of naval armaments and the cooperation of the navies of the world in keeping the seas at once free and safe. And the question of limiting naval armaments opens the wider and perhaps more difficult question of the limitation of armies and of all programs of military preparation. . . . There can be no sense of safety and equality if great preponderating armaments are henceforth to continue here and there to be built up and maintained." (President Wilson, to the Senate, Jan. 22, 1917.)

Freedom of the Seas, British. In the course of the nineteenth century, Great Britain has made notable concessions to this idea. She has abandoned nonbelligerent visit and search; she has sacrificed the old doctrine of indelible allegiance- "Once an Englishman, always an Englishman "-which sup- ported her earlier policy of impressment; she has accepted the principle of "free ships, free goods"; she has placed her commercial policy on a~ free-trade basis; she claims, for the most part, no special advantage in the ports of her colonies. Again, it was she who issued the invitations for the London naval conference of 1908-09, her delegates to which pursued a course of action which forbids the Idea that she then designed an offensive use of her sea power. During the present war, England has widely extended the belligerent rights of blockade; but this is in retaliation for Germany's inhuman use of the submarine. In general, England's position may be stated in this way: Being so near the Continent she can not afford to regard the problem of sea power as separable from the problem of Land power. To decrease the striking power of her navy without a corresponding Limitation of the huge standing armies of the Continent would be merely to surrender continental independence-and ultimately her own-to the most powerful and ruthless State. See Navalism.

Freedom of the Seas, German. Germany has sought to represent herself in the present war as the champion of "freedom of the seas." Her contention is that England's naval supremacy enables her always to hold over the head of a rival -the threat of wiping out its overseas trade. Germany's effort has consequently been, according to her spokesman, to establish a balance of power on the seas similar to that which exists on land. Unfortunately, the net result of her effort before the war was to stimulate among the principal nations of the ~vor1d, a most expensive and wasteful contest in the building of war vessels, while since the outbreak of the war her endeavor to hold her own against England on the water has led to the grossest inhumanity on her part, and to general anarchy on the ocean. The concept of a balance of power at sea is, in fact, unworkable. On the land, power is attended by the responsibility for good order over definite areas; but the sea can not 'be' thus appropriated. The only sensible alternative to B1"ittslf seas, which after all has been for a hundred years a benign control, is internationalization of the seas. See: Lusitania; Submarine Warfare.

Freedom of the Seas, German View Illustrated. The German ambassador, whose country professes to be fighting for the "freedom of the seas," informed the State Department on January 31, 1917, that American passenger steamers would be permitted to continue sailings to England thereafter on the following conditions: "(a) The port of destination is Falmouth. (b) Sailing to or coming from that port, course to be taken via the Scilly Islands and a point 500 N. to 20" W. (c) The steamers are marked in the following way, which must not be allowed other vessels in American ports: On ship's hull and superstructure three vertical stripes, 1 meter wide, each to be painted alternately white and red. Each mast should show a large flag checkered white and red and the stern the American national flag. Care should be taken that, during dark, national flag and painted marks are easily recognizable from a distance, and that the boats are well lighted throughout. (4) One steamer a week sails in each direction with arrival at Falmouth on Wednesday. (e) The United States Government guarantees that no contraband (according to German contraband list) is carried by those steamers." See also "spurlos Versenkt"; War Zone, German.

Freedom of Speech. See Freedom of the Press.

"Free Ships, Free Goods." The doctrine that all no contraband goods on board a neutral vessel should he considered exempt from belligerent capture was originally brought forward in the seventeenth century by the Dutch, who were the great carriers of Europe. oTo-day It is embodied In. the Declaration of Paris (1856). See Declaration of Paris; contraband.

French, Field Marshal Viscount (1852- ). Sir John~, now Viscount French, commanded with skill the British expeditionary force in Belgium and France from the outbreak of the war until he was replaced in 1915 by Sir Douglas Haig. He was chief of the imperial general staff in 1912-14. He commanded the cavalry division in the South African War, when his name came to be widely known. His title is Viscount French of Ypres, In testimony of his services in that battle by which the Germans were frustrated in their design to reach Calais. "Frightfulness." The name given to the German method of warfare whereby they make war terrible in the hope of winning victory through fear. The German word is Schrecklichkeit. As applied by the German military caste it does not mean the occasional and Incidental horrors attached to warfare, but deliberate, systematic, and calculated terror conceived and ordered for the purpose of striking mortal fear into the hearts of foemen It seems to have been first applied by the Germans In Belgium in the early days of the war when the German army lay between the French and English on the south and the Belgian forces on the north with a hostile population intermingled. Out of all the confused and contradictory stories of those days has come the clear proof that the German military authorities, unwilling to face like men the dangers of the situation they had themselves created, with studied design shot and hanged hundreds of Belgians, those innocent of all offense as well as those who had threatened or Injured German soldiers. Towns were leveled to the ground, wide districts were laid waste, on the plea that German soldiers were being shot by snipers. An example will illustrate: "In the night of August 18-19 [1914] the village of Saint-Maurice was punished for having fired on German soldiers by being burnt to the ground by the German troops. . - . The village was surrounded, men posted about a yard from one another, so that no one could get out. Then the Uhlans set fire to nor child could escape; off, as that could be used. Anyone' who ventured to shot down. All the inhabitants left in the village were burl 1tt~k the houses" (From the diary of Private Karl Scheufele, of the Third Bavarian Regiment of Landwehr Infantry.) See Family Honor; Forbidden Methods of Warfare, German View; German ~War Code; German War Practices; "Kriegs-Raison"; "Not-wendigkeit"; War, German Ruthlessness.

Fryatt, Capt., Execution of. On June 23, 1916, the British steamship Brussels, Capt. Fryatt, was captured by German war-ships. On July 27 Capt. Fryatt was condemned to death by a German court-martial at Bruges, and shot the same day, for ~ having attempted on March 20, 1915, to ram the German sub- marine U-33. The German Government has sought to justify its action on this occasion by asserting that the U-boat in question was merely signaling the Brussels to stop, and that "there-fore Capt. Fryatt did not merely attempt to save the lives of his crew, because they were not endangered." It has also made much of the fact that Fryatt was rewarded by the British Government for his action. The latter circumstance seems scarcely in point, and what would have happened to the Brussels -had it heeded U-33's signal to stop Is hardly matter for con jecture. Capt. Fryatt was entirely within his rights, and his execution as a franc tireur was an outrage upon law and humanity, for, as a distinguished German authority on international law has written: "The enemy merchant ship has . . . the right ~ of self-defense against enemy attack, and this right it can exercise against visit; for this is indeed the first act of capture Another aspect of the case brought out by Ambassador Gerard in his recent volume (My Four Years in Germany, 1917) is also instructive. When he learned that Fryatt had been sent to Binges for trial Mr. Gerard sent two formal notes to the German Foreign Office demanding the right to see ~ him and employ counsel for him. The Foreign Office, Mr. Gerard narrates, "informed me that they had backed up these requests and I believe them, but the answer of the German Admiralty to my notes was to cause the trial to proceed the morning after . and to shoot Fryatt before noon of the same day." See Cavell, Edith.

"Frye, William P.', An American vessel, sunk, In defiance of treaties and law, by the German raider Prinz Eitel Friedrich January 28, 1915, while carrying a cargo of wheat to the British Isles. The United States Government promptly protested against the sinking, urging that it was in violation of the treaties of 1799 and 1828 with Prussia, and presented a claim for the value of the ship. The German Government ~ acknowledged its liability under the treaties, but contended that ~ the sinking of the ship was legal if its value in money was paid. An agreement was finally reached, providing that the question whether there had been a violation of international law should be referred for decision to The Hague tribunal. In the course of the correspondence the German Government ~ agreed that while the arbitration was pending (1) It would not ~ sink American vessels unless loaded with "absolute contraband"; also (2) that when vessels were sunk, "all possible care must be taken for the security of the crew and passengers"; and (3) that "the persons found on board of a vessel may not be ordered into her lifeboats except when the general conditions-that is to say, the condition of the sea-and the neighborhood of the coasts afford absolute certainty that the boats will reach the nearest port." This agreement was repudiated by Germany January 81, 1917, and became another "scrap of paper" torn up when it suited German convenience. See Prussian Treaties; "Sussex" Pled ge. Fuel Administrator. Under the food and fuel act of August 10, 1917, Harry A. Garfield, president of Williams College, was appointed Fuel Administrator on August 23, to exercise the powers conferred by the act upon the President. He is assisted by J. P. White, formerly president of the United Mine Workers of America. See Coal; Food and Fuel Control Act. -

Fuel Control. Homes, cities, factories, ships, and cantonments in the United States must have coal. Canada, Cuba, South America, and some of our associates look to the United States for coal. To solve the many problems of fuel control (including fuel oil and natural gases) President H. A. Garfield, of Williams College, was on August 23 appointed Fuel Administrator of the United States under the terms of the food and fuel control act (" Lever Act") of August 10, 1917. The fuel question has three parts: Production, distribution, and conservation. Prices must be considered in all three of those parts. The Fuel Administrator is undertaking to bring production up to the highest possible level, and the bureau of fuel conservation acting under him is trying to cut down fuel consumption. Specifically, production is being increased by the following: (1) Sending an appeal to all mine owners and miners to use every effort to help the Nation In this time of need. (2) Giving a considerable Increase in pay per ton to the workers of the mines. On October 6 an agreement was reached which will result in an increase to miners of 50 per cent, and to the best-paid laborers of 78 per cent, over the wages of April 1, 1914. To reduce the number of idle days to a minimum a penalty of $1 per day for the period of strikes is imposed on employees, and employers are required to pay $1 per day fine for each worker if a lockout occurs. It is estimated that if all the miners in the country were working eight hours per day five days a week there would be no coal shortage even in view of the unusual needs of the country. (3) Supplying the mines with cars enough to take up the production. (4) Fixing a selling price for coal at mines which is high enough to stimulate production. (5) Directing the attention of operators of mines to section 25 of the food and fuel control act, which authorizes the Government to requisition and operate plants if necessary. Fuel consumption is being reduced by (1) an appeal to every citizen to. use a minimum of coal and light made from coal (electricity and gas); (2) limiting the number of hours during which electric signs may burn; (3) introducing coal-saving devices Into factories-possible only in a limited way-and educating firemen and householders to fire with less coal. House-holders should read "Saving Fuel in Heating a House," pamphlet No. 97 of the Bureau of Mines, Washington, D. C. To control distribution .the administrator has to know how much, when, and where fuel is needed. To collect this information he has appointed in every State or group of States a fuel administrator. An estimate is made of the needs of each State over and above its present supply on hand. The amount still to be provided is determined and an account opened with the State administrator. He can draw on the stock allotted him as he determines the need, but he must not overdraw his year's allowance. The State administrator appoints county and city committees to keep him Informed concerning local needs and supplies. State agents have not been chosen from men financially interested in coal, but are, in the main, business men from other fields. They are appointed without political reference and in many cases serve without pay, though with a paid clerical staff. All the New England States are administered from one central office, but there is a separate fuel administrator for each of the other States. The task of distribution is complicated by the fact that much of the coal now being mined or In bunkers is under contract. This means that Insistent needs can be supplied only from coal produced but not under contract. All coal operators, producing and jobbing companies, or sales agents are required to report the extent of contracts and production or receipt of coal. By this means free or "subcontracted coal" can be located and be made subject to the orders of the Fuel Administrator for distribution on request of the State administrator. Figures given out by the Fuel Administrator on November 15 Indicate a fuel shortage of 50,000,000 tons for 1917. Of the measures to be taken to meet this situation Dr. Garfield said: "The fuel administration is determined that war industries, public utilities, and-domestic consumers shall be supplied. To this end the fuel. administration expects the cooperation of every coal user in the country. The fuel administration will use all of Its authority to prevent the waste of fuel and the unnecessary use of coal. Domestic users will be urged to conserve their supplies. Wherever the unnecessary use of coal in industry threatens to embarrass war industry the fuel administration will see that the war needs are filled. All activities which are unnecessary to the maintenance of the military or economic efficiency will have to give way by curtailment to the necessities of war, and this must be accomplished without undue curtailment of the domestic supply. This policy is expected to relieve not only the demand for coal but a part of the enormous pressure on the transportation facilities of the country." See Coal Supply; Food and Fuel Control~ Act; Priority Act.