War Cyclopedia - S
Sabotage, German Promotion of. Sabotage is a French
word, much used of late to describe willful and underhanded destruction of machinery, etc., by workmen. It is a method of "Industrial warfare" which is much encouraged by the less reputable leaders of the Industrial Workers of the World. Telegraphic exchanges between the German Foreign Office and Count von Bernstorff in January, 1916, which were made public by the State Department on October 9, 1917, show that von Bernstorff was under orders to promote sabotage in the United States. One telegram says: "General staff desires energetic action in regard to proposed destruction of Canadian Pacific railway at several points." A second telegram (dated Jan. 26, 1916) contains the following: "In the United States sabotage can be carried out in every kind of factory for supplying munitions of war. Railway embankments and bridges must not be touched. Embassy must in no circumstances be compromised." The telegrams named several Americans as suitable for assisting in this work: Joseph McGarrity, of Philadelphia; John P. Keatlng, of Chicago; and Jeremiah O'Leary, of New York. See Dumba, Recall of; German Diplomacy; German Intrigue, Tools.
Salandra, Antonio (1853- ). Ex-Premier of Italy.
He has been professor of law at the University of Rome, and minister in several Italian cabinets. In March, 1914, he became Premier. At the outbreak of the European war he refused to follow Germany and Austria, claiming that the Triple Alliance had been broken by Austria. From this position he progressed more and more toward hostility to Austria and alliance with the Triple Entente, and, despite the opposition of Giolitti, he carried through his policy and Italy declared war on Austria in May, 1915. He resigned as Premier in June, 1916.
Saloniki. Saloniki, the Thessalonica of the New Testament, is a most important Greek port on the Gulf of Saloniki, which has been used as an Allied base and port of entry since October, 1915. The Allied troops were landed in Saloniki to assist Serbia, a duty to which Greece was bound by treaty but which Constantine ignored. M. Venizelos, the Greek Premier, at ~ hose invitation they had come, made a protest pro forma, as required by the Greek constitution; this gave King Constantine a chance to dismiss M. Venizelos, and henceforth direct Greek policy in the interest of Germany. From Saloniki the opera. tlons in Macedonia were conducted in the fall and winter of 1916 and in 1917. See Macedonia.
Samoa. An Island colony of Germany in the Pacific, in a group in which Great Britain and the United States also hold Islands. German Samoa was taken by a New Zealand force August 29, 1914.
Saving. See Economy.
Sazonov, Count Sergius. Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1910-1916. At the beginning of his ministry Sazonov made with Berlin the so-called Potsdam agreement, withdrawing Russian opposition to the building of the Bagdad railway, and was therefore regarded for some time as the friend of Germany. On the other hand, he took a principal part in the formation of the Balkan Alliance, and placed Russia firmly across the path of Austrian ambitions in Serbia. He had been, in his earlier, career, for 12 years first secretary and charge d'affaires in the Russian embassy in London. Through the mid-die and latter part of his ministry he was known as a~ strong friend of England and of France. In his own country his patriotism and comparative liberalism were trusted at times when Premier Stolypin, his brother-in-law, and the succeeding premier, Stllrmer, were suspected of pro-Germanism. Hence his forced resignation of the foreign office to Stflrmer, in 1916, was one of the causes of Stiirmer's overthrow, and so hastened the revolution of 1917. See Bagdad Railway; Russian evolution of 1917.
Sazonov's Efforts to Maintain Peace. In the days following the delivery of the Austrian note to Serbia, Sazonov worked hand in hand with Sir Edward Grey to preserve peace. He secured from Serbia full acceptance of all but two of the Austrian demands. After Austria had declared war on Serbia, Sazonov proposed to the German ambassador that if Austria would withdraw from her ultimatum points infringing on Serbia's sovereignty, Russia would halt military preparations. The proposal was rejected. Then, on July 31, he proposed that if Austria would halt her troops and submit her demands to the powers, Russia would hold a waiting attitude. No reply was made to the note. Late in the same day Austria expressed a tardy willingness to negotiate. Sazonov at once responded favorably, and negotiations were actually begun in Petrograd between Sazouov and the Austrian ambassador. Then came the German ultimatum and, on August 1, war between Germany and Russia; but Austria and Russia were not at war until August 6. See Grey and British Policy in 1914; Nicholas II, Efforts to Maintain Peace; Serbia, Austrian Ultimatum; Serbia, Reply to Austria; War, Responsibility for.
Scandinavian League. Arrangements for the close cooperation of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark were made at a meeting at Malmb in December, 1914, of the three Scandinavian Kings and their respective foreign ministers. The objects of the agreement were stated to be. the preservation of the common neutrality of the three countries and the guarding of their welfare under the difficult conditions brought about by the war. The three nations have issued identical responses to the various peace proposals and have in other ways acted in concert in dealing both with Germany and with the Allies. In November, 1917, a conference of the monarchs was hurriedly convened in Christiania on the insistence of Denmark that Norway should be prevented from granting England a naval base or otherwise favoring the Allies, and so bringing upon Denmark the retributive measures threatened by Berlin. See Denmark; Norway; Sweden; Submarine Warfare, Neutral Losses; "Winy" and "Nicky" Correspondence.
Scarborough, England. A coast town of England on the North Sea. In spite of its defenseless condition, It was bombarded by the German fleet in December, 1914, and air raids over the city in August, 1917, have also been in violation of rules of civilized warfare. See Bombardment.
Schleswig-Holstein. A province in the northwest of Prussia, -taken from Denmark in 1864. It Is formed out of the Danish
duchies of Schleswlg, Holstein and Lauenburg. The annexation of the duchies had long been ardently desired by Prussia
In order to round out her territories to the north and to improve her connections with the sea. The execution of a maneuver which effected this annexation without interference from~< the other European powers was carried out by Bismarck. 0 February 1, 1864, Austrian and Prussian troops entered and 7 overran the territories. The incorporation of the duchies into the Prussian kingdom was adroitly effected after the Prussian victory over Austria in 1866. A Danish-German antagonism still smolders in the stolen provinces, for the Prussian Gov- -eminent has tried to Prussianlze the Danish element, which is strong in northern Schleswig. See Denmark; Kiel Canal.
"Schrecklichkeit." See "Frightfulness."
"Scrap of Paper." August 4, 1914, the British ambassador in Berlin, Sir Edward Goscheu, justified the entrance of England into the war chiefly on the ground that Germany had violated the neutrality of Belgium, which Great Britain was pledged by treaty to defend. In a dispatch to the British Government he reported a conversation with the German Chancellor, Bethinann Hollweg, who said that "the step taken by His Majesty's Government was terrible to a degree; just for a word-' neutrality,' a word which In war time had so often been disregarded-just for a scrap of paper Great Britain was going to make war on a kindred nation who desired nothing better than to be friends with her." When this dispatch was published by the British Government, the Associated Press correspondent obtained an interview with the German Chancellor, who said that Sir Edward Goschen had misunderstood what he had said about the scrap of paper. The Chancellor maintained that what he had said was that England entered the war to serve her interests; and that among her motives the Belgian neutrality treaty "had for her only the value of a scrap of paper. See "Spurlos Versenlct"; Treaties, Observance of.
Seaplanes. See Aviation; Hydroplanes.
Search. See Blockade; Contraband; Convoy;.
Secret Treaties Revealed by Russia. On November 24, 1917, the Bolsheviki government revealed certain alleged agreements between the Entente Powers with reference to the settlement at the end of the war. In case Russia gained Constantinople and the Dardanelles, she was to allow the freedom of passage of cargoes proceeding to other than Russian ports. Part of Arabia was to be under a separate Mussulman government, and Britain was to have certain additions to her sphere of influence in Persia. In a second document published on the same day France recognized Russia's freedom to define her western boundaries. In a separate telegram the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs recognized that France and Great Britain should have the right to define the western boundary of Germany. On November 28 the Bolsheviki government published another document, said to have been signed in London April 26, 1915, by the representatives of Great Britain, France, Russia, and Italy, by which Italy, on the conclusion of the war, was to receive the Trentino, part of the southern Tyrol, Trieste, Istria, and Delmatla. Lord Cecil, speaking in behalf of the British Government, has promised to publish the report sent to the Russian Government in May, 1917, as to the terms upon which Italy entered the war. It is expected that the whole matter will he the subject of "questions" in Parliament, and the exact degree of truth in the Bolsheviki revelations will be stated; See "Willy" and "Nicky" Correspondence.
Sedition. Language or conduct tending toward treason or Insurrection. The penalty for seditious conspiracy to oppose the authority of the United States is six years' imprisonment. See Espionage Act.
Selective Service. The present selective service law was passed May 18, 1917. It established one class from which the President may draft-those between the ages of 21 and 30, Inclusive. The administration is In the hands of the War Department, under the supervision of the President, and with the assistance of local draft boards for each locality, with appeal boards for each congressional district. All persons between these ages were to be enrolled. The number desired is divided among the several localities in proportion to the population. No substitution or exemptions by payment are allowed. Exemptions are allowed for those having dependents, those engaged in an occupation necessary for the prosecution of the war, or those physically unfit; to be determined by the boards referred to. With about a million aliens of the enrolled ages in the country, very unequally distributed, the drain in making up the quota is heavier upon some communities than others, the basis being population. The enrollment took place on June 5, 1917, and 9,659,382 men registered. The President issued his Instructions to the exemption boards on July 2, and the first men drafted were called to service September 5. See Draft, Constitutionality of; Registration, Military.
Selective Service, Second Draft. With the completion of the draft of the first army of 687,000 men a new system will be
Installed for the creation of succeeding armies, which will lessen the labors of the local and district boards. Each of the 9,000,000 men not yet selected will receive a questionnaire, upon the answers to which the local boards will assign him to one of five classes according to his industrial importance and the nature of his family obligations. The men will be called to military duty by classes, and will be examined physically in their order of selection. The appeals remain, but the procedure will be simplified. The Provost Marshal General has authorized the following classification of selectives into five groups, indicating the order in which they will be called to service:
CLASS I.-(1) Single men without dependent relatives; (2) married man (or widower) with children,, who habitually fails to support his family; (8) married man dependent on wife for support; (4) married man (or widower) with children, not usefully engaged; family supported by income independent of his labor; (5) men not included in any other description in this or other classes; (6) unskilled laborer.
CLASS II.-(1) Married man or father of motherless children, usefully engaged, but family has sufficient income apart from his daily labor to afford reasonable adequate support during his absence; (2) mar~1ed man, no children, wife can support herself decently and without hardship; (8) skilled farm labor engaged in necessary industrial enterprise; (4) skilled industrial laborer engaged in necessary agricultural enterprise.
CLASS 1171.-(1) Man with foster children dependent on daily labor for support; (2) man with aged, infirm, or invalid parents or grandparents dependent on daily labor for support; (3) man with brothers or sisters Incompetent to support themselves, dependent on daily labor for support; (4) county or municipal officer; (5) firemen or policemen; (6) necessary artificers or workmen in arsenals, armories, and navy yards; (7) necessary customhouse clerk; (8) persons necessary In transmission of mails; (9) necessary employees in service of United States; (10) highly specialized administrative experts; (11) technical or mechanical experts In industrial enterprise; (12) highly specialized agricultural expert in agricultural bureau of State or Nation; (13) assistant or associate manager of necessary industrial enterprise; (14) assistant or associate manager of necessary agricultural enterprise.
CLASS IV.-(1) Married man with wife (and) or children (or widower with children) dependent on daily labor for support and no other reasonably adequate support available; (2) mariners in sea service of merchants or citizens in United States; (3) heads of necessary Industrial enterprises; (4) heads of necessary agricultural enterprises.
CLASS V.-(1) Officers of States or the United States; (2) regularly or duly ordained ministers; (8) students of divinity; (4) persons in military or naval service; (5) aliens; (6) alien enemies; (7) persons morally unfit; (8) persons physically, permanently, or mentally unfit;
(9) licensed pilots.
On November 9 the President issued an appeal to all citizens, and especially lawyers and doctors, to cooperate with officials in classifying all registrants.
Serajevo. The capital of Bosnia; it was the scene of the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife on June 28, 1914. The assassin was a Bosnian, who was a member of the Narodna Odbrana, a Serbian secret society which aimed to detach Bosnia and Herzegovina, peopled as they are by races of Serbian stock, from Austria-Hungary and annex them to Serbia. The Austrian Government alleged that he secured his arms from the Serbian State arsenal and that the Serbian Government was privy to the deed. The murder of the heir to the throne furnished the Austro-Hungarian Government2 with an excuse to square Its account with Serbia, which in the I eyes of the German, Magyar, and military elements of the monarchy was long overdue. Consequently, an ultimatum of the most humiliating character was addressed to Serbia on July 23, _ and although Serbia accepted it almost in total, Austria-Hungary _ declared war on July 28. Out of this the general European _ conflagration developed. See "Potsdam Conference"; Serbia, _ Austrian ultimatum
Serbia. A constitutional monarchy in the Balkans. The capital - is Belgrade, which is at present in the hands of the the Central Powers, Serbia having been overrun by the AustroBulgarian forces November 30, 1915. The area of the country -~ before the war was 18,650 square miles, and the population in 1910 was 2,911,701. The present Serbian Government is established at Corfu. The King is Peter I of the house of Karageorge. He came to the throne in 1903 by means of ao palace revolution.. The Premier is M. Pashitch, who is also the Minister for Foreign Affairs. Austria declared war against Serbia on July 28, 1914. See Belgrade; ", Croats, and Slovenes."
Serbia, Austrian Ultimatum. The diplomatic note de _ livered by the Austro-Hungarian Government to Serbia on July 23, 1914, nearly a month after the assassination of the Archduke. It is now substantially proven that Germany was privy to Austria's plans. Because of the precarious relations long existent _ between Serbia and Austria, vigorous action on the part of Austria was generally expected, but the world was entirely unprepared for the drastic terms finally laid down. Brief and devoid of courteous expression, the note contained 10 articles, of which four were concerned with the murder of Serajevo, while the rest related to the policies of the Serbian Government in dealing with secret societies, newspapers, public instruction, and other agencies of political agitation. All propaganda of the national aims of Serbia, so far as these were dangerous to Austria-Hungary, was to be suppressed. All officers whom Austria should name as participating in conspiracy were to be removed, and in the judicial proceedings -~ that were to be taken against the plotters of the recent murder Austrian agents were to be sent into the Serbian courts. Finally, 721 for the acceptance of these extraordinary terms a time limit of 121 only 48 hours was set. "I have never seen," said Sir Edward I Grey, "one State address to another a document of so formidable a character." The German Socialist newspaper VorwOirts said (July 25, 1914): "The demands of that Government (Aus tria) are more brutal than any ever made upon any civilized State in the history of the world, and they can be regarded only as intended to provoke war." And a sober German historian (DelbrIick) has acknowledged that Austria demanded conditions which would have placed Serbia under per permanent control.
See "Der Tag"; Grey and British~ Policy, 1914; Nicholas II, Efforts to Maintain Peace; "Potsdam Conference."
Serbia, Reply to Austria. Serbia's reply, delivered within
a few minutes of the time set, yielded to the demands In practically every point, saving her own sovereignty, and offered to refer to The Hague Tribunal the one point not completely conceded. But Austria, without further discussion, declared it unsatisfactory, and by 6 o'clock, July 25, severed relations with the smaller kingdom. War was then inevitable, but it was still a question whether the conflict, as Austria acid Germany desired, should be "localized," a mere punitive expedition against Serbia, or should involve other great powers of Europe.
Service Reserve. The United States Public Service Reserve is an official national organization of men who desire to find their place for effective service to the country in the war emergency and to make It easy for the Government to locate them when it needs help from men of their capacities. Its purpose is to enable those who are not called into the Army or Navy to play their part in realizing the ideal of a whole Nation organized to war for the safety of our country and the preservation of the civilization and the future peace of the world. It is a common meeting ground where men of all degrees of capacity and attainment may unite in devoting themselves to the service of our country and mankind. No one should apply for membership who does not honestly intend to "do his bit's as soon as the right opportunity comes to him. By receiving a certificate of enrollment in the United States Public Service Reserve and wearing its emblem you will signify your readiness to serve the Nation in the war emergency, even at the cost of personal sacrifice. Address Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. See Civilian Tasks.
Shells. A general name for explosive projectiles. Shrapnel travels to a given point, bursts, and releases bullets which pass on to spread destruction. A shell, on the other hand, bursts upon striking its object or upon the action of a time fuse. Destruction is effected by the broken bits of metal of which it is composed, and by the earth, stones, and other material which it throws up around it. A shell of the very effective French "75's," it is said, will burst into more than 2,000 pieces, many of them very minute, yet possessing extreme projectile force. Shells are of various diameters and weights and are charged with varying quantities of explosive compounds. Many are now charged with gas or injurious chemicals. On the western front there are guns shooting shells which weigh from 400 to 2,O00 pounds, with a carrying power of from 6 to 20 miles. It is computed that a new 16-Inch American naval gun will have enough projectile capacity with a charge of 900 pounds of powder to send a shell weighing 2,400 pounds a distance of 27~ miles horizontally and to a height in the trajectory of S~ miles. The length of such a shell is about 6 feet. An artillery expert computes that the British and French together expended no less than 20,000,000 shells in the Battle of the Somme. A half million were used In one day. See Bomb; Gas Warfare; Shrapnel; Torpedo.
Shipping Board. A board of five members authorized by the shipping act of September 7, 1916, with broad powers to advise and regulate the rates and practices of water carriers in foreign commerce, or In interstate commerce on the high seas or Great Lakes. Mr. William Denman, of San Francisco, was chairman of the board until his resignation In August, 1917. He was succeeded by the present chairman, Mr. Edward N. Hurley, of Chicago. The war has brought to the Shipping Board new duties of tremendous Importance. It is its task to keep up the supply of ships for America and the Allies-to meet the demands for ships from the Army and the Navy, from Italy, and from France. The work of building new ships the board has delegated to its construction agency, the Emergency Fleet Corporation. The board itself controls directly the operation of all American ocean-going ships. On October 15 it requisitioned all completed American ships of 2,500 tons or more. It has commandeered all ships building in American yards. In most cases it turns back to the original owners to be operated by them ships not needed for military service or by allied Governments. But it has an operating department of its own. It fixes rates and decides problems of priority for the shipment of exports and imports. The limit which Congress has thus far set to the amount of money available for the operations of the board is $1,800,000,000. This huge capital places the Shipping Board ahead of the United States Steel or any other corporation doing business in the Western hemisphere. The Pennsylvania railroad is capitalized at less than half as much. Of the total amount promised by Congress, $1,000,000,000 has already been appropriated.
Ship Corporation. The construction agency of the Shipping Board. Its official name is The United States Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corporation. The corporation was organized under the laws of the District of Columbia on April 18, 1917, with a capital of $50,000,000, all of which was subscribed by the Government. The business of the corporation is to contract for and manage the construction of new slips for the Shipping Board, and to complete the construction of ships already building under private contract that have been commandeered. The chairman of the board Is also chairman of the corporation. Maj. Gen. George Goethals was general manager of the corporation until his resignation in August, 1917. Rear Admiral W. L. Capps and Rear Admiral Frederick R. Harris followed him for short periods in this position. On November 10, 1917, supreme charge of the work of constructing steel ships was placed in the hands of a civilian engineer, Mr. Charles A. Plez, of Chicago, president of the Link Belt Co. At the same time wooden ship construction was entrusted to Mr. James Heyworth, of Chicago. On December 17 a reorganization took place and Mr. Piez was made general manager of the corporation. On December 1, 1917, the corporation
had under construction on its own contracts 884 ships, ranging In size from 8,500 tons to 9,000 tons. . Of these 875 are wooden ships, 551 are steel ships, and 58 are composite. More recent contracts have all been for steel ships. In addition the corporation was bringing to completion 426 ships building in American yards on private or foreign account and commandeered for the Government. The total tonnage of these ships was above 3,000,000. Thirty-three of the commandeered ships had already been completed and delivered. The first of the ships originally contracted for by the corporation, a steel vessel of 8,800 tons, was launched at a Pacific coast port on November 26, 1917. The first wooden ship was launched a few days later. By January 1, '1918, the corporation xviii have completed ships to a total of 1,250,000 tons-a figure a little in excess of a total tonnage before the war of either of the two greatest shipping companies-the International Mercantile Marine and the Hamburg-American Line. By January 1, 1919, it expects to bring this figure up to 6,000,000 tons, and some time in the year 1919 the entire present program of the corporation, calling for 10,000,000 tons of new ships, xviii be completed. The corporation does not do its own building, but appears as owner In the contracts which It makes with private shipbuilding companies. As soon as the corporation has a ship ready for the water it turns it over to be controlled by the Shipping Board, the parent organization of the Fleet Corporation.
Ship, Fabricated. A standardized steel vessel made of numbered parts manufactured in various and scattered mills and then assembled in the ship yards of the contracting company. Most of the ships building for the Emergency Fleet Corporation are of the fabricated type. The Submarine Corporation Is building at Newark 50 of these ships of 5,000 tons each. Other contracts call for from 10 to 120 ships each. Fabricated ships are sister ships-in very large families.
Shipping Committee. The chairman of the United States Shipping Board is the chairman of this committee of the Council of National Defense, which was established April 21, 1917, and which is cooperating with the Shipping Board in its work of supplying the United States and its allies with much-needed tonnage. Mr. P. A. S. Franklin, president of the International Mercantile Marine, New York City, is the vice chairman of the committee.
Shipping, Interned German. Ninety-nine German ships, with gross tonnage of 635,406, were in American ports at the outbreak of war. They were seized by the United States under an act of May 12, 1917, questions of compensation being left to be determined at the end of the war. Repairs (made necessary by Injuries done them by their crews while interned, under orders of Bernstorff), were made in record time, and they are now in service either of the Army and Navy or in the carrying trade. See Brazil; Portugal; , Shipping, Ready for Operation; Eminent Domain.
Shipping, Losses by Mines and Submarines. According
to records compiled by Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin (New York), from the beginning of the war to January
1, 1917, approximately 2,146 merchant vessels were destroyed chiefly by mines and submarines. A statement of the aggregate gross tonnage destroyed estimates It at 3,982,556 tons; of this total, 1,149 vessels of 2,082,683 gross tons were destroyed in 1916. From figures furnished by the New York Times the tonnage sunk by submarines alone for the first six months of 1917 had reached an average of 600,000 tons a month, which is two or three times the rate of new construction. This high average was due in part to the extraordinary submarine activity in April, when 800,000 tons were destroyed In four weeks. The total losses for the year to June, 1917, are estimated at something over 3,600,000. Of these 58 per cent were British, 25 per cent neutral, and 17 per cent Allied, other than British. For July and August the losses have been reduced to an average of 150,000 tons a month. This reduction is due in part to the system of convoys. The United States lost between August, 1914, and September 1, 1917, 55 ships of 145,332 gross tons. See submarine Warfare, British Losses; War-Risk Insurance.
Shipping, Ready for Operation. On September 26, 1917' the United States had 458 ships of over 1,500 dead-weight tons, with an aggregate tonnage of 2,871,359, either engaged in or capable of participating in foreign trade. This tonnage is exclusive of that engaged on inland waters, unsuitable coastwise ships and small craft operating along the coast and in bays and harbors. Neither does it include the 117 ships, of a tonnage of 700,285, taken over from their German and Austrian owners.
Ship Registry Act. By an act of August 18, 1914, the free ship clause of the Panama Canal act of August 24, 1912, was amended so as to facilitate the registration of foreign-built vessels. The original act required that foreign-built vessels applying for American registry be not more than 5 years old. This provision was repealed. The effect of the act is reflected In the Increased tonnage during the following year. In 1915 there were added to the merchant fleet of the United States by transfer from foreign flags 148 vessels, of 523,361 tons. But there was a loss during the same period of 77 vessels transferred from American registry to foreign flags.
Ship Transfer in Time of War. The law governing this matter is satisfactorily summarized In article 56 of the Declaration of London, as follows: "The transfer of an enemy vessel to a neutral flag, effected after the outbreak of hostilities, is void, unless It Is proved that such transfer was not made in order to evade the consequences to which an enemy vessel, as such, is exposed." See "Dacia."
Shrapnel. A shell filled with bullets and a small bursting charge. The shell Is split open and the bullets are released, as a rule, about 80 yards before reaching the object aimed at. After explosion, the bullets fly onward in a destructive shower. Named for the inventor, a British general named Shrapnel, who died in 1842.
Siam. An independent kingdom in southern Asia with Its capital at Bangkok. The area is 198,900 square miles. The
population was estimated In 1911 at 8,149,487. The ruling king is Somditch Plira Paraminde. Slam entered the war of the nations on July 22, 1917, and seized the German and Austrian ships in Siamese harbors.
Signal Corps. This corps is directed by a Chief Signal Officer. It has charge of the construction and operation of military cables, telegraphs, and telephones. Wireless machinery and meteorological apparatus have recently come within the sphere of authority of the corps, which has expanded to meet new needs. The balloon and airplane service has been attached to this department of our military administration. The Signal Corps and its enlisted force are the eyes and ears of the army. They keep a general In communication with his fighting units and enable him to successfully direct a battle, oftentimes at a distance of some miles from the front. See Aviation.
Sinn Fein. An Irish revolutionary society aiming at both Independence and the cultural development of the Irish race. It is equally opposed to the Nationalists and the Unionists, and is the more alluring through its inclusion of many men of letters and art. On Easter, 1916, it precipitated a bloody revolt at Dublin, with which Germany tried to cooperate. The outbreak was suppressed without great difficulty. The German intrigue has been so clear in this movement that It can not be told as yet how far the Sinn Fein Is genuinely Irish and how far It Is a tool of Germany. In the United States, too, German intriguers are known to have tried to stir up some of the Irish against Great Britain. See German Intrigue; Irish Parties.
Slavs. A race inhabiting eastern and southeastern Europe, where they constitute the great majority of the population. They are not geographically united. The main stock comprises the Russians, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, and Ruthenes or Little Russians. In the south, and separated from the northern branch by a solid barrier of Germans, Magyars, and Roumanians, live the Southern or Jugo-Slavs. These, though divided into Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, really form one people. The Bulgars have usually been Included in the Southern Slays, but they were originally an Asiatic people who have been Slavic zed, and since their defeat in the second Balkan war many of them have repudiated the Slav cause. Approximate figures for the race as a whole are:
Russians 100, 000, 000
Little Russians (Ukrainers) 30, 000, 000
Poles 15, 000, 000
Czechs and Slovaks 8, 500, 000
Slovenes 1, 250, 000
Croats 2, 500, 000
Serbs 4, 000, 000
Bulgars 4, 500, 000
Total 165, 750, 000
See "Kingdom of the serbs, Greats, etc."; Ukraine.
Socialism. See German Political Parties; Liebknecht; Max
Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Rights. See Moratorium.
Soldiers' and Sailors' Insurance Act. By act of October 6, 1917, Congress provided: (1) For the support during the war of the families and dependents of enlisted men. (a) Allotments of pay. Certain proportions of pay are to be withheld from the man and paid directly to the families or dependents, or for insurance, or for other purposes. Allotment or deposit of one half of pay may be required in all cases. (b) Family all9~v-ances. In addition to all allotments of pay by the man, the United States will pay monthly allowances to the wife, children, and certain dependents. (2) For the protection of officers and enlisted men and their dependents from the hazards of injury, disease, and death. (a> Compensation. Monthly payments for disability and death due to injury and disease Incurred in the line of duty. (b) Insurance. Provided by the United States upon application and payment of premium, without medical _ examination, against total permanent disability and death. The premium will be at normal peace rates without loading, and the United States will bear the extra cost due to war service. Pro- -vision Is made for the continuation of the Insurance after leaving the service. All of these are administered by the bureau of war risk Insurance in the Treasury Department. Up to Decem ber 15, 1917, applications had been made for $2,073,728,500 insurance by 288,924 applicants. Bulletins giving full details may be obtained from the bureau upon request.
Solomon Islands. A group of Islands In the Pacific Ocean. I Taken from Germany, September, 1914, by Australian troops.
Somme. A river in northern France, flowing Into the English Channel. On June 30-July 1, 1916, the Anglo-French forces about the river began a concerted offensive with the railroad centers of Bapaume and Peronne as the Immediate objectives, and with the underlying intention (1) of exerting constant pressure on the French front in conjunction with Allied offensives in Russia and Italy, and (2) of pushing a wedge into the German lines which should force an evacuation of a material part of France. The specific objectives were not gained before the rainy season put an end to activities, but the main objects of the campaign were in a large measure realized. See Arras; "Hindenburg Line"; Messines Ridge; Verdun.
Sonnino, Sydney, Baron (1847- ). He has been several times Premier of Italy, In December, 1914, Sonnlno, although leader of the opposition, joined the Saiandra Cabinet as Minister of Foreign Affairs.
South Africa, Union of. A self-governing British Common-wealth in the southern end of Africa, formed from the former British colonies and the former Transvaal and Orange Free F State annexed after the Boer War. Area, 473,100 square miles; population, 5,973,394. The executive is nominally a Governor General appointed by the Crown; actually it Is a cabinet appointed by and responsible to the Union Parliament. Gen. Louis Botha is Premier. At the outbreak of the war Germany had great hopes of a Beer revolt, and an outbreak of irreconcilables occurred In September, 1914, but this was put down by the
loyal element. In turn, an army of the Union under the Premier, Gen. Botha, invaded and conquered German Southwest Africa. Another army under Gen. Smuts virtually conquered German East Africa.
Soukhomlinov, Gen. W. A. Russian Minister of War from -March 24, 1909, to June 26, 1915. His resignation was due to Inefficiency in providing army supplies. Soukliomlinov's trial was not held until 1917. He was convicted on September 26 of high treason, abuse of confidence, and fraud, and was sentenced to life imprisonment at hard labor. Some of the testimony has been very freely used by German propagandists in their attempt to prove a Russian plot against Germany in 1914. See Mobilization Controversy; War, Responsibility for.
Soviet. Russian word for council or committee; applied to a large variety of such organizations in the Revolution of 1917, but especially to the Petrograd Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates. See Councils of Workmen's and soldiers' Deputies.
Spain. A constitutional monarchy occupying the major portion of the Iberian Peninsula. Its capital is Madrid. Its area is 194,794 square miles, and its population was estimated in 1910 at 19,943,817. Alfonso XIII has reigned since his birth In
1886, being under the regency of his mother until 1902. The Queen is Victoria, formerly the English Princess Victoria Eugenie (Ena) of Battenberg.
Spain, Neutral Problems. At the beginning of the war Spain declared her neutrality and has been able to keep It without great difficulty. A German propaganda was started and Spain was flooded with pro-German literature, while it was freely stated, at least unofficially, that if Spain would join the German side Gibraltar would be restored to her. Neither literature nor offers appear to have had much effect on the Spanish people outside of a few small groups. Nor have the Spanish spokesmen of the Allies, many of whom are Socialists, been able to arouse any popular feeling in favor of the abandonrnent of neutrality. Submarine disputes with Germany have been at times sharp, but an apparent settlement has been reached, although the Government has been criticized for not taking a stronger stand.- The fact that Spain is not contiguous to the Central Powers has also rendered the blockade question less acute.
Spanish-American War, German Attitude. "Men who stood high In the universities, men of the greatest amiability, who in former days had been the warmest friends of America, had now become our bitter opponents, and some of their expressions seemed to point to eventual war." (Ex-Ambassador Andrew D. White, Autobiography, II, 1905, p. 146.) See America Threatened; Manila Bay, Dewey and Diecirichs at.
Sphere of Influence. A region in which some foreign State claims superior rights as against all other outside powers, hoping eventually to convert this right into supreme control. This inchoate right is often created by a series of agreements
on the part of the State aspiring to it with other more or less interested States. Morocco was a French sphere of influence before It became a French protectorate. Manchuria Is gen~ral1y regarded as a Japanese sphere of influence. But the term is also more loosely used, and the Caribbean is sometimes spoken of as a "sphere of Influence" of the United States. See United States, Caribbean Interests.
Spies. See Intrigue.
Spithead Naval Review. In July, 1914, the British fleet was reviewed by King George at Spithead at the very time when the Austrian ultimatum to Serbia was presented at Belgrade. The fleet, perhaps assembled as a measure of precaution against possible German menace, was not demobilized, and was ordered to Its stations In the Channel and the North Sea. As ao result the German squadrons did not dare to venture from their bases when war was declared, and the control of the seas has remained in British hands to the present time.
"Spurlos Versenkt." A German phrase meaning "sunk without leaving a trace," contained in a secret telegram from Luxburg, the German minister at Buenos Aires. The telegram (of May 19, 1917) advised that Argentine steamers be "spared if possible or else sunk without a trace being left." The advice was repeated July 9. The Swedish minister at Buenos Aires sent these messages, in code, as though they were his own private dispatches. See German Diplomacy; Intrigue; "Notwencligkeit"; "Scrap of Paper."
"Spurlos Versenkt" Applied. On August 26 the British Admiralty communicated to the International Conference of Merchant Seamen a statement of the facts in 12 cases of sinking in the previous seven months, wherein tile U-boat commanders had deliberately opened fire on the crews of the vessels after they had taken to their small boats, or had attempted to dispose of them in some other way. The list of offenses is the following: (1) Kildare, British, sunk April 12, 1917, boats shelled; (2) John W. Pearm, British, sunk May 1, boat shelled;
(3) Vulcana, British, sunk March 7, boat shelled; (4) Belgian Prince; (5) Westminster, British, sunk December 14, 1916, boats shelled; (6) Eave.stone, British, sunk February 3, 1917, boats shelled; (7) Addah, British, sunk June 15, boat shelled and sunk and men shelled in the water; (8) Umaria, British, sunk May 26, boat shelled; (9) Vanland, Swedish, attacked July 23, boat shelled; (10) Baltic, Swedish, sunk June 27, boats shelled; (11) Fraden, Danish, sunk May 22, boat shelled; (12) Ilestia, Dutch, sunk March 30, boat shelled. In seven cases, from 1 to 13 persons were killed; in the others, wounds were inflicted. The number of successful attempts at "sinking without trace" may be inferred from the statement of a British Admiralty official (November 22, 1917) that for the three years of the war 122 ships are recorded as "missing without trace" as against a prewar average of 15 yearly. See "Belgian Prince."
Squadron. A Cavalry unit, made up of four troops commanded by captains, under a major. It is a technical unit only. Three squadrons, with headquarters, supply and machine-gun troops, under a colonel, form a regiment of Cavalry. See Corn pang.
Staff. Staff is a general term used to distinguish the administrative from the fighting unit's In an army. It includes not only the General Staff (created in 1903 and enlarged by the national defense act) but military men engaged in the Inspector General's, the Quartermaster General's, the Judge Advocate General's, the Adjutant General's, the Ordnance, the Engineer-ing, the Signal Corps, the Medical, and like departments In the Army. The headquarters staff is the body of men performing secretarial and administrative duties for a general at headquarters. In general, staff Is used in distinction to line; one branch of the service organizes and supplies, the other fights. See General Staff.
State Cooperation Section. A subordinate agency of the -Council of National Defense, established April 7, 1917, to stimulate the organization of State councils of defense, either by the action of the governors or by the action of the legislatures of the several States. The section acts as a clearing house between the State councils of defense and the Council of National Defense and its subordinate bodies and other Federal agencies. It -also acts as a clearing house between the State councils of defense themselves, with reference to such activities as they have inaugurated on their own initiative, and in this connection discriminates between those activities which are worthy of encouragement and those which are not.
State Defense Councils. In every State in the Union there is by this time an official State council of defense; and in 43 -of the 48 States a chain of county or local councils has been developed. Two more States have planned to begin such local organization at once. Every week the section on cooperation with States hears of new districts organized and new activities undertaken by the local organizations. The reports which come to Washington from the State councils show the value of this -local initiative.
State Defense Councils, illustrated. In one of the first to be organized, the legislature created a commission of five and made ample appropriations for its work. Under its direction county councils of defense were established throughout the State. A weekly publication gives information regarding the activities of the State council. In addition, much pamphlet literature is distributed by its direction. The council began (1) the mobilization of the labor supply of the State for war industries, especially agriculture and canning; (2) the increased production of food was urged through the medium of pamphlets and public lectures; (3) women's work has been emphasized by placing a woman on the State council; (4) the professor of clinical medicine In the leading university has charge of the I medical work of the council; and (5) one member of the coun
cli has bad long experience In the field of transportation. The council Is thus organized to cooperate efficiently with the Government In almost any exigency that may arise.
State Property. The Hague Regulations deal with this subject as follows:
"ART. LIII. An army of occupation can only take possession of cash, funds, and realizable securities which are strictly the property of the State, depots of arms, means of transport, stores and supplies, and, generally, all movable property belonging to the State which may be used for military operations.
"ART. LV. The occupying State shall be regarded only as administrator and usufructuary of public buildings, real estate, forests, and agricultural estates belonging to the hostile State, and situated in the occupied country. It must safeguard the capital of these properties, and administer them In accordance with the -rules of usufruct."
In the Franco-Prussian War the Germans sold 15,000 oak trees from the French State forests. In the present war they have cut a large amount of walnut timber from the Belgian State forests to provide material for rifle butts, and have done extensive cuttings in other forests for other purposes. They have also torn up many miles of State railways and taken them into the interior of Germany. See Military Occupation.
States Rights versus National Power. People frequently express themselves as if they supposed that the National Government is prevented from doing certain things because if it did them it would come into conflict with certain powers or rights of the States, but this is an error. If a power is not given the National Government by the Constitution, then, by the tenth amendment, it belongs to the States or to the people. But if a power belongs to the National Government, its laws passed by virtue of such power override all conflicting State laws whatsoever. As the Constitution itself says (Art. VI, par. 2):
"This Constitution and the laws which shall be made in pursuance thereof . . . shall be the supreme law of the land
anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding." Applying~ this principle in the case of the war powers of the National Government, we see that these are limited in no respect by the powers or rights of the States. The only reaction which the States can occupy legally toward the National Government in war time is that of cooperation. See Police Power; War Powers.
Statistics Division. A subordinate agency of the Council of National Defense, which, in accordance with a resolution of the War Industries Board, adopted on August 17, 1917, Is engaged in the work of collecting and making available information upon industrial subjects related to the war and to war preparations.
"Status quo ante Bellum." "The state of affairs which existed before the war." Friends and spokesmen of Germany are now urging this formula as a suitable basis for peace. The suggestion is Impossible for two reasons: First, the atatua
- quo ante can not be recovered. Thus Germany has, in the course of the war, subordinated her allies and come to dominate their policies, and a mere restoration by her of her military conquests would not alter this fact. The second great objection to the formula In question is that given by President Wilson In his note of June 9 to the Russian people: "It was the 8tatus quo ante out of which this Iniquitous war Issued forth, the power of the Imperial German Government within the Empire and its widespread domination and Influence outside that Empire. That status must be altered in such fashion as to prevent any such hideous thing from ever happening again." See "No Annewations, No Indemnities"; "Mittel-JiJuropa" Realized.
Stockholm Conference. A meeting of Socialists of all countries, scheduled at first for September, 1917, which was proposed by the Council of Soldiers' and Workmen's Deputies in Petrograd. The idea was that the Socialists of the warring nations might lay the basis of an immediate peace, over the heads of the belligerent Governments, which were charged with continuing the war for the benefit of the capitalist classes, and incidentally restore, in some measure, the vitality and prestige of International Socialism. The Russian Provisional Govern. meat accepted the scheme at first but later refused official recognition to the Russian delegates. The autocratic German Government gave its ready consent to the attendance of the German Socialists. In Hungary the Socialists were so sure of the eagerness of their Government to have them go that they threatened to stay away if the Government did not meet certain demands. The Prime Minister of Bulgaria not only had a long interview with the leader of the Socialist party bound for the first conference at Stockholm but saw the party off at the railway station. The pro-German delegates have skillfully classified the delegates with a view to getting the men and groups desired by the German Government, and of the 202 delegates it was hoped to have present, the pro-German group counted on controlling 155. The American labor unions with a membership of 3,000,000 were given 4 members; the American Socialist Parties with 100,000 members, 10. Kerensky's Labor Party group in Russia was excluded. Similar devices for packing the conference were used in regard to the French and English delegates. For these and other reasons the British, French, and American Governments refused passports to delegates from their respective countries, and the conference has never met. See "No Annea,ations, No Indemnities."
".Strict Accountability." "If the commanders of German vessels of war should act upon the presumption that the flag of the United States was not being used in good faith and should destroy on the high seas our American vessels or the lives of American citizens . . . If such a deplorable situation should arise, the Imperial German Government can readily appreciate that the Government of the United States would be constrained to hold the Imperial German Government to a
strict accountability for the acts of their naval authorities and - to take any steps it might be necessary to take to safeguard American lives and property and to secure to American citizens the full enjoyment of their acknowledged rights on the high seas." (War Zone note, Feb. 10, 1915.)
Submarine. Called by the German-s U-boat, I. e., undersea boat, or submersible. This type of war vessel, while it may travel upon the surface, may also submerge Itself and thus hide Its movements from an enemy. While beneath the water observations can be taken by means of a projecting perpendicular arm, called a periscope. The submarine can discharge torpedoes while it is thus hidden from view and becomes a dangerous new weapon of military offense. The indiscriminate and Inhumane use of this instrument of warfare by Germany has been the main cause of our entering the war. Submarines are of various types, the outgrowth of American inventive genius, that of John P. Holland and Simon Lake. They are combated more or less successfully by nets of steel sunk in channels, In which their noses are caught, by fleets of destroyers, trawlers, and specially constructed electric launches, by depth bombs, by low-flying airplanes supplied with bombing appliances, and by other means. See U-Boats; Shipping Losses by Mines and Submarines.
Submarine Blockade. After various experiments with the submarine in attacking British warships, the German navy under von Tirpitz began, January 31, 1915, to destroy without warning British merchant and cargo ships. This policy was followed by the war zone decree of February 4, 1915, and reached its full development oh May 7, 1915, when the passenger vessel Lusitania was sunk with a loss of 114 American lives. Owing to the protests of the United States, some pretense was later made of curbing the activities of the U-boats, but beginning February 1, 1917, the German Government inaugurated a new policy of sinking all ships found within the waters around the Allied countries, and Chancellor von Bethmann Hollweg revealed the fact that the apparent concessions to the United States had simply given Germany time to complete a program of submarine construction.
Submarine Warfare, American Lives Lost. American lives have been lost through submarine attack upon some 20 vessels, of which 4 were American, 1 Dutch, and 1 Norwegian. In one or two cases the vessel tried to escape and made resistance, and the loss of life was a hazard of warfare. In the bulk of the cases the destruction was without fair warning and without reasonable effort to give the passengers and crew chance to escape. Among the more flagrant cases were: May 7, 1915, Lusitanla, 114 Americans lost; August 19, 1915, Arabic, 3 Americans lost; September 4, 1915, Hesperian, 1 American lost; October 28, 1916, Marina, 8 Americans lost; December 14, 1916, Russian, 17 Americans lost; February 20, 1917, Laconia, 8 Americans lost; March 16, 1917, T1igilcmeia, 5 Americans lost; March 21, 1917, Healdton, 7 Americans lost;
April 1, 1917, Aztec, 28 Americans lost. In all, up to our declaration of war, 226 Americans, many of them women and children, bad lost their lives by the action of German submarines, and in most Instances without the faintest color of international right.
Submarine Warfare, British Losses. The following table shows by weeks the losses of British shipping in 1917 since the Admiralty began the official publication of the totals.
Mar.4 14 9 23 15 10. - 18
Mar.11 13 4 17 22 21 3 24
Mar.18 16 8 24 29 18 3 21
Mar.25 18 7 25 .5 21 2 23
Apr. 1 18 13 31 Aug.12 14 2 16
Apr.8 17 - ~ 19 Aug.19 15 3 18
Apr.15 19 9 28 Aug.26 18 5 23
Apr.22 40 15 55 Sept.2 20 3 23
Apr.29 38 13 51 Bept.9 12 6 18
May6 24 22 46 Sept.16 8 20 28
May13 18 5 23 Sept.23 13 2 15
May20 18 9 27 Sept.30 11 2 13
May27 18 1 19 Oct.7 14 2 16
lune3 15 3 18 Oct.14 12 6 18
lunelO 22 10 32 Oct.21 17 8 25
lunel7 27 5 32 Oct.28 14 4 18
June24 21 7 28 Nov.4 8 4 12
Julyl 15 5 20 Nov.11 1 5 6
July 8. 14 3 17 Nov.18 10 7 17
Capt. Persius, in the Berlin Tagebtatt, in November, 1917, admitted that the German Admiralty was grossly mistaken in its calculations, and that Germany has no reason for believing In the decisive influence of the submarine war. See Shipping, Losses by Mines and Submarines.
Submarine Warfare, German Defense. Germany does not pretend that her use of the submarine is in accordance with the principles of international law governing naval warfare. Thus, on the crucial point raised by her methods the German Prize Code of 1914 says: "Before proceeding to the destruction of the vessel, the safety of all persons on board, and, so far as possible, their effects, is to be provided for." Germany's apology for ignoring the accepted principles of law is threefold: (1) She urges the novelty of the submarine; (2) she cites England's unallowable extension of the blockade; (3) she pleads her necessity. By the first argument, murder by a new weapon is not murder; by the second, the Innocent are punished for the deeds of a third party; by. the third, the very idea of law is put in jeopardy.
Submarine Warfare, German Hopes.. "Give us only two months of this kind of warfare [I. e. unrestricted submarine warfare] and we shall end the war and make peace within three months." (Zlmmermann to Ambassador Gerard, interview of Jan. 31, 1917.)
Submarine Warfare, Illegalities. The four chief counts against German submarine warfare are (1) that, for the belligerent right of capture, it has invariably substituted the practice of outright destruction; (2) that, from the procedure of capture, it has eliminated the essential steps of visit and search, with the result that destruction is carried out with little or no warning to the victims-Lusitania; (3) that, for the duty of the captor to put those on board the captured vessel into a safe place before destroying it, it has substituted "the poor measure of safety" of intrusting them to the mercy of wind and wave In small boats many miles from land-Belgian Prince; and (4) being in itself a lawless practice, it leaves any vessel, neutral or enemy, passenger or freight, at the mercy of any brutal or heartless or cowardly commander of a submarine. See "Belgian Prince"; "Lusitania"; "Spurlos Versenkt" Applied.
Submarine Warfare, Legal Impracticability. In- its first Lusitania note (May 18, 1915) the State Deportment recorded, for the first time, its conviction, since frequently reiterated, of "the practical Impossibility of employing submarines in the destruction of commerce without disregarding those rules of fairness, reason, justice, and humanity which all modern opinion regards as Imperative. It is practically impossible for the officers of a submarine to visit a merchantman at sea and examine its papers and cargo. It Is practically Impossible for them to make a prize of her; and, if they can not put a prize crew on board of her, they can not sink her without leaving her crew and all on board of her to the mercy of the sea in her small boats. Manifestly submarines can not be used against merchant-men . . . without an inevitable violation of many sacred principles of justice and humanity."
Submarine Warfare, Neutral Losses. Between August 8, 1914, and April 26, 1917, 152 neutral vessels were destroyed by German mines and 695 by German torpedoes or shell fire from submarines. These comprise a total of 847 vessels with ascertained tonnage of 1,653,654. Of this total Norway furnished 436 vessels, of 987,816 tons, and the lives of 5,000 sailors; Holland, 76 vessels, of 148,921 tons; the United States, 20 vessels, of 59,256 tons. The rate of destruction was placed by competent -authority, early in July, 1917, as approx~mate1y 7,500.000 tons per annum, with approximately 4,500,000 new tonnage in sight, leaving a net loss of 3,000,000 tons.
Submarine Warfare, Stages of. (1) December 24, 1914. Admiral von Tirpitz throws out hints in a newspaper interview of a wholesale torpedoing policy. He directly asks, "What will America say?" This was considerably before the so-called English blockade was causing Germany any serious food problem. (2) February 4, 1915. German Government proclaims a war zone about the British Isles and her intention to sink any enemy merchantmen encountered in this zone without warning. (3) May 1 (dated Apr.22), 1915. German embassy publishes in New York morning papers warning against taking passage on ships which our Government has told the people they had a perfect
right to take. The Lusitania sailed at 12.20 noon May 1 and was sunk on May 7. (4) August 19, 1915. Sinking of the Arabic, whereupon von Bernstorff gave oral pledge for his Government that hereafter German submarines would not sink "liners" without warning. (5) February, 1916. (After still more debatable sinking) Germany makes proposals looking toward "assuming liability" for the Lusitania victims, but the whole case Is soon complicated again by the "armed ship" Issue. (6) March 24, 1916~ Sinking of the Sussex, passenger vessel with Americans on board. (7) May 4, 1916. Germany, in response to the threat of the United States Government to break off diplomatic relations with her, gives her "Sussex pledge." (8) January 31, 1917. Germany notifies our Government that she will begin "unrestricted submarine war" on the following day. (9) February 3, 1917. The President gives Count Bernstorff his passports and recalls Ambassador Gerard from Berlin. (10) April 6, 1917. American declaration of a state of war because of the repeated murder of Americans. See "Arabic"; Lusitania"; "Sussex"; etc.
Submarine Warfare, Unrestricted. "The new policy [since January 31, 1917] has swept every restriction aside. Vessels of every kind, whatever their flag, their character, their cargo, their destination, their errand, have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom without warning, and without thought of help or mercy for those on board, the vessels of friendly neutrals along with those of belligerents. Even hospital ships and ships carrying relief to the sorely bereaved and stricken people of Belgium, though the latter were provided with safe conduct through the proscribed areas by the German Government itself and were distinguished by unmistakable marks of identity, have been sunk with the same reckless lack of compassion or of principle." (President Wilson, before Congress, Apr. 2, 1917.)
Suez Canal. A ship canal constructed across the Suez Isthmus to connect the eastern Mediterranean with the Red Sea. It is about 100 miles in length and was constructed by a French company at whose head was M. de Lesseps. The canal is of vital importance to England in that it presents the shortest sea route to India. The British Government at first opposed its construction, then, after it was finished, through the purchase of the holdings of the Khedive of Egypt in 1875, became the largest stockholder. The canal, however, is still the possession of an international company, and In 1888 an International convention stipulated that it should be always open in time of war and peace to all ships of all nations. Great Britain signed this convention with reservations, but in 1904 agreed to accept its stipulations. During the war of 1914 the canal, hitherto unfortified, was put in a state of defense against an attack from Turkish forces, which were repulsed. The future status of the canal is somewhat doubtful, two possibilities being its fortification and control by England, or its complete internationalizations. See Egypt.
Sugar. The world supply of sugar for 1917-18 will be sufficient for the demand if it is efficiently distributed. Production has been reduced in Europe, but indications tend to show that Cuba and the United States and its possessions will have adequate supplies If they are properly utilized. The world supply for the present year Is 'estimated at 18,659,792 short tons, a figure but slightly below the average for the five years prior to the war. The sugar crop of the United States estimated for 1917, consists of 225,000 tons of cane and 750,000 tons of beet sugar, both of which were above the average crop of the past five years. The United States, however, raised only 22.9 per cent of the sugar consumed in this country in the five years before the war and 21.7 per cent since the beginning of the war in 1914, Importing the bulk of its sugar from Hawaii, Porto Rico, and Cuba. The Cuban production for 1917 is larger than that of 1916 and 1915. In spite of an adequate supply the world may be confronted with a sugar shortage unless the consumption in the United States is checked. One-fifth of the world consumption of sugar takes place in the United States. Sugar exports from the United States fell in 1916-17 compared with the previous year. A proper distribution of the sugar demands a larger exportation to the western Allies and a curtailment of the domestic consumption.
Superdreadnaught. A name given to recently built vessels of the dreadnaught type. The displacement is 25,000 tons or more. The speed attained may be 25 knots or sea miles (a sea mile is 2,000 yards), and the main battery consists of guns of 13.5 inches caliber or better. A superdreadnaught is the last word in naval architecture.
"Sussex." The English Channel steamer Sussex, unarmed and employed regularly in passenger service between the ports of Folkestone, England, and Dieppe, France, left Folkestone for Dieppe on March 24, 1916, with 325 or more passengers aboard, IncludIng 25 American citizens. It was attacked by a German submarine at 2.50 p. m. Eighty of the persons on board were killed or Injured, two of the latter being Americans. In response to the inquiry of the United States Government, the German Government admitted that one of its submarines had sunk a vessel in the Channel at about the time of the disaster to the Sussex, but claimed that it was another vessel, of which it sent what purported to be a sketch made by the submarine commander. Later, however, it was constrained to admit "the possibility" that the submarine's victim was "actually identical with the Sussex"; and this in fact was proved conclusively by the recovery of fragments of the torpedo, which bore German insignia.
"Sussex" Ultimatum. Secretary Lansing, in a note to the German Government dated April 18, 1916, commenting on the sinking of the Sussex stated: "If it is still the purpose of the Imperial Government to prosecute relentless and indiscriminate warfare against vessels of commerce by the use of submarines without regard to what the Government of the United States
must consider the sacred and indisputable rules of international law and the universally recognized dictates of humanity, the Government of the United States is at last forced to the conclusion that there is but one course it can pursue. Unless the Imperial Government should now immediately declare and effect an abandonment of its present methods of submarine warfare against passenger and freight carrying vessels, the Government of the United States can have no choice but to sever diplomatic relations with the German Empire altogether. This action the Government of the United States contemplates with the greatest reluctance but feels constrained to take in behalf of humanity and the rights of neutral nations."
"Sussex "Ultimatum, German Pledge (1). The German Government replied to the Sussex ultimatum on May 4, 1916, with the following assurance: "German naval forces have received the following orders: In accordance with the general principles of visit and search and destruction of merchant vessels recognized by international law, such vessels, both within and without the area declared a naval war zone, shall not be sunk without warning and without saving human lives, unless these ships attempt to escape or offer resistance." This assurance was qualified however by the condition that the (United States should "demand and insist that the British Government shall forthwith observe the rules of International law universally recognized before the war," etc. The note further stated that: "Should the steps taken by the Government of the United States not attain the object it desires to have the laws of humanity followed by all belligerent nations, the German Government would then be facing a new situation, In which it must reserve itself complete liberty of decision." Secretary Lansing in a note dated May 8, 1916, replied: "In order . . . to avoid any possible misunderstanding, the Government of the United States notifies the Imperial Government that It can not for a moment entertain, much less discuss, a suggestion that respect by German naval forces for the rights of citizens of the United States upon the high seas should in any way or in the slightest degree be made contingent upon the conduct of any other Government affecting the rights of neutrals and noncombatants. Responsibility in such matters Is single, not joint; absolute, not relative." No reply was made to this note by the German Government. See "Frye, "
"Sussex" Ultimatum: German Pledge (2). Germany intended to keep her pledge only so long as was convenient. This Is proved by the statement of Bethmann Hollweg in his address to the ways and means committee of the Reichstag, January 31, 1917: "We have been challenged to fight to the end. We accept the challenge, we stake everything, and we shall be victorious. . . . I have always proceeded from the standpoint of whether U-boat war would bring us nearer victorious peace or not. Every means, I said in March, that was calculated to shorten the war constitutes the most humane policy to follow. When the most ruthless methods are considered best calculated to lead us to victory, and swift victory, I said, they must be employed. This moment has now arrived. Last autumn the time was not yet ripe, but to-day the moment has come when, with the greatest prospect of success, we can undertake the enterprise. We must not~ therefore, wait any longer. As regards all that human strength can do to enforce success for the fatherland, be assured, gentlemen, that nothing has been neglected. Everything In this respect will be done." In short, it was never a question with Germany of keeping faith, but of what would bring success most quickly. See Belgium, Violation of; "Notwendigkeit"; "Kreigs-Raison."
Sweden. A constitutional monarchy occupying the eastern portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. If contains a land area of 158,692 square miles and a population estimated in 1915 at 5,679,607. Its capital is Stockholm. The king is Gustaf V, who came to the throne December 8, 1907. The queen is Victoria, a former princess of Baden. The official policy in the great war Is one of neutrality, but the revelations in the Luxburg incident have cast suspicions on the sincerity of the Swedish Government.
Sweden, Neutral Problems. Sweden has maintained her neutrality since 1914. The fact that Swedish trade is so largely in the Baltic has freed it to some extent from danger from the submarines, and, on the other hand, the German promise of the restoration of Finland to Sweden in case the latter should join the war on the side of the Central Powers has not been strong enough to bring Sweden to give up her neutrality. Sweden's main international disputes have, thus far, been with the Allies. A large Swedish trade exists with Germany, and this has brought down on Sweden the rigors of the Allied blockade. Again, Sweden has suffered from the mail censorship, and has protested strongly against it. Finally, it has been recently proved that Swedish embassies have been transmitting messages of an un-neutral nature to Germany. The Swedish foreign office has protested that they were unaware of the nature of the messages, and the affair is not yet fully settled. See Embargo; Blockade; Neutral Trade; "Spurlos Versenkt."
Swiss Military System. The Swiss army is a force of militia receiving periodical training upon the principle of universal obligatory military service for men from 20 to 48 years of age. Anyone disqualified must bear increased taxes until the age of 40 years. The army Is divided into three classes according to age: (1) The Elite, being men of from 20 to 32 years; (2) the Landwehr, or men between 33 and 40; and (3) a reserve of men from 40 to 48 years of age. Recruiting schools for the first year of service continue 60 days, for sanitary, veterinary, and transportation troops; 65 days for infantry; 75 days for artillery and fortress troops; and 90 days for cavalry. After the first year, annual training courses for the Elite last 11 days (with 14 days, however, for artillery and fortress troops). In the Landwehr all branches of the service, except cavalry, take a repeating course of 11 days each four years. The more promising recruits are given additional training in schools for noncommissioned officers, and If making a satisfactory' record are still further trained for the commissioned grades. Officers serve in the Elite until 88 years of age, in the Landwehr until 44 years, and remain In the reserve until they are 53 years of age. See Universal Military Service.
Switzerland. A republican confederation of central Europe with its capital at Berne. Its area is 15,951 square miles and Its population in 1913 was estimated at 3,877,210. The Federal Parliament selects a Federal Council of seven members to act as the executive. Each year the Federal Parliament names the president and vice president of this body, who act as the chief executives of the Republic. The president for 1917 is Edmond Schulthess. Switzerland has acquired much renown as the home of the Initiative and referendum. Its neutrality is guaranteed by European treaties and defended by a trained citizen soldiery of some 500,000 men.
Switzerland, Neutral Problems. Swiss opinion was, at the start, divided between Germany and the Allies, as was to be expected in a nation part German and part Latin in race. But the Allied cause has steadily gained, especially since the German aims and German methods of warfare have been revealed. The feeling seems current in Switzerland that possibly her neutrality may be violated by one side or the other, and a part of her army has been kept mobilized to defend it. But Switzerland's great difficulty appears to be economic. She is in need of coal and other supplies, and Germany is only too willing to exchange these for foodstuffs and supplies of war. For that reason Swiss imports have been carefully watched by the Allies lest materials necessary for Germany filter across the Swiss line. ~moved by her need of German coal she arranged a treaty with Germany by which that necessity was exchanged for Swiss foodstuffs, but in 1917 Switzerland gave up this arrangement and the Allies agreed to ration Switzerland with coal and other necessities. See Embargo; Neutral Rationing; Overseas Trusts.
Syria. A province of the Turkish Empire south of Asia Minor and including Palestine. Area 114,530 square miles, population about 3,000,000. The latter is mainly Semitic in race, the majority being Mohammedans, although Christians and 3ews are numerous. The country has been for many years under the influence of France, most of the missionaries being French, although there is a strong American college at Beirut. In late years Italians and Germans have~ entered into competition, the latter being especially strong through their indirect control of the Syrian railway. German institutions have been opened at Jerusalem and German traders have deluged the country with goods. During the war Turkish armies were organized in Syria to Invade Egypt. At present a British force is invading Syria, which on November 22 had advanced to within 5 miles of Jerusalem.